Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: A case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass

  • Barbara I.P. Barratt (a1), Jacqui H. Todd (a2), Elisabeth P.J. Burgess (a2) and Louise A. Malone (a2)

Abstract

Regulators are acutely aware of the need for meaningful risk assessments to support decisions on the safety of GM crops to non-target invertebrates in determining their suitability for field release. We describe a process for developing appropriate, testable risk hypotheses for invertebrates in agroecosystems that might be exposed to plants developed by GM and future novel technologies. An existing model (PRONTI) generates a ranked list of invertebrate species for biosafety testing by accessing a database of biological, ecological and food web information about species which occur in cropping environments and their potential interactions with a particular stressor (Eco Invertebase). Our objective in this contribution is to explore and further utilise these resources to assist in the process of problem formulation by identifying potentially significant effects of the stressor on the invertebrate community and the ecosystem services they provide. We propose that for high ranking species, a conceptual food web using information in Eco Invertebase is constructed, and using an accepted regulatory risk analysis framework, the likelihood of risk, and magnitude of impact for each link in the food web is evaluated. Using as filters only those risks evaluated as likely to extremely likely, and the magnitude of an effect being considered as moderate to massive, the most significant potential effects can be identified. A stepwise approach is suggested to develop a sequence of appropriate tests. The GM ryegrass plant used as the “stressor” in this study has been modified to increase triacylglyceride levels in foliage by 100% to increase the metabolisable energy content of forage for grazing animals. The high-ranking “test” species chosen to illustrate the concept are New Zealand native species Wiseana cervinata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Persectania aversa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the self-introduced grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller).

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: A case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: A case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: A case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: barbara.barratt@agresearch.co.nz

References

Hide All
[1]Arrese, EL, Soulages, JL (2010) Insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 55: 207225
[2]Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP (1989) A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874 to 1987. CAB International and DSIR, Oxford, UK
[3]Canovoso, LE, Joune, ZE, Karnas, KJ, Pennington, JE, Wells, MA (2001) Fat metabolism in insects. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 21: 2346
[4]Chapman, RB, Simeonidis, AS, Smith, JT (1997) Evaluation of metallic green ground beetle as a predator of slugs. Proceedings of the NZ Plant Protection Conference 50: 5155
[5]Edwards, PB, Suckling, DM (1980) Cermatulus nasalis and Oechalia schellembergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as predators of Eucalyptus tortoise beetle larvae, Paropsis charybdis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in New Zealand. N. Z. Entomol. 7: 158164
[6]EFSA (2010) Scientific opinion on the assessment of environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms. EFSA Journal 8: 1–72
[7]ERMA New Zealand (1998) Annotated methodology for the consideration of applications for hazardous substances and new organisms under the HSNO Act 1996. ERMA New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand
[8]Eyles, AC (1966) A predator on Wiseana (Lep.: Hepialidae). N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 9: 699703
[9]Eyles, AC (1973) Prey of the staphylinid Thyreocephalus chloropterus (Coleoptera). N. Z. Entomol. 5: 341342
[10]Ferguson CM, Moeed A, Barratt BIP, Hill RL, Kean JM (2007) BCANZ – Biological Control Agents introduced to New Zealand. http://www.b3nz.org/bcanz
[11]Garin, CF, Heras, H, Pollero, RJ (1996) Lipoproteins of the egg perivitelline fluid of Pomacea canaliculata snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. Exp. Zool. 276: 307314
[12]Gilbert, LI, Chino, H (1974) Transport of lipids in insects. J. Lipid Res. 15: 439456
[13]Gilby, AR (1965) Lipids and their metabolism in insects. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 10: 141160
[14]Hagvar, EB, Aasen, S (2004) Possible effects of genetically modified plants on insects in the plant food web. Latvijas Entomologs 41: 111117
[15]Ma, J, Li, Y-Z, Keller, M, Ren, S-X (2005) Functional response and predation of Nabis kinbergii (Hemiptera: Nabidae) to Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Insect Science 12: 281286
[16]Mayntz, D, Toft, S (2001) Nutrient composition of the prey’s diet affects growthy and survivorship of a generalist predator. Oecologia 127: 207213
[17]Mayntz, D, Raubenheimer, D, Salomon, M, Toft, S, Simpson, SJ (2005) Nutrient-specific foraging in invertebrate predators. Science 307: 111113
[18]Mulder, C, Lotz, LAP (2009) Biotechnology, environmental forcing, and unintended trophic cascades. Arthropod - Plant Interactions 3: 131139
[19]Parrott, AW (1952) New Zealand Ichneumonidae. II Tribe Echthromorphini (Pimplinae). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 80: 155170
[20]Parrott, AW (1954) Records of some important braconid parasites in New Zealand. N. Z. Entomol. 1: 1622
[21]Raybould, AF (2006) Problem formulation and hypothesis testing for environmental risk assessments of genetically modified crops. Env. Biosafety Res. 5: 119125
[22]Roberts, NJ, Scott, RW, Tzen, JTC (2008) Recent biotechnological applications using oleosins. The Open Biotechnology Journal 2: 1321
[23]Romeis, J, Bartsch, D, Bigler, F, Candolfi, MP, Gielkens, MM, Hartley, SE, Hellmich, RL, Huesing, JE, Jepson, PC, Layton, R, Quemada, H, Raybould, A, Rose, RI, Schiemann, J, Sears, MK, Shelton, AM, Sweet, J, Vaituzis, Z, Wolt, JD (2008a) Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods. Nat. Biotechnol. 26: 203208
[24]Romeis J, Van Driesche RG, Barratt BIP, Bigler F (2008b) Insect resistant transgenic crops and biological control. In Romeis J, Shelton AM, Kennedy GG, eds, Integration of insect-resistant genetically modified crops within IPM programs, Springer, Dordrecht
[25]Romeis, J, Hellmich, RL, Candolfi, MP, Carstens, K, De Schrijver, A, Gatehouse, AMR, Herman, RA, Huesing, JE, McLean, MA, Raybould, A, Shelton, AM, Waggoner, A (2011) Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants. Transgenic Res. 20: 122
[26]Todd J, Ramankutty P, Malone LA (2006) A method for selecting non-target organisms for testing the biosafety of GM plants. 9th International Symposium on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms, Jeju Island, Korea, 24–29 Sept. 2006
[27]Todd, JH, Ramankutty, P, Barraclough, EI, Malone, LA (2008) A screening method for prioritizing non-target invertebrates for improved biosafety testing of transgenic crops. Env. Biosafety Res. 7: 3556
[28]Turunen S, Crailsheim K (1996) Lipid and sugar absorption. In Lehane MJ, Billingsley PF, eds, Biology of the Insect Midgut, Chapman and Hall, London
[29] USEPA (1998) Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. Report for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Federal Register 63 (93): 26846–26924
[30]Valentine, EW (1967) A list of the hosts of entomophagous insects in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Sci. 10: 11001209
[31]Van der Horst DJ (1983) Lipid transport in insects. In Mittler TE, Dadd RH, eds, Metabolic aspects of lipid nutrition in insects, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado
[32]Visser, B, Ellers, J (2008) Lack of lipogenesis in parasitoids: A review of physiological mechanisms and evolutionary implications. J. Insect Physiol. 54: 1522
[33]Wolt, JD, Keese, P, Raybould, A, Fitzpatrick, JW, Burachik, M, Gray, A, Olin, SS, Schiemann, J, Sears, MK, Wu, F (2010) Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants. Transgenic Res. 19: 425436

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: A case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass

  • Barbara I.P. Barratt (a1), Jacqui H. Todd (a2), Elisabeth P.J. Burgess (a2) and Louise A. Malone (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.