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The combination of antitoxin with toxin and toxoid

  • Mollie Barr (a1), A. T. Glenny (a1) and Muriel F. Stevens (a1)

Extract

1. Non-avid tetanus antitoxin appears to have a higher titre in relation to an avid standard if titrations are made against test toxins with a high toxoid content. The least avid serum tested appeared to be 2·87 times as potent when titrations were made against a toxin grown for 35 days than when a 2-day growth was used. Using the same test doses avid sera did not show this discrepancy.

2. A mixture of short-growth toxin and formol toxoid reacted similarly to the long-growth toxin.

3. Some non-avid tetanus antitoxic sera showed evidence of difference in goodness of fit with two test toxins; one serum was 2·49 times the titre of another when tested against one toxin and only 1·37 times when tested against another toxin.

4. Diphtheria toxoid has less affinity than toxin for antitoxin; this difference is greater with formol toxoids of poor immunizing efficiency; the difference is further accentuated if non-avid anti-toxin is used.

5. The Danysz effect may be very small if non-avid antitoxin is used.

6. In the presence of excess antitoxin, toxin or formol toxoid can combine with 3, 4 or more times its equivalent as judged by in vivo titrations for free antitoxin.

7. The serum ratio, i.e. in vivo titre/in vitro titre of high or low ratio antitoxin in multiple combinations is nearer unity than that of the original antitoxin.

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References

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Barr, M. (1949). The role of test toxins and the need for standards in the determination of avidity of antitoxins. J. Path. Bact. 61, 85.
Barr, M. (1951). The formation of abnormal diphtheria antitoxin in the early stages of immunisation. J. Path. Bact. 63, 557.
Barr, M. & Glenny, A. T. (1931 a). The preparation of fractions of different antitoxic quality from the same serum. J. Path. Bact. 34, 539.
Barr, M. & Glenny, A. T. (1931 b). Further observations on qualitative differences in anti-toxin fractions prepared from the same sample of plasma. Brit. J. exp. Path. 12, 337.
Barr, M. & Glenny, A. T. (1938). Abnormal flocculation reactions with diphtheria toxoid. J. Path. Bact. 47, 27.
Barr, M. & Glenny, A. T. (1945). Some practical applications of immunological principles. J. Hyg., Camb., 44, 135.
Barr, M. & Glenny, A. T. (1949). Qualitative differences among toxins and toxoids. J. Hyg., Camb., 47, 107.
Corn, M. & Pappenheimer, A. M. Jr. (1949). A quantitative study of the diphtheria toxin-antitoxin reaction in the sera of various species including man. J. Immunol. 63, 291.
Glenny, A. T. (1913). A modification of diphtheria antitoxin. J. Hyg., Camb., 13, 63.
Glenny, A. T. (1925). The principles of immunity applied to protective inoculation against diphtheria. J. Hyg., Camb., 24, 301.
Glenny, A. T. (1931). Active immunization with toxin. M.R.C., System of Bacteriology in Relation to Medicine, 4, 106. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Glenny, A. T. (1936). Some anomalies in the titration of antigens and antibodies. Second International Congress for Microbiology, p. 209.
Glenny, A. T. & Barr, M. (1932). The “dilution ratio” of diphtheria antitoxin as a measure of avidity. J. Path. Bact. 35, 91.
Glenny, A. T., Pope, C. G., Waddington, H. & Wallace, U. (1925). Immunological Notes XVI—A method of producing tetanus antitoxic serum of high potency. J. Path. Bact. 28, 481.
Glenny, A. T. & Walpole, G. S. (1915). Detection and concentration of antigens by pressure dialysis etc., with special reference to diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Biochem. J. 9, 298.
Healey, M. & Pinfield, S. (1935). An in vitro investigation of the reaction between diphtheria toxin and antitoxin. Brit. J. exp. Path. 16, 535.
Kuhns, W. J. & Pappenheimer, A. M. Jr (1952). Immunological studies of antitoxin produced in normal and allergic individuals hyperimmunized with diphtheria toxoid. II A comparison between the immunological properties of precipitating and non-precipitating (skin sensitizing) antibodies. J. exp. Med. 95, 375.
Petrie, G. F. (19421944). Observations on the variable interactions of tetanus toxins and antitoxins. Bull. Hlth Org. L.o.N. 10, 113.

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