Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Comanaging small-scale sea cucumber fisheries in New Caledonia and Vanuatu using stock biomass estimates to set spatial catch quotas

  • M. LÉOPOLD (a1) (a2), N. CORNUET (a3), S. ANDRÉFOUËT (a1), Z. MOENTEAPO (a3), C. DUVAUCHELLE (a1), J. RAUBANI (a2), J. HAM (a2) and P. DUMAS (a1) (a2)...

Summary

Many sea cucumber fisheries have dramatically declined worldwide due to rapid overexploitation and ineffective management. This study designed an innovative management strategy for small-scale, data-limited sea cucumber fisheries in Pacific Island countries. Firstly, a local quota-based comanagement system was implemented in New Caledonia to manage a small-scale sandfish Holothuria scabra fishery. A habitat map derived from high-resolution satellite imagery was used to stratify survey sampling and assess the harvestable stock biomass. The latter has been monitored as the reference biomass (RB) since 2008 and repeatedly used by the local fishers’ organization and Fisheries Department officers to set adaptive total allowable catches and regulations of fishing effort. Results showed the excellent performance of this fishery between 2008 and 2012, both biologically (167% increase in total stock biomass) and economically (146% increase in annual returns from catches). Secondly, the assessment of the RB was generalized to multispecies sea cucumber fisheries in Vanuatu in 2011 before the proposed lifting of a five-year national moratorium. Building upon these practical case studies in New Caledonia and Vanuatu, this paper outlines an operational framework to inform sea cucumber fisheries policy in these two countries and discusses the upscaling of the proposed management strategy.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence: Dr M. Léopold e-mail: marc.leopold@ird.fr

