Baron, N.S. 2001. ‘Comma and canaries: The role of punctuation in speech and writing.’ Language Sciences, 23(1), 15–67.
Biber, D. 1988. Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biber, D. 1995. Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-linguistic Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. 1999. Longman Grammar of Written and Spoken English. London: Longman.
Bohannon, J. 2010. ‘Google opens books to new cultural studies.’ Science, 330, 1600.
Bruthlaux, P. 1995. ‘The rise and fall of the semicolon: English punctuation theory and English teaching practice.’ Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 1–14.
Busà, G. M. 2014. Introducing the Language of the News. Routledge: London.
Carmody, S. 2015. ‘Ngramr: Retrieve and plot Google N-gram data.’ R package version 1.4.5.
Clauset, A., Shalizi, C. R. & Newman, M. E. 2009. ‘Power-law distributions in empirical data.’ Annals of Applied Statistics, 51(4), 661–703.
COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English). 2014. Compiled by Mark Davies, Brigham Young University. Online at < http://corpus.byu.edu/COCA/> (Accessed February 1, 2017). COHA (Corpus of Historical American English). 2014. Compiled by Mark Davies, Brigham Young University. Online at < http://corpus.byu.edu/COHA/> (Accessed February 1, 2017).
Crystal, D. 1985. ‘How many millions? The statistics of English today.’ English Today, 1, 7–9.
GloWbE (Corpus of Global Web-Based English). 2013. Compiled by Mark Davies, Brigham Young University. Online at <http://corpus.byu.edu/glowbe/> (Accessed February 1, 2017).
Haussamen, B. 1994. ‘The future of the English sentence.’ Visible Language, 28(1), 4–25.
Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G. K. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, B. 1996. What’s the Point? A (Computational) Theory of Punctuation? PhD Diss. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Kello, C. T., Brown, G, Ferrer–i–Cancho, R., Holden, J. G., Linkenkaer–Hansen, K. & Rhodes, T. 2010. ‘Scaling laws in cognitive sciences.’ Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(5), 223–232.
Kirkpatrick, A. 2010. The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes. London: Routledege.
Ling, R. & Baron, N. 2007. ‘Text messaging and IM: Linguistic comparison of American college data.’ Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26(3), 291–298.
Leimgruber, J. R. E. 2013. Singapore English: Structure, Variation, and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, H. E. 1894. The History of the English Paragraph. PhD Diss. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Markwardt, A. H. 1942. Introduction to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
Meyer, C. 1987. A Linguistic Study of American Punctuation. New York: Peter Lang.
Michel, J. B., Shen, Y. K., Aiden, A. P., Veres, A., Gray, M. K., The Google Books Team. 2011. ‘Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.’ Science, 331, 176–182.
Mulvey, C. 2016. ‘The English project's history of English punctuation.’ English Today, 32(3), 45–51.
Nunberg, G. 1990. The Linguistics of Punctuation. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Parkes, M. B. 1993. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley: University of California Press
Partridge, E. 1953. You Have a Point There: A Guide to Punctuation and its Allies. London: Routledge.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Schou, K. 2007. ‘The syntactic status of English punctuation.’ English Studies, 88(2), 195–216.
Zipf, G. K. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. New York: Addison-Wesley.