Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Canopy Cover Shapes Bat Diversity across an Urban and Agricultural Landscape Mosaic

  • Amanda M Bailey (a1), Holly K Ober (a2), Brian E Reichert (a3) and Robert A McCleery (a1)

Summary

Human alteration of the planet’s terrestrial landscapes for agriculture, habitation and commerce is reshaping wildlife communities. The threat of land cover change to wildlife is pronounced in regions with rapidly growing human populations. We investigated how species richness and species-specific occurrence of bats changed as a function of land cover and canopy (tree) cover across a rapidly changing region of Florida, USA. Contrary to our predictions, we found negligible effects of agriculture and urban development on the occurrence of all species. In contrast, we found that a remotely sensed metric of canopy cover on a broad scale (25 km2) was a good predictor of the occurrence of eight out of ten species. The occurrence of all smaller bats (vespertilionids) in our study increased with 0–50% increases in canopy cover, while larger bats showed different patterns. Occurrence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) decreased with increasing canopy cover, and Florida bonneted bats (Eumops floridanus) were not influenced by canopy cover. We conclude that remotely sensed measures of canopy cover can provide a more reliable predictor of bat species richness than land-cover types, and efforts to prevent the loss of bat diversity should consider maintaining canopy cover across mosaic landscapes with diverse land-cover types.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Robert A McCleery, Email: ramccleery@ufl.edu

