Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Information:

  • Access
  • Open access

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian, China
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian, China
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian, China
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus has been recognised as one of the important zoonotic pathogens. However, knowledge about the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of S. aureus in rabbits was limited. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of 281 S. aureus isolated from dead rabbits of nine rabbit farms in Fujian Province, China. All the isolates were characterised by multi-locus sequencing typing, detection of virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility test. The results showed that the 281 isolates were grouped into two sequence types, ST121 (13.52%, 38/281) and ST398 (86.48%, 243/281). Surprisingly, the ST121 strains were only recovered from the lung samples from one of the nine rabbit farms studied. In the 281 isolates, the virulence genes of nuc, hla, hlb, clfA, clfB and fnbpA were positive, whereas the sea, seb, tsst, eta and etb genes were negative. Notably, the 38 ST121 isolates carried the pvl gene. All the 281 isolates were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the isolates were susceptible to most of the used antibiotics, except for streptomycin, kanamycin, azithromycin and penicillin, and the resistance rates of which were 23.84%, 19.57%, 16.01% and 11.03%, respectively. This study first described the epidemiology and characteristics of S. aureus in rabbits in Fujian Province, which will help in tracking the evolution of epidemic strains and preventing the rabbit–human transmission events.

Introduction

Staphylococcus aureus is an important zoonotic pathogen with worldwide distribution. Due to the broad spectrum of virulence factors and the ability to develop antibiotic resistance, the infection of S. aureus results in a high morbidity and mortality [14]. In humans, S. aureus is usually associated with skin and soft-tissue infections, endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and sepsis [1]. The colonisation of S. aureus in animals has been receiving comprehensive attention since animals may potentially act as a reservoir of human infection [5, 6].

Rabbit is one of the most important hosts of S. aureus. The infected rabbits are mainly characterised by subcutaneous abscesses, mastitis and pododermatitis [7]. To our knowledge, S. aureus is widespread in rabbits in Fujian Province of China. However, knowledge about the epidemiology and characteristics of S. aureus in rabbit in Fujian Province is limited. In this study, multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST), tested virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility was done on different isolates of S. aureus recovered from lesions (pneumonia, mastitis and pododermatitis) in dead rabbits.

Methods

Sample collection and S. aureus isolation

From August 2017 to December 2018, 466 lung samples, 93 mastitis samples and 132 pododermatitis samples were collected from dead rabbits of nine rabbit farms in three cities (Fuzhou, Longyan and Nanping) of Fujian Province. Each sample was mixed with sterile phosphate buffer saline and homogenised to make 50% suspension. A 100 µl of suspension was inoculated on sheep blood agar plate for cultivation at 37 °C for 24 h. The suspected S. aureus colony was initially identified by colony morphology and Gram-staining. The presumptive colony was then sub-cultured and further confirmed by sequencing of 16S rRNA and nuc [8, 9].

Multi-locus sequencing typing

Genotyping of S. aureus isolate was performed by MLST [10]. Briefly, seven housekeeping genes (arcC, aroE, glpF, gmk, pta, tpi and yqiL) of S. aureus isolate were amplified and sequenced, and sequence type (ST) of the isolate was defined according to the allelic numbers of the seven housekeeping genes (http://www.mlst.net).

Virulence gene detection

The presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolate was screened by PCR assays using primers previously reported, including thermonuclease (nuc) [9], panton-valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin (pvl) [11], entorotoxin (sea and seb) [12], toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tsst) [13], exfoliative (eta and etb) [13], haemolysin (hla and hlb) [11], clumping factor (clfA and clfB) [14] and fibronectin-binding protein (fnbpA and fnbpB) [14]. The PCR products were separated and sequenced.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus isolates for 12 antibiotics was performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines [15]. The following antibiotics were used: penicillin, streptomycin, gentamycin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefminox, azithromycin, florfenicol, levofloxacin, ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone. The S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as control. Moreover, the presence of mecA or mecC gene in S. aureus isolate was screened to confirm methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [16, 17].

Results

S. aureus isolation and identification

A total of 281 S. aureus isolates were recovered from the 691 samples of dead rabbits. Among them, 93 strains were isolated from 466 lung samples, 78 strains from 93 mastitis samples, 110 strains from 132 pododermatitis samples (Table 1).

Table 1. Sample collection, S. aureus isolation and sequence types of the isolates

Multi-locus sequencing typing

The genotype of S. aureus isolate was determined by MLST. It was shown that the 281 S. aureus isolates were divided into two STs, ST121 and ST398. In the genotype of ST121, all of the 38 isolates were only isolated from lung samples collected from Farm A (Table 1). In the genotype of ST398, 55 isolates were recovered from lung samples, 78 isolates from mastitis samples and 110 isolates from pododermatitis samples (Table 1).

