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Seasonal cycles and long-term trends in abundance and species composition of sharks associated with cage diving ecotourism activities in Hawaii



Shark cage diving is both popular and controversial, with proponents citing educational value and non-extractive use of natural resources and opponents raising concerns about public safety and ecological impacts. Logbook data collected 2004–2008 from two Oahu (Hawaii) shark cage diving operations were analysed to determine whether such voluntary records provide useful insights into shark ecology or ecotourism impacts. Operators correctly identified common shark species and documented gross seasonal cycles and long-term trends in abundance of Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus) and tiger sharks (Galeorcerdo cuvier). Annual cycles in shark abundance may indicate seasonal migrations, whereas long-term trends suggest gradual exclusion of smaller sandbar sharks from cage diving sites. Numerically dominant (> 98%) Galapagos and sandbar sharks are rarely implicated in attacks on humans. Negligible impact on public safety is supported by other factors such as: (1) remoteness of the sites, (2) conditioning stimuli that are specific to the tour operations and different from inshore recreational stimuli and (3) no increase in shark attacks on the north coast of Oahu since cage diving started. Tracking studies are required to validate logbook data and to determine whether sharks associated with offshore cage diving travel into inshore areas used for in-water recreation.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence: Dr Carl Meyer e-mail:


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Seasonal cycles and long-term trends in abundance and species composition of sharks associated with cage diving ecotourism activities in Hawaii



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