References

Hide All
Agranat, I (2014) Detecting bats with ultrasonic microphones: understanding the effects of microphone variance and placement on detection rates [www document]. URL www.wildlifeacoustics.com/images/pdfs/UltrasonicMicrophones.pdf
Avila-Flores, R, Fenton, MB (2005) Use of spatial features by foraging insectivorous bats in a large urban landscape. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 11931204.
Bailey, AM, Ober, HK, Sovie, AR, McCleery, RA (2017) Impact of land use and climate on the distribution of the endangered Florida bonneted bat. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 15861593.
Barclay, RMR, Kurta, A (2007) Ecology and behavior of bats roosting in tree cavities and under bark. In: Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management, eds Lacki, MJ, Hayes, JP, Kurta, A, pp. 1759. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Best, TL, Geluso, KN (2003) Summer foraging range of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis Mexicana) from Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 48: 590596.
Best, TL, Kiser, WM, Rainey, JC (1997) Eumops glaucinus. Mammalian Species 551: 16.
Brigham, RM (2007) Bats in forests: what we know and what we need to learn. In: Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management, eds Lacki, MJ, Hayes, JP, Kurta, A, pp. 115. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Britzke, ER, Murray, KL, Heywood, JS, Robbins, LW (2002) Acoustic identification. In: The Indiana bat: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species, eds Kurta, A, Kennedy, J, pp. 221225. Austin, TX, USA: Bat Conservation International.
Carter, TC, Menzel, JM (2007) Behavior and day-roosting ecology of North American foliage-roosting bats. In: Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management, eds Lacki, MJ, Hayes, JP, Kurta, A, pp 6181. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Coleman, JL, Barclay, RM (2011) Influence of urbanization on demography of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in the prairies of North America. PLoS One 6: e20483.
Darracq, AK, Boone, WW IV, McCleery, RA (2016) Burn regime matters: a review of the effects of prescribed fire on vertebrates in the longleaf pine ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management 378: 214221.
Dixon, MD (2012) Relationship between land cover and insectivorous bat activity in an urban landscape. Urban Ecosystems 15: 683695.
Duchamp, JE, Arnett, EB, Larson, MA, Swihart, RK (2007) Ecological considerations for landscape-level management of bats. In: Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management, eds Lacki, MJ, Hayes, JP, Kurta, A., pp. 237261. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ellis, EC, Ramankutty, N (2008) Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 439447.
Elmore, LW, Miller, DA, Vilella, FJ (2005) Foraging area size and habitat use by red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in an intensively managed pine landscape in Mississippi. American Midland Naturalist 154: 405417.
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (2012) Florida’s Wildlife Legacy Initiative: Florida’s State Wildlife Action Plan. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission [www document]. URL https://myfwc.com/conservation/special-initiatives/fwli/action-plan
Froidevaux, JS, Zellweger, F, Bollmann, K, Jones, G, Obrist, MK (2016) From field surveys to LiDAR: shining a light on how bats respond to forest structure. Remote Sensing of Environment 175: 242250.
Gaisler, J, Zukal, J, Rehak, Z, Homolka, M (1998) Habitat preference and flight activity of bats in a city. Journal of Zoology 244: 439445.
Gehrt, SD, Chelsvig, JE (2003) Bat activity in an urban landscape: patterns at the landscape and microhabitat scale. Ecological Applications 13: 939950.
Gehrt, SD, Chelsvig, JE (2004) Species-specific patterns of bat activity in an urban landscape. Ecological Applications 14: 624635.
Grimm, NB, Feath, SH, Golubiewski, NE, Redman, CL, Wu, J, Bai, X, Briggs, JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319: 756760.
Hancock, S, Armston, J, Hofton, M, Sun, X, Tang, H, Duncanson, LI, Kellner, J, Dubayah, R (2019) The GEDI simulator: a large‐footprint waveform Lidar simulator for calibration and validation of spaceborne missions. Earth and Space Science 6: 294310.
Hansen, AJ, Neilson, RP, Dale, VH, Flather, CH, Iverson, LR, Currie, DJ, Shafer, S, Cook, R, Bartlein, PJ (2001) Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes: interactions between climate change and land use are projected to cause large shifts in biodiversity. BioScience 51: 765779.
Hawkins, V, Selman, P (2002) Landscape scale planning: exploring alternative land use scenarios. Landscape and Urban Planning 60: 211224.
Homer, CG, Dewitz, JA, Yang, L, Jin, S, Danielson, P, Xian, G, Coulston, J, Herold, ND, Wickham, JD, Megown, K (2015) Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the conterminous United States – representing a decade of land cover change information. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 81: 345354.
Humphrey, SR (1975) Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Journal of Mammalogy 56: 321346.
Jetz, W, Wilcove, DS, Dobson, AP (2007) Projected impacts of climate and land-use change on the global diversity of birds. PLoS Biology 5: e157.
Jones, G, Jacobs, DS, Kunz, TH, Willig, MR, Racey, PA (2009) Carpe noctem: the importance of bats as bioindicators. Endangered Species Research 8: 93115.
Jung, K, Threlfall, CG (2016) Urbanization and its effects on bats – a global meta-analysis. In: Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World, eds Voigt, CC, Kingston, T, pp. 1333. New York, NY, USA: Springer Press.
Kery, M, Royle, JA (2016) Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology: Analysis of Distribution, Abundance and Species Richness in R and BUGS. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
Krauel, JJ, LeBuhn, G (2016) Patterns of bat distribution and foraging activity in a highly urbanized temperate environment. PLoS One 11: e0168927.
Legakis, A, Papadimitriou, C, Gaethlich, M, Lazaris, D (2000) Survey of the bats of the Athens metropolitan area. Myotis 38: 4146.
Lewis, T, Dibley, GC (1970) Air movement near windbreaks and a hypothesis of the mechanism of the accumulation of airborne insects. Annals of Applied Biology 66: 477484.
Li, H, Kalcounis-Rueppell, M (2018) Separating the effects of water quality and urbanization on temperate insectivorous bats at the landscape scale. Ecology and Evolution 8: 667678.