References

Hide All
Anderson, S.C., Flemming, J.M., Watson, R. & Lotze, H.K. (2011) Serial exploitation of global sea cucumber fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 12: 317339.
Andréfouët, S. (2008) Coral reef habitat mapping using remote sensing: a user vs producer perspective. Implications for research, management and capacity building. Journal of Spatial Science 53: 113129.
Andréfouët, S., Friedman, K., Gilbert, A. & Remoissenet, G. (2009) A comparison of two surveys of invertebrates at Pacific Ocean islands: the giant clam at Raivavae Island, Australes Archipelago, French Polynesia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 18251836.
Andréfouët, S., Gilbert, A., Yan, L., Remoissenet, G., Payri, C. & Chancerelle, Y. (2005) The remarkable population size of the endangered clam Tridacna maxima assessed in Fangatau atoll (Eastern Tuamotu, French Polynesia) using in situ and remote sensing data. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 10371048.
Andrew, N.L., Agatsuma, Y., Ballesteros, E., Bazhin, A.G., Creaser, E.P., Barnes, D.K.A., Botsford, L.W., Bradbury, A., Campbell, A., Dixon, J.D., Einarsson, S., Gerring, P.K., Hebert, K., Hunter, M., Hur, S.B., Johnson, C.R., Juinio-Meňez, M.A, Kalvass, P., Miller, R.J., Moreno, C.A., Palleiro, J.S., Rivas, D., Robinson, S.M.L., Schroeter, S.C., Steneck, R.S., Vadas, R.L., Woobdy, D.A. & Xiaoqi, Z. (2002) Status and management of world sea urchin fisheries. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 40: 343425.
Aswani, S. (2005) Customary sea tenure in Oceania as a case of right-based fishery management: does it work? Review in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15: 285307.
Aumeeruddy, R., Skewes, T., Dorizo, J., Carocci, F., Coeur de Lion, F., Harris, A., Henriette, C. & Cedras, M. (2005) Resource Assessment and Management of the Seychelles Sea Cucumber Fishery. Seychelles: Seychelles Fishing Authority.
Bellchambers, L.M., Meeuwig, J.J., Evans, S.N. & Legendre, P. (2011) Modeling habitat associations of 14 species of holothurians from an unfished coral atoll: implications for fisheries management. Aquatic Biology 14: 5766.
Caddy, J.F. (1989) A perspective on the population dynamics and assessment of scallop fisheries, with special reference to the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus Gmelin. In: Marine Invertebrate Fisheries: Their Assessment and Management, ed. Caddy, J.F., pp. 559589. New York, NY, USA: J. Wiley and Sons.
Caddy, J.F. (2004) Current usage of fisheries indicators and reference points, and their potential application to management of fisheries for marine invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 13071324.
Caddy, J.F. & Mahon, R. (1995) Reference Points for Fisheries Management. Fisheries Technical Paper No 237, Rome, Italy: FAO.
Cash, D.W. & Moser, S.C. (2000) Linking global and local scales: designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Global Environmental Change 10: 109120.
Castilla, J.C. & Defeo, O. (2001) Latin American benthic shellfisheries: emphasis on co-management and experimental practices. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 130.
Charles, A.T. (1998) Living with uncertainties in fisheries: analytical methods, management priorities and the Canadian groundfishery experience. Fisheries Research 37: 3750.
Clark, J.E., Pritchett, M. & Hebert, K. (2009) Status of Sea Cucumber Stocks in Southeast Alaska and Evaluation of the Assessment Program. Fisheries Data Series 09-12, Anchorage, Canada: Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
Cochran, W.G. (1963). Sampling Techniques. New York, NY, USA: J. Wiley & Sons.
Conand, C. (1989) Les Holothuries Aspidochirotes du Lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie: Biologie, Ecologie et Exploitation. Paris, France: ORSTOM.
Conand, C. (1993) Reproductive biology of the holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian lagoon. Marine Biology 116: 439450.
Conand, C. (1998) Holothurians (Sea cucumbers, Class Holothuroidea). In: Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, ed. Carpenter, K. and Neim, V.. pp. 11571191. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D. & Balmford, A. (2005) Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally based approaches. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 25072542.
FAO (2003) Fisheries Management 2. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries No. 4 Suppl. 2, Rome, Italy: FAO.
FAO (2010) Putting into Practice an Ecosystem Approach to Managing Sea Cucumber Fisheries. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Friedman, K., Eriksson, H., Tardy, E. & Pakoa, K. (2011) Management of sea cucumber stocks: patterns of vulnerability and recovery of sea cucumber stocks impacted by fishing. Fish and Fisheries 12: 7593.
Friedman, K., Purcell, K., Bell, J. & Hair, C. (2008) Sea Cucumber Fisheries: a Manager's Toolbox. Monograph No 135. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR.
Garcia, S.M. (1994) The precautionary principle: its implications in capture fisheries management. Ocean and Coastal Management 22: 99125.
Gilbert, A., Andréfouët, S., Yan, L. & Remoissenet, G. (2006) The giant clam Tridacna maxima communities of three French Polynesia islands: comparison of their population sizes and structures at early stages of their exploitation. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 15731589.
Gutiérrez, N.L., Hilborn, R. & Defeo, O. (2011) Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470: 386389.
Hamel, J.F., Conand, C., Pawson, D.L. & Mercier, A. (2001) The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata): its biology and exploitation as bêche-de-mer. Advances in Marine Biology 41: 129233.
Hamel, M. & Andréfouët, S. (2010) Using very high resolution remote sensing for the management of coral reef fisheries: review and perspectives. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 13971405.
Hilborn, R., Parrish, J.K. & Litle, K. (2005) Fishing rights or fishing wrongs? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15: 191199.
