EFSA and ECDC. The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011. EFSA Journal
2013; 11: 3196 (359 pp).
Hinton, M. The ecology of Escherichia coli in animals including man with particular reference to drug resistance. Veterinary Record
1986; 119: 420–426
Karmali, MA, Sargeant, JM. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections. In: Palmer, SE
et al. , eds. Oxford Textbook of Zoonoses, 2nd edn.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Hutchinson, JP, et al.
Verocytotoxin-producing and attaching and effacing activity of Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock. Veterinary Record
2011; 168: 536.
Paiba, GA, et al.
Faecal carriage of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter in Great Britain. Veterinary Record
2002; 150: 593–598.
Milnes, A, et al.
Intestinal carriage of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, thermophilic Campylobacter and Yersinia enterocolitica, in cattle, sheep and pigs at slaughter in Great Britain during 2003. Epidemiology & Infection
2008; 136: 739–751.
Mora, A, et al.
Antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains isolated from humans, cattle, sheep and food in Spain. Research in Microbiology
2005; 156: 793–806.
Guerra, B, et al.
Antimicrobial resistance and spread of class 1 integrons among Salmonella serotypes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
2000; 44: 2166–2169
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). Scientific Opinion on the public health risks of bacterial strains producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases and/or AmpC ß-lactamases in food and food-producing animals. EFSA Journal
2011; 9: 2322 (95 pp).
Khachatrayan, AR, et al.
Role of calf-adapted Escherichia coli in maintenance of antimicrobial drug resistance in dairy calves. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2004; 70: 752–757.
Bettelheim, KA, et al.
Antibiotic resistance among verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and non-VTEC isolated from domestic animals and humans. Journal of Medical Microbiology
2003; 52: 155–162.
Health Protection Agency. Antimicrobial Resistance and Prescribing in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2008. London: Health Protection Agency, 2008.