All isolates were further clustered into clonal complexes (CCs) by using eBURST software (http://saureus.mlst.net/eBURST/). It was shown that the isolates were clustered into 2 CCs, CC121 and CC398 (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Population snapshot of the isolates. (A) The ST121 is the putative founder of the CC121 and coloured blue. (1B) The ST398 is the putative founder of the CC398 and coloured blue.

Virulence gene detection

All the isolates were positive for the genes nuc, hla, hlb, clfA, clfB and fnbpA, whereas sea, seb, tsst, eta and etb genes were negatives. The pvl gene was detected in the 38 isolates of ST121 isolated from lung samples, and the fnbpB gene was positive in 109 isolates of ST398 recovered from lung, mastitis and pododermatitis samples.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol, ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone. The resistance rates to penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and azithromycin were more than 10%. Sixteen strains were resistant to ⩾3 antibiotics and the mostly resistant antibiotics were streptomycin, kanamycin and azithromycin (Table 2). Notably, the ST121 isolates showed a lower number of resistances compared with ST398 isolates. Moreover, all isolates were mecA and mecC negative, indicating that these isolates were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).

Table 2. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates according to STs

P, penicillin; S, streptomycin; GM, gentamycin; ENR, enrofloxacin; K, kanamycin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; CFM, cefminox; AZM, azithromycin; FFC, florfenicol; LEV, levofloxacin; ZOX, ceftizoxime; CRO, ceftriaxone.

Discussion

This is the first study of the characteristics of S. aureus from rabbits in Fujian Province in southeastern China. The results showed that S. aureus was prevalent in the nine rabbit farms of Fuzhou, Longyan and Nanping. The mortality rates of the nine rabbit farms caused by the infection of S. aureus ranged from 18.37% to 52.9%, suggesting that S. aureus was the important pathogen causing the death of rabbits in these rabbit farms.

Generally, S. aureus has a combination of virulence factors, which were thought to contribute to the pathogenicity [18]. All isolates in this study carried a panel of virulence genes nuc, hla, hlb, clfA, clfB and fnbpA. Moreover, the pvl gene was detected in the 38 ST121 isolates, and the fnbpB gene was detected in the 109 ST398 isolates. The 38 ST121 isolates that carried the pvl gene were all recovered from the lungs of dead rabbits with severe respiratory disease. The severe respiratory disease caused by the infection of the ST121 isolates was an isolated case on a rabbit farm in Fuzhou in late August 2017. The infection of the isolate caused the death of about 1000 rabbits in a 4-week period [14]. It was revealed that the PVL was related to necrotising pneumonia [19, 20]. Infection of both PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA could lead to necrotising pneumonia [21], indicating that the PVL of the 38 ST121 isolates might be one of the crucial factors contributing to the severe respiratory diseases. The fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPA and FnBPB) are multifunctional virulence factors, which facilitate S. aureus colonisation and invasion of the host cells [18, 22]. In consistent with the previous reports, all ST398 isolates in this study expressed at least one fibronectin-binding protein, while some of the isolates expressed both FnBPA and FnBPB. A previous study showed that five out of the six ST398 strains isolated from raw milk of dairy cows with mastitis were positive of both fnbpA and fnbpB, while the other one isolate only carried fnbpA [23]. However, an MRSA ST398 strain from urinary tract infection in a child only carried fnbpB [24]. Further studies are needed to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of FnBPB in the FnBPB-positive strains isolated from rabbits.

The 281 isolates in this study were only grouped into two STs, ST121 and ST398. Surprisingly, the ST121 strains, but not the ST398 strains, were also detected in a tertiary referral hospital in Xiamen city of Fujian Province [25]. Compared to previous reports, strains belonged to other STs were also isolated in rabbits from Spanish, Thailand and Iberian Peninsula [2628], indicating that the STs of S. aureus in rabbits might vary geographically. S. aureus strains that belong to ST121 and ST398 were worldwide distributed, and have broad host spectra including both humans and animals. Commonly, ST121 isolates are MSSA that are susceptible to methicillin [28, 29]. In contrast to ST121, strains of ST398 could be further grouped into healthcare-associated, community-associated and livestock-associated strains [1, 2, 5, 6]. Among them, the livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was highly concerned for the transmission to humans from animals [5]. Transmission of livestock-associated MRSA from swine and bovine to humans had been documented previously [6, 30]. The case of livestock-associated MRSA ST398 occurring in rabbits and involving farm workers or their family members was also reported in a rabbit farm in Italy [31]. According to previous reports, S. aureus frequently acquired antimicrobial resistance [24]. Although isolates resistant to ⩾3 antibiotics were detected in this study, the isolates were all MSSA and no MRSA was detected.

