1. Karch, H, Tarr, PI, Bielaszewska, M. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 2005; 295: 405–418.
2. O'Brien, SJ, Adak, GK, Gilham, C. Contact with farming environment as a major risk factor for Shiga toxin (Vero cytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 1049–1051.
3. Crump, JA, et al. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 347: 555–560.
4. Michino, H, et al. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai City, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 150: 787–796.
5. Paton, AW, et al. Molecular microbiological investigation of an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by dry fermented sausage contaminated with Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996; 34: 1622–1627.
6. Gomez, D, et al. Isolation of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains during a gastrointestinal outbreak at a day care center in Mar del Plata City. Revista Argentina de Microbiología 2005; 37: 176–183.
7. Bell, BP, et al. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from hamburgers. The Washington experience. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 272: 1349–1353.
8. Orr, P, et al. An outbreak of diarrhea due to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Canadian Northwest Territories. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994; 26: 675–684.
9. Caprioli, A, Tozzi, AE. Epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in continental Europe. In: Kaper, JB, O'Brien, AD eds. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 1998, pp. 38–48.
10. Ziese, T, et al. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 in Sweden. Eurosurveillance 1996; 1: 2–3.
12. Welinder-Olsson, C, et al. EHEC outbreak among staff at a children's hospital – use of PCR for verocytotoxin detection and PFGE for epidemiological investigation. Epidemiology and Infection 2004; 132: 43–49.
14. Su, C, Brandt, LJ. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in humans. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995; 123: 698–714.
15. Gerber, A, et al. Clinical course and the role of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in pediatric patients, 1997–2000, in Germany and Austria: a prospective study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 186: 493–500.
16. Tarr, PI, Gordon, CA, Chandler, WL. Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet 2005; 365: 1073–86.
17. O'Brien, AO, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains associated with haemorrhagic colitis in the United States produce a Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga) like cytotoxin. Lancet 1983; 1: 702.
18. Karmali, MA, et al. The association between idiopathic hemolytic uremic syndrome and infection by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1985; 151: 775–782.
19. Svenungsson, B, et al. Enteropathogens in adult patients with diarrhea and healthy control subjects: a 1-year prospective study in a Swedish clinic for infectious diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000; 30: 770–778.
20. Swaminathan, B, et al. PulseNet: the molecular subtyping network for foodborne bacterial disease surveillance, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 382–9.
21. Bitzan, M, Karch, H. Serological methods for the detection of STEC infections. Methods in Molecular Medicine 2003; 73: 27–43.
22. Sjogren, AC, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection by antibodies to Escherichia coli secreted protein B in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2004; 23: 208–211.
23. Chapman, PA, Wright, DJ, Siddons, CA. A comparison of immunomagnetic separation and direct culture for the isolation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from bovine faeces. Journal of Medical Microbiology 1994; 40: 424–427.
24. Paton, AW, Paton, JC. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA, enterohemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111, and rfbO157. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1998; 36: 598–602.
25. Gannon, VP, et al. Use of the flagellar H7 gene as a target in multiplex PCR assays and improved specificity in identification of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1997; 35: 656–662.
26. Duffy, LL, Grau, FH, Vanderlinde, PB. Acid resistance of enterohaemorrhagic and generic Escherichia coli associated with foodborne disease and meat. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2000; 60: 83–89.
27. Anon. Risk profile. Cold-smoked, non-heat treated fermented meats as a source of EHEC infections. National Food Administration, Sweden (www.slv.se), 2003.
28. Wells, JG, et al. Isolation of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and other Shiga-like-toxin-producing E. coli from dairy cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991; 29: 985–989.
29. Eriksson, E, et al. Prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) 0157 in Swedish dairy herds. Epidemiology and infection 2005; 133: 349–358.
30. Tilden, J Jr., et al. A new route of transmission for Escherichia coli: infection from dry fermented salami. American Journal of Public Health 1996; 86: 1142–1145.
31. Nyeleti, C. Prevalence of Salmonella in Ethiopian cattle and minced beef. Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 2000; 113: 431–434.
32. Timm, M, et al. Detection and prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in raw sausage. Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift 1999; 112: 385–389.
33. MacDonald, DM, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to salami, British Columbia, Canada, 1999. Epidemiology and Infection 2004; 132: 283–289.
34. Ammon, A, Petersen, LR, Karch, H. A large outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by an unusual sorbitol-fermenting strain of Escherichia coli O157:H. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999; 179: 1274–1277.
35. Williams, RC, et al. Illness outbreak associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Genoa salami. E. coli O157:H7 Working Group. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000; 162: 1409–1413.
37. Reed, CA. Challenge study – Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented sausage. Letter to plant managers. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1995.
38. Anon. Standard for production of uncooked comminuted fermented meat (UCFM) products: Australia New Zealand Food Authorities (www.foodstandards.gov.au), 1996.
39. Anon. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry and semi-dry fermented sausages. Nepean, Ontario, Canada.: Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 1999.