Jentoft, S. (1989) Fisheries co-management: delegating government responsibility to fishermen's organizations. Marine Policy 13: 137154.
Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, S., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. & Mercier, A. (2004) Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Orensanz, J.M., Parma, A.M., Jerez, G., Barahona, N., Montecinos, M. & Elias, I. (2005) What are the key elements for the sustainability of ‘S-fisheries’? Insights from South America. Bulletin of Marine Science 76: 527556.
Parma, A.M., Hilborn, R. & Orensanz, J.M. (2006) The good, the bad and the ugly: learning from experience to achieve sustainable fisheries. Bulletin of Marine Science 78: 411428.
Patterson, K., Cook, R., Darby, C., Gavaris, S., Kell, L., Lewy, P., Mesnil, B., Punt, A., Restrepo, V., Skagen, D.W. & Stefánsson, G. (2001) Estimating uncertainty in fish stock assessment and forecasting. Fish and Fisheries 2: 125157.
Perry, R.I., Walters, C.J. & Boutillier, J.A. (1999) A framework for providing scientific advice for the management of new and developing invertebrate fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9: 125150.
Purcell, S.W. (2010 a) Managing Sea Cucumber Fisheries with an Ecosystem Approach. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No 520. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Purcell, S.W. (2010 b) Diel burying by the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria scabra: effects of environmental stimuli, handling and ontogeny. Marine Biology 157: 663671.
Purcell, S.W., Gossuin, H. & Agudo, N.S. (2009) Status and Management of the Sea Sucumber Fishery of La Grande Terre, New Caledonia. Studies and Reviews No 1901. Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish Center.
Purcell, S.W. & Kirby, D.S. (2006) Restocking the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra: sizing no-take zones through individual-based movement modelling. Fisheries Research 80: 5361.
Purcell, S.W., Samyn, Y. & Conand, C. (2012) Commercially Important Sea Cucumber of the World. Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes No 6. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Purcell, S.W., Mercier, A., Conand, C., Hamel, J.F., Toral-Granda, M.V., Lovatelli, A. & Uthicke, S. (2013) Sea cucumber fisheries: global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing. Fish and Fisheries 14: 3459.
Rochet, M.J. & Trenkel, V.M. (2003) Which community indicators can measure the impact of fishing? A review and proposals. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 8699.
Scott, A.D. (1989) Conceptual origins of rights based fishing. In: Rights-Based Fishing, ed. Neher, P.A., Arnason, R. & Mollett, N., pp 1138. Dordorecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Scott, A.D. (1999) Introducing property in fisheries management. In: Use of Property Rights in Fisheries Management, ed. Shotton, R., pp 113. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Seijo, J.C. & Caddy, J.F. (2000) Uncertainty in bio-economic reference points and indicators of marine fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 13071324.
Sen, S. & Nielsen, J.R. (1996) Fisheries co-management: a comparative analysis. Marine Policy 20: 405418.
Shepherd, S.A., Martinez, P., Toral-Granda, M.V. & Edgar, G.J. (2004) The Galapagos sea cucumber fishery: management improves as stocks decline. Environmental Conservation 31: 102110.
Shiell, G.R. & Knott, B. (2008) Diurnal observations of sheltering behaviour in the coral reef sea cucumber Holothuria whitmaei. Fisheries Research 91: 112117.
Skewes, T., Dennis, D., Koutsoukos, A., Haywood, M., Wassenberg, T. & Austin, M. (2002) Research for Sustainable Use of Bêche-de-mer Resources in Torres Strait. Cleveland, Australia: CSIRO.
Skewes, T., Smith, L., Dennis, D., Rawlinson, N., Donovan, A. & Ellis, N. (2004) Conversion Ratios for Commercial Bêche-de-mer Species in Torres Strait. Cleveland, Australia: CSIRO.
Skewes, T., Taylor, S., Dennis, D., Haywood, M. & Donovan, A. (2006) Sustainability Assessment of the Torres Strait Sea Cucumber Fishery. Cleveland, Australia: CSIRO.
Stefansson, G. & Rosenberg, A.A. (2005) Combining control measures for more effective management of fisheries under uncertainty: quotas, effort limitation and protected areas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360: 133146.
Trenkel, V.M. & Rochet, M.J. (2003) Performance of indicators derived from abundance estimates for detecting the impact of fishing on a fish community. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 6785.
Tuya, F., Hernandez, J.C. & Clemente, S. (2006) Is there a link between the type of habitat and the patterns of abundance of holothurians in shallow rocky reefs? Hydrobiologia 571: 191199.
Uthicke, S., Welch, D. & Benzie, J.A.H. (2004) Slow growth and lack of recovery in overfished holothurians on the Great Barrier Reef: evidence from DNA fingerprints and repeated large-scale surveys. Conservation Biology 18: 13951404.
Uthicke, S., Schaffelke, B. & Byrne, M. (2009) A boom–bust phylum? Ecological and evolutionary consequences of density variations in echinoderms. Ecological Monographs 79: 324.
Walters, C. & Pearse, P.H. (1996) Stock information requirements for quota management systems in commercial fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6: 2142.
Willmann, R. (1999) Group and community-based fishing rigths. In: Use of Property Rights in Fisheries Management, ed. Shotton, R., pp 5157. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Wilson, D.C., Ahmed, M., Siarb, S.V. & Kanagaratnamb, U. (2006) Cross-scale linkages and adaptive management: fisheries co-management in Asia. Marine Policy 30: 523533.
Yamamoto, T. (1995) Development of a community-based fishery management system in Japan. Marine Resource Economics 10: 2134.

Keywords

Comanaging small-scale sea cucumber fisheries in New Caledonia and Vanuatu using stock biomass estimates to set spatial catch quotas

  • M. LÉOPOLD (a1) (a2), N. CORNUET (a3), S. ANDRÉFOUËT (a1), Z. MOENTEAPO (a3), C. DUVAUCHELLE (a1), J. RAUBANI (a2), J. HAM (a2) and P. DUMAS (a1) (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed