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Detection of IgG3 antibodies specific to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 protein as marker for recently acquired infection

  • I. F. T. Viana (a1) (a2) (a3), D. F. Coêlho (a1) (a2) (a4), M. L. Palma (a3), E. J. M. Nascimento (a2) (a3), G. Gu (a2) (a5), L. F. O. Lima (a6) (a7), L. Foti (a6) (a8), M. A. Krieger (a6) (a8), C. Pilcher (a9), C. E. Calzavara-Silva (a10), R. B. Mailliard (a3), C. R. Rinaldo (a3), R. Dhalia (a1) and E. T. A. Marques (a1) (a2) (a3)...

Abstract

Reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is still a public health priority. The development of effective control strategies relies on the quantification of the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic measures in disease incidence. Although several assays can be used to estimate HIV incidence, these estimates are limited by the poor performance of these assays in distinguishing recent from long-standing infections. To address such limitation, we have developed an assay to titrate p24-specific IgG3 antibodies as a marker of recent infection. The assay is based on a recombinant p24 protein capable to detect total IgG antibodies in sera using a liquid micro array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, the assay was optimised to detect and titrate anti-p24 IgG3 responses in a panel of sequential specimens from seroconverters over 24 months. The kinetics of p24-specific IgG3 titres revealed a transient peak in the 4 to 5-month period after seroconversion. It was followed by a sharp decline, allowing infections with less than 6 months to be distinguished from older ones. The developed assay exhibited a mean duration of recent infection of 144 days and a false-recent rate of ca. 14%. Our findings show that HIV-1 p24-specific IgG3 titres can be used as a tool to evaluate HIV incidence in serosurveys and to monitor the efficacy of vaccines and other transmission control strategies.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Isabelle F. T. Viana, isabelle.viana@cpqam.fiocruz.br

References

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