Fujian Province was recognised as one of the key areas for rabbit breeding in China. With the rapid development of rabbit farming in Fujian Province, more studies are needed to understand the epidemiology and characteristics of S. aureus in rabbits and to elucidate its relationship with the human.

Acknowledgements

None.

Financial support

This work was supported by the Outstanding Youth Fund of Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (JC2018-1), Fujian Public Welfare Scientific Research Project (2019R1026-9) and National Rabbit Industry Technology System of People's Republic of China (CARS-43-G-5).

Conflict of interest

None.

References

1.David, MZ and Daum, RS (2010) Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 23, 616687.
2.Uhlemann, AC et al. (2014) Evolution of community- and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 21, 563567.
3.Friães, A et al. (2015) Epidemiological survey of the first case of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Europe. Epidemiology and Infection 143, 745748.
4.Fu, Z et al. (2016) Characterization of fosfomycin resistance gene, fosB, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. PLoS ONE 11, e0154829.
5.Aires-de-Sousa, M (2017) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals: current overview. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23, 373380.
6.Angen, Ø et al. (2017) Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to human volunteers visiting a swine farm. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83, AEM.01489-17.
7.Hermans, K et al. (2003) Rabbit staphylococcosis: difficult solutions for serious problems. Veterinary Microbiology 1, 5764.
8.Weisburg, WG et al. (1991) 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Journal of Bacteriology 173, 697703.
9.Brakstad, OG, Aasbakk, K and Maeland, JA (1992) Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30, 16541660.
10.Enright, MC et al. (2000) Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 10081015.
11.Jarraud, S et al. (2002) Relationships between Staphylococcus aureus genetic background, virulence factors, agr groups (alleles), and human disease. Infection and Immunity 70, 631641.
12.Srinivasan, V et al. (2006) Prevalence of enterotoxin and toxic shock syndrome toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of cows with mastitis. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 3, 274283.
13.Xie, Y et al. (2011) Genotypes and toxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from China. PLoS ONE 6, e28276.
14.Wang, J et al. (2019) Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus strain causing severe respiratory disease in rabbits. World Rabbit Science 27, 4148.
15.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2013) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Twenty-Third Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA, USA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, CLSI document M100-S23.
16.Murakami, K et al. (1991) Identification of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29, 22402244.
17.Paterson, GK et al. (2012) The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67, 28092813.
18.Edwards, AM et al. (2010) Staphylococcus aureus host cell invasion and virulence in sepsis is facilitated by the multiple repeats within FnBPA. PLoS Pathogens 24, e1000964.
19.Lina, G et al. (1999) Involvement of panton-valentine leukocidin–producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 29, 11281132.
20.Labandeira-Rey, M et al. (2007) Staphylococcus aureus panton valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia. Science 315, 11301133.
21.Sicot, N et al. (2013) Methicillin resistance is not a predictor of severity in community acquired Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia – results of a prospective observational study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 19, E142E148.
22.Murai, M et al. (2016) Variation and association of fibronectin-binding protein genes fnbA and fnbB in Staphylococcus aureus Japanese isolates. Microbiology and Immunology 60, 312325.
23.Wang, W et al. (2018) Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus cultured from raw milk taken from dairy cows with mastitis in Beijing, China. Frontiers in Microbiology 9, 1123.
24.Monecke, S et al. (2008) DNA microarray-based genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Eastern Saxony. Clinical Microbiology and Infections Diseases 14, 535545.
25.Yu, Y et al. (2017) Dissemination and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus at a tertiary referral hospital in Xiamen City, China. BioMed Research International 2017, 1367179.
26.Viana, D et al. (2005) Screening of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits. World Rabbit Science 23, 185195.
27.Indrawattana, N et al. (2018) Staphylococcus argenteus from rabbits in Thailand. Microbiology Open 8, e00665.
28.Moreno-Grúa, E et al. (2018) Characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from commercial rabbitries located in the Iberian Peninsula. Frontiers in Microbiology 9, 1812.
29.Kurt, K et al. (2013) Subpopulations of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 121 are associated with distinct clinical entities. PLoS ONE 3, e58155.
30.van Cleef, BA et al. (2011) Persistence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in field workers after short-term occupational exposure to pigs and veal calves. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49, 10301033.
31.Agnoletti, F et al. (2014) First reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in an industrial rabbit holding and in farm-related people. Veterinary Microbiology 170, 172177.