Loeb, SC, Rodhouse, TJ, Ellison, LE, Lausen, CL, Richard, JD, Irvine, KM et al. (2015) A Plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat). General Technical Report SRS-208. Asheville, NC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station [www document]. URL www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs208.pdf
Lumsden, LF, Bennett, AF (2005) Scattered trees in rural landscapes: foraging habitat for insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 122: 205222.
Lumsden, L, Bennett, AF, Krasna, S, Silins, J (1995) The conservation of insectivorous bats in rural landscapes of northern Victoria. In: People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, eds Bennett, AF, Backhouse, G, Clark, T, pp. 142148. Mosman, Australia: The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Lumsden, LF, Bennett, AF, Silins, JE (2002) Location of roosts of the lesser long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi and Gould’s wattled bat Chalinolobus gouldii in a fragmented landscape in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 106: 237349.
Mac Aodha, O, Gibb, R, Barlow, KE, Browning, E, Firman, M, Freeman, R, Harder, B, Kinsey, L, Mead, GR, Newson, SE, Pandourski, I, Parsons, S, Russ, J, Szodoray-Paradi, A, Szodoray-Paradi, F, Tilova, E, Girolami, M, Brostow, G, Jones, KE (2018) Bat detective – deep learning tools for bat acoustic signal detection. PLoS Computational Biology 14: e1005995.
Mancina, CA, García-Rivera, L, Miller, BW (2012) Wing morphology, echolocation, and resource partitioning in syntopic Cuban mormoopid bats. Journal of Mammalogy 93: 13081317.
McCleery, RA, Monadjem, A, Baiser, B, Fletcher, R Jr, Vickers, K, Kruger, L (2018) Animal diversity declines with broad-scale homogenization of canopy cover in African savannas. Biological Conservation 222: 5462.
Mtsetfwa, F, McCleery, RA, Monadjem, A (2018) Changes in bat community composition and activity patterns across a conservation–agriculture boundary. African Zoology 53: 99106.
Norberg, UM, Rayner, JMV (1987) Ecological morphology and flight in bats (Mammalia; Chiroptera): wind adaptations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 316: 335427.
Ntzoufras, I (2009) Bayesian Modeling using WinBUGS. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley.
Ober, HK, Hayes, JP (2008) Influence of vegetation on bat use of riparian areas at multiple spatial scales. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 396404.
Plummer, M (2003) JAGS: a program for analysis of Bayesian graphical models using Gibbs sampling. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Distributed Statistical Computing 124: 125.10.
Ratajczak, Z, Nippert, JB, Collins, SL (2012) Woody encroachment decreases diversity across North American grasslands and savannas. Ecology 93: 697703.
Reichert, BR, Sovie, AR, Udell, BJ, Hart, KM, Borkhataria, RR, Bonneau, M, Reed, R, McCleery, RM (2017) Urbanization may limit impacts of an invasive predator on native mammal diversity. Diversity and Distributions 23: 355367.
Rodhouse, TJ, Ormsbee, PC, Irvine, KM, Vierling, LA, Szewczak, JM, Vierling, KT (2015) Establishing conservation baselines with dynamic distribution models for bat populations facing imminent decline. Diversity and Distributions 21: 14011413.
Russo, D, Ancillotto, L (2015) Sensitivity of bats to urbanization: a review. Mammalian Biology 80: 205212.
Su, Y, Yajima, M (2015) R2jags: a package for running jags from R. R package version 002-17 [www document]. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=R2jags
Threlfall, CG, Mata, L, Mackie, JA, Hahs, AK, Stork, N, Williams, NSG, Livesley, SJ (2017) Increasing biodiversity in urban green spaces through simple vegetation interventions. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 18741883.
Threlfall, CG, Ossola, A, Hahs, AK, Williams, NSG, Wilson, L, Livesley, SJ (2016) Variation in vegetation structure and composition across urban green space types. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 4: 112.
Turner, W (2014). Sensing biodiversity. Science 346: 301302.
US Fish and Wildlife Service (2013) Endangered species status for the Florida bonneted bat. Federal Register 78(191): 6100461043.
US Fish and Wildlife Service (2018) Range-wide Indiana bat summer survey guidelines. Bloomington, MN, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Midwest Ecological Services Regional Office [www document]. URL www.fws.gov/southeast/pdf/guidelines/range-wide-indiana-bat-survey-guidelines-2018.pdf
Vitousek, PM, Mooney, HA, Lubchenco, J, Melillo, JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494499.
Webb, SD (1999) The south Florida ecosystem. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Multi-Species Recovery Plan for South Florida, pp. 184. Bethesda, MD, USA: Fish and Wildlife Service Reference Service.
White, CR, Cassey, P, Schimpf, NG, Halsey, LG, Green, JA, Portugal, SJ (2013) Implantation reduces the negative effects of bio-logging devices on birds. Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 537542.
Wickramasinghe, LP, Harris, S, Jones, J, Vaughan, N (2003) Bat activity and species richness on organic and conventional farms: impact of agricultural intensification. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 984993.
Wilcove, D.S. Rothstein, D, Dubow, J, Phillips, A, Losos, E (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States: assessing the relative importance of habitat destruction, alien species, pollution, overexploitation, and disease. BioScience 48: 607615.
Williams-Guillen, K, Olimpi, E, Maas, B, Taylor, PJ, Arlettaz, R (2016) Bats in the anthropogenic matrix: challenges and opportunities for the conservation of Chiroptera and their ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. In: Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World, eds Voigt, CC, Kingston, T, pp. 151186, New York, NY, USA: Springer Press
Zimmerman, GS, Glanz, WE (2000) Habitat use by bats in eastern Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 10321040.
Zipkin, EF, Dewan, A, Royle, RA (2009) Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 815822.
Zwick, PD, Carr, MH (2006) Florida 2060. A Population Distribution Scenario for the State of Florida. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida. A research project prepared for 1000 Friends of Florida [www document]. URL www.1000friendsofflorida.org/connecting-people/florida2060

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Bailey et al. supplementary material
Bailey et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (179 KB)
179 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed