Ajayi, O.C., Akinnifesi, F.K., Sileshi, G., Chakeredza, S., and Matakala, P. (2007), ‘Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into food security strategies in low-income countries: case of agroforestry in southern African region’, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Arnold, M., Kohlin, G., and Persson, R. (2006), ‘Woodfuels, livelihoods and policy interventions: changing perspectives’, World Development
Bardhan, P., Baland, J., Das, S., Mookherjee, D., and Sarkar, R. (2001), ‘Household firewood collection in rural Nepal: the role of poverty, collective action and modernization’, Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Böhringer, A. (2002), ‘Facilitating the wider use of agroforestry in Southern Africa’, in Eade, D. (series ed.), Eade, D. (eds), Development and Agroforestry: Scaling Up the Impacts of Research, Oxford: Oxfam GB, pp. 35–55.
Caliendo, M. and Kopeinig, S. (2005), ‘Some practical guidance for implementation of propensity score matching’, Discussion Paper No. 1588, Institute for the Study of Labour, Bonn.
Chidumayo, E.N. (1997), ‘Integration and role of planted trees in a bush-fallow cultivation system in Central Zambia’, Agroforestry Systems
Chidumayo, E.N. (2002), ‘Changes in miombo woodland structure under different land tenure and use systems in Central Zambia’, Journal of Biogeography
Chirwa, P.W., Ong, C.K., Maghembe, J., and Black, C.R. (2007), ‘Soil water dynamics in intercropping systems containing Gliricidia sepium, pigeon pea and maize in southern Malawi’, Agroforestry System
Cooke, P., Kohlin, G., and Hyde, W.F. (2008), ‘Fuel wood, forests and community management – evidence from household studies’, Environment and Development Economics
Cooper, P.J.M., Leakey, R.R.B., Rao, M.R., and Reynolds, L. (1996), ‘Agroforestry and the mitigation of land degradation in the humid and sub-humid tropics of Africa’, Experimental Agriculture
FAO (2010), ‘Forests and energy: regional perspectives: opportunities and challenges for forests and forestry’, Paper presented at the African Forestry and Wildlife Commission, 16th Session, Khartoum, Sudan.
Govere, I. (2002), ‘Improved tree fallow and natural miombo woodland use in eastern Zambia: the potential value of agroforestry in the conservation of indigenous forests’, M.Sc. thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Government of the Republic of Zambia (2008), ‘Integrated land use assessment (ILUA) from 2005 to 2008’, Forestry Department, Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, Lusaka.
Government of the Republic of Zambia (2012), ‘Ministry of Local Government, Early Education and Environmental Protection United Nations Development Programme 2012’, Stocktaking Draft Report – Zambia, Lusaka, Lusaka: Government of Zambia.
Greene, W.H. (2003), Econometric Analysis, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Heckman, J., Ichimura, H., Smith, J., and Todd, P. (1998), ‘Characterizing selection bias using experimental data’, Econometrica
Hichaambwa, M. and Jayne, T.S. (2012), ‘Smallholder commercialization trends as affected by land constraints in Zambia: what are the policy implications?’, Working Paper No. 61, Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI), Lusaka.
Kaonga, M.L. and Bayliss-Smith, T.P. (2009), ‘Carbon pools in tree biomass and the soil in improved fallows in eastern Zambia’, Agroforestry Systems
Kohlin, G. and Parks, P.J. (2001), ‘Spatial variability and disincentives to harvest: deforestation and fuel wood collection in South Asia’, Land Economics
Kwesiga, F.R., Franzel, S., Place, F., Phiri, D., and Simwanza, C.P. (1999), ‘
Sesbania sesban improved fallows in eastern Zambia: their inception, development and farmer enthusiasm’, Agroforestry Systems
Kwesiga, F., Akinnifesi, F.K., Mafongoya, P.L., McDermott, M.H., and Agumya, A. (2003), ‘Agroforestry research and development in southern Africa during the 1990s: review and challenges ahead’, Agroforestry Systems
Mafongoya, P.L. and Kuntashula, E. (2005), ‘Participatory evaluation of Tephrosia species and provenances for soil fertility improvement and other uses using farmer criteria in eastern Zambia’, Experimental Agriculture
Makumba, W., Akinnifesi, F.K., Janssen, B., and Oenema, O. (2007), ‘Longterm impact of gliricidia-maize intercropping system on carbon sequestration in southern Malawi’, Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment
Mercer, E. and Soussan, J. (1992), ‘Fuel wood problems and solutions’, in Sharma, N. (ed.), Managing the World's Forests, Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, pp. 177–213.
Musanya, J.C. (2011), ‘The status of biofuels development in Zambia’, in Mapaure, I., Mhango, B.J. and Mulenga, D.K. (eds), Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change, Windhoek, Namibia: John Meinert Printing, pp. 11–22.
Ndayambaje, J.D. and Mohren, G.M.J. (2011), ‘Fuel wood demand and supply in Rwanda and the role of agroforestry’, Agroforestry Systems
Patel, S., Pinckney, T., and Jaeger, W. (1995), ‘Smallholder wood production and population pressures in East Africa: evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve?’, Land Economics
Pattanayak, S.K. and Depro, B.M. (2004), ‘Valuing environmental services from agroforestry: economics of soil and forest conservation in Manggarai, Indonesia’, in Alavalapti, J.R.R. and Mercer, D.E. (eds), Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods and Applications, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 165–182.
Rubin, D.B. (1974), ‘Estimating causal effects of treatments in randomized and nonrandomized studies’, Journal of Educational Psychology
Runge-Metzger, A. (1988), ‘Variability in agronomic practices and allocative efficiency among farm households in northern Ghana: a case study in on-farm research’, Nyankpala Agricultural Research Report No. 2, Nyankpala, Tamale, Ghana.
Sileshi, G., Akinnifesi, F.K., Ajayi, O.C., Chakeredza, S., Kaonga, M., and Matakala, P. (2007), ‘Contribution of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo eco-region of eastern and southern Africa’, African Journal of Environmental Science Technology
Trossero, M.A. (2002), ‘Wood energy: the way ahead’, Unasylva