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English Language and Linguistics

1. Editorial policy

English Language and Linguistics is an international journal which focuses on the description of the English language within the framework of contemporary linguistics. The journal is concerned equally with the synchronic and the diachronic aspects of English language studies and publishes articles of the highest quality which make a substantial contribution to our understanding of the structure and development of the English language and which are informed by a knowledge and appreciation of linguistic theory. English Language and Linguistics carries articles and short discussion papers or squibs on all core aspects of English, from its beginnings to the present day, including syntax, morphology, phonology, semantics, pragmatics, corpus linguistics and lexis.

Please note that ELL does not publish work on the teaching of English as a second or additional language or on applied linguistics generally. ELL also does not publish papers containing extensive cross linguistic comparisons nor those which focus on stylistic analysis.

ELL is happy to consider replies to articles published earlier in its pages, but all submissions should be self-standing contributions to research. Short notes (or squibs) can be appropriate if they are exclusively tied around one entirely novel point. ELL publishes reviews of recent work on the linguistics of English and also review articles, which should themselves seek to take the debate in the reviewed work forward. All articles, replies, squibs and review articles are subject to double-blind peer review; they will normally be read in anonymised form by two anonymous referees. One issue every year is normally a guest-edited Special Issue, containing a number of articles which are thematically linked. Proposals for special issues are solicited once a year, but may be submitted to the editors at any time.

Submission of an article is taken to imply that it has not previously been published, and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. Following acceptance of a paper, the author will be asked to sign a license to publish with Cambridge University Press. Open access publication is available at a cost. Please visit for information on our open access policies, compliance with major funding bodies, and guidelines on depositing your manuscript in an institutional repository. Contributors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any material in which they do not own copyright, to be used in both print and electronic media, and for ensuring that the appropriate acknowledgements are included in their manuscript.

2. Contact details

The editors of ELL are:

  • Laurel J. Brinton, University of British Columbia, Canada
  • Patrick Honeybone, University of Edinburgh, UK
  • Bernd Kortmann, University of Freiburg, Germany

Any queries about editorial policy or the submission of manuscripts (as well as offers to contribute to the notes and discussion section) should be submitted to the following email address: Messages sent to that address will be automatically distributed to all three editors.

The review editor is:

  • Elena Seoane, University of Vigo, Spain

Unsolicited reviews and review articles are not accepted but offers can be made to the review editor, to whom all other queries about reviews or review articles should also be directed, using this email address:

The review editor’s postal address, which may be used to submit volumes for review, is:

  • Elena Seoane
    Department of English, French and German
    University of Vigo
    Facultade de Filoloxía e Tradución, Campus Vigo
    E-36310 Vigo, Spain

3. Submission of articles and squibs

ELL uses the Scholar One manuscript management system to handle all submissions. Please use and follow the detailed instructions in this section and at this link: The notes in this section are intended for those submitting an article or squib; see the following section for notes relevant to book reviews. Articles submitted via email or post will not be considered.

Please also note that, in order to submit a piece for consideration for publication in ELL, you should:

  • format it in line with the guidelines for formatting and style in section 6 of this document; we prefer that you submit your originals for the initial submission as a PDF file as this will avoid any formatting problems, but the Scholar One system also accepts manuscripts in Word format; for the final submission, if an article is accepted for publication, it will be best if you can submit it in Word (or Latex) format as well
  • make sure that it is totally anonymous, with no indication of who has written the piece anywhere in the paper (or its front or end matter); this might include removing acknowledgements (which can be reinserted after review) and obvious references to your own work
  • follow the instructions in section 5 of this document in order to set up a Scholar One account (if you do not already have one) and submit the piece through that system

Once you have submitted your piece, one of the editors will be assigned to your paper and will respond to you. At busy times this process can take a few days. If you have any queries about using the Scholar One system, send them to If, for any reason, an electronic copy of an article cannot be supplied, please contact the editors through

PLEASE NOTE THAT ONLY PAPERS OF NO MORE THAN 10,000 WORDS, INCLUDING REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES, SHOULD NORMALLY BE SUBMITTED FOR CONSIDERATION FOR PUBLICATION IN ELL. If a longer manuscript is submitted for some particular reason, you should include a note making a case for an exception to this limit as part of the ‘Cover Letter’ that you can type in when you submit the manuscript through the Scholar One system.

Most characters necessary for representing Old or Middle English, and for phonetic/phonological characters are now contained in standard fonts, which should therefore be used wherever possible. Additional letters and phonetic/phonological characters should where possible be taken from the Doulos SIL font, available from:

For all accepted articles, proofs will be presented as PDF files for the authors to correct. In the case of co-authored articles, the proofs will be sent to the first-named author, unless otherwise requested. Please inform the editors of any relevant changes of e-mail addresses occurring between the submission of the final version of the paper and the expected release of the proofs. The proofs should be corrected within two days of receipt and returned immediately. Detailed proofing instructions will be found in the proof file. Note that publication on FirstView is final and any after-the-fact essential corrections will have to be published as errata.

4. Submission of book reviews and review articles

All reviews and review articles in ELL are commissioned by the review editor. Reviews are generally 2,000-3,000 words in length, as stipulated by the review editor. The review editor determines the length of review articles. Manuscripts which substantially exceed the word limit may be cut or sent back to the author to be shortened. If neither is acceptable to the author, the review editor may ask for the book to be returned so that another reviewer can be found.

Please submit the review through Scholar One, as described in section 5 of this document, following the guidelines for formatting and style in section 6 as closely as possible. Note especially the guidelines in point 18 of section 6 for review articles, and in point 19 of section 6 for standard reviews. Any queries about reviews and review articles should be direct to the review editor, whose details are given in section 2.

5. Dealing with the Scholar One manuscript submission system

If you already have a Scholar One account for ELL, use it to log in. You might already have an account if you have submitted an article to ELL through Scholar One before, or if you have functioned as a reviewer for ELL. If you do not already have an ELL Scholar One account, you will need to register for one – this is very straightforward. (You need a separate account for each journal that uses Scholar One, so you will need to register for a new account for ELL business even if you have used the system to interact with other journals.)

When you set up an account through Scholar One, you will first be asked if you have an ‘ORCID ID’. While this is not essential, you may find it useful. ORCID provides a unique digital identifier that distinguishes individual researchers, and supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities. You can find out more about ORCID here. You will also be asked to enter your ‘Areas of Expertise’. These can be whatever you would like (eg, ‘Phonology’, ‘Variation’, ‘Pragmatics’, ‘Old English’, ‘World Englishes’ etc).

You will need to enter your institutional address during the registration process (you can enter ‘none’ if you do not have one) and choose a password. If you have problems entering your email address or with other aspects of the submission process, contact Once you have registered, you can log in to the system.

When you log in to the Scholar One system, you will be presented with the options of clicking on either the ‘Author Centre’ or ‘Reviewer Centre’ – click on ‘Author Centre’ in order to submit your piece. You will then need to click on a link ‘to submit a new manuscript’. You will need to specify the type of manuscript that you are submitting and enter several pieces of information (dependent on the type of piece it is that you are submitting – most of these are relevant to the submission of articles), which you should prepare in advance, on successive pages:

  • the article’s title (this cannot be longer than 50 words)
  • a ‘running head’, which should be a shortened version of the article’s title (this cannot be longer than 50 characters)
  • the article’s abstract – this can be in the format of a file that you upload, in case you need to include characters that the system can’t provide (your abstract cannot be longer than 200 words)
  • an indication of whether the submission has been directly funded by a research grant – if not, tick the box to say that no funder was involved – if so, fill in the details
  • up to five keywords, which should explain the content of the piece very briefly (e.g., ‘Phonology