Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Using existing data to predict and quantify the risks of GM forage to a population of a non-target invertebrate species: A New Zealand case study

  • Maureen O’Callaghan (a1), Tanya K. Soboleva (a2) and Barbara I.P. Barratt (a3)

Abstract

Determining the effects of genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target organisms is essential as many non-target species provide important ecological functions. However, it is simply not possible to collect field data on more than a few potential non-target species present in the receiving environment of a GM crop. While risk assessment must be rigorous, new approaches are necessary to improve the efficiency of the process. Utilisation of published information and existing data on the phenology and population dynamics of test species in the field can be combined with limited amounts of experimental biosafety data to predict possible outcomes on species persistence. This paper presents an example of an approach where data from laboratory experiments and field studies on phenology are combined using predictive modelling. Using the New Zealand native weevil species Nicaeana cervina as a case study, we could predict that oviposition rates of the weevil feeding on a GM ryegrass could be reduced by up to 30% without threat to populations of the weevil in pastoral ecosystems. In addition, an experimentally established correlation between feeding level and oviposition led to the prediction that a consistent reduction in feeding of 50% or higher indicated a significant risk to the species and could potentially lead to local extinctions. This approach to biosafety risk assessment, maximising the use of pre-existing field and laboratory data on non-target species, can make an important contribution to informed decision-making by regulatory authorities and developers of new technologies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Using existing data to predict and quantify the risks of GM forage to a population of a non-target invertebrate species: A New Zealand case study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Using existing data to predict and quantify the risks of GM forage to a population of a non-target invertebrate species: A New Zealand case study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Using existing data to predict and quantify the risks of GM forage to a population of a non-target invertebrate species: A New Zealand case study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: maureen.ocallaghan@agresearch.co.nz

References

Hide All
[1]Barlow, ND, Barratt, BIP, Ferguson, C, Barron, MC (2004) Using models to estimate parasitoid impacts on non-target host abundance. Environ. Entomol. 33: 941948
[2]Barratt, BIP, Evans, AA, Ferguson, CM, McNeill, MR, Proffitt, JR, Barker, GM (1998) Curculionoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) of New Zealand agricultural grassland and lucerne as potential non-target hosts of the parasitoids Microctonus aethiopoides Loan and Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). N. Z. J. Zool. 27: 4763
[3]Barratt, BIP, Ferguson, CM, Evans, AA, McNeill, MR, Addison, PJ (2000) Phenology of native weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in New Zealand pastures and parasitism by the introduced braconid, Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). N. Z. J. Zool. 27: 93110
[4]Barratt, BIP, Crook, KE, Ferguson, CM, Johnstone, PD, Malone, LA (2008) Developing a method for laboratory biosafety testing impacts of transgenic plants on non-target insects. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 128: 437449
[5]Caradus, J (2008) An opportunity lost and sorting fact from fiction. Proc. N. Z. Grassl. Assoc. 70: 16
[6]Craig, W, Tepfer, M, Degrassi, G, Ripandelli, D (2008) An overview of general features of risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Euphytica 164: 853880
[7]Dong, S, Shew, DH, Tredway, LP, Lu, J, Sivamani, E, Miller, ES, Qu, R (2008) Expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene in tall fescue confers resistance to gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases. Trans. Res. 17: 4757
[8]Gadegaard, G, Didion, T, Folling, M, Storgaard, M, Andersen, CH, Nielsen, KK (2008) Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructsyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6-FFT. J. Plant Physiol. 165: 12141225
[9]Heuer, H, Kroppenstedt, RM, Lottmann, J, Berg, GKS (2002) Effects of T4-lysozyme release from transgenic potato roots on bacterial rhizosphere communities are negligible relative to natural factors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 13251335
[10]Hill, RA, Sendashonga, C (2003) General principles for risk assessment of living modified organisms: lessons from chemical risk assessment. Environ. Biosafety Res. 2: 8188
[11]HSNO Act (1996) Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act. Wellington, New Zealand. www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1996/0030/latest/DLM381222.html
[12]O'Callaghan, M, Glare, TR, Burgess, EPJ, Malone, LA (2005) Effects of plants genetically modified for insect resistance on non-target organisms. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 50: 271292
[13]Paarlberg R (2006) Let them eat precaution: why GM crops are being overregulated in the developing world. In Entine J, ed, Let them eat precaution, AEI Press, Washington, DC, 92–112
[14]Raybould, A (2006) Problem formulation and hypothesis testing for environmental risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Environ. Biosafety Res. 5: 119125
[15]Raybould, A (2007) Ecological versus ecotoxicological methods for assessing the environmental risks of transgenic crops. Plant Sci. 173: 589602
[16]Romeis, J, Batsch, D, Bigler, F, Candolfi, MP, Gielkens, MM, Hartley, SE, Hellmich, RL, Huesing, JE, Jepsen, PC, Layton, R, Quemada, H, Raybould, A, Rose, RI, Schiemann, J, Sears, MK, Shelton, AM, Sweet, J, Vaituzis, Z, Wolt, JD (2008) Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods. Nature Biotechnol. 26: 203208
[17]Romeis, J, Lawo, NC, Raybould, A (2009) Making effective use of existing data for case-by case risk assessments of genetically engineered crops. J. Appl. Entomol. 133: 571583
[18]Tanaka, A, Tapper, BA, Popay, AI, Parker, EJ, Scott, B (2005) A symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthase from a mutualistic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protection to the symbiotum from insect herbivory. Mol. Microbiol. 57: 10361050
[19]Todd, JH, Ramankutty, P, Barraclough, EI, Malone, LA (2008) A screening method for prioritizing non-target invertebrates for improved biosafety testing of transgenic crops. Environ. Biosafety Res. 7: 3556

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Using existing data to predict and quantify the risks of GM forage to a population of a non-target invertebrate species: A New Zealand case study

  • Maureen O’Callaghan (a1), Tanya K. Soboleva (a2) and Barbara I.P. Barratt (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.