Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009–2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza

  • S. INAIDA (a1) (a2), Y. SHOBUGAWA (a3), S. MATSUNO (a4), R. SAITO (a3) and H. SUZUKI (a5)...

Summary

Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009–2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009–2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006–2007 to 2010–2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009–2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009–2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009–2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author correspondence: Dr S. Inaida, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. (Email: inaida.shinako.7v@kyoto-u.ac.jp)

References

Hide All
1. Motomura, K, et al. Identification of monomorphic and divergent haplotypes in the 2006–2007 norovirus GII/4 epidemic population by genomewide tracing of evolutionary history. Journal of Virology 2008; 82: 1124711262.
2. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Q&A about norovirus in Japan [in Japanese] (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/syokuchu/kanren/yobou/040204-1.html). Accessed 12 December 2012.
3. Marks, PJ, et al. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiology & Infection 2000; 124: 481487.
4. Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated norovirus outbreak management and disease prevention guidelines report. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports 2011; 60: 118.
5. Friesema, IH, et al. Norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes: the evaluation of infection control measures. Epidemiology & Infection 2009; 137: 17221733.
6. Shimizu-Onda, Y, et al. The virucidal effect against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogates for human norovirus by ethanol-based sanitizers. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 2013; 19: 779781.
7. Sattar, SA, Ali, M, Tetro, JA. In vivo comparison of two human norovirus surrogates for testing ethanol-based handrubs: the mouse chasing the cat! PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e17340.
8. Cheng, VC, et al. Prevention of nosocomial transmission of norovirus by strategic infection control measures. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2011; 32: 229237.
9. Belliot, G, et al. Use of murine norovirus as a surrogate to evaluate resistance of human norovirus to disinfectants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008; 74: 33153318.
10. Steinmann, J, et al. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Hospital Infection 2012; 82: 277280.
11. Steinmann, J, et al. Virucidal activity of 2 alcohol-based formulations proposed as hand rubs by the World Health Organization. American Journal of Infection Control 2010; 38: 6668.
12. Liu, P, et al. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2010; 76: 394399.
13. Nowak, P, et al. Measurement of the virolysis of human GII.4 norovirus in response to disinfectants and sanitisers. Journal of Virological Methods 2011; 174: 711.
14. Cheng, VC, et al. Successful control of norovirus outbreak in an infirmary with the use of alcohol-based hand rub. Journal of Hospital Infection 2009; 72: 370371.
15. Tuladhar, E, et al. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants. Journal of Hospital Infection 2015; 90: 226234.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection – Mexico, March-April 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2009; 58: 467470.
17. Ministry of Health, Labour, Welfare. Report of the review meeting on measures against pandemic influenza (A/H1N1) [in Japanese] (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/kekkaku-kansenshou04/info_local.html). Accessed 12 October 2012.
18. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Announcement for the countermeasures to the pandemic in Japan [in Japanese] (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/kinkyu/kenkou/influenza/dl/090522-03a.pdf). Accessed 2 March 2012.
19. SteelFisher, GK, et al. Public response to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: a polling study in five countries. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2012; 12: 845850.
20. Inaida, S, et al. The south to north variation of norovirus epidemics from 2006–07 to 2008–09 in Japan. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e71696.
21. Taniguchi, K, et al. Overview of infectious disease surveillance system in Japan, 1999–2005. Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 17: S3S13.
22. Lopman, B, et al. Host, weather and virological factors drive norovirus epidemiology: time-series analysis of laboratory surveillance data in England and Wales. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e6671.
23. National Institute of Infectious Disease. Infectious gastroenteritis cases reported per sentinel weekly (http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/en/survaillance-data-table-english.html) Accessed 12 December 2012.
24. Motomura, K, et al. Divergent evolution of norovirus GII/4 by genome recombination from May 2006 to February 2009 in Japan. Journal of Virology 2010; 84: 80858097.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Inaida supplementary material
Inaida supplementary material 1

 Word (44 KB)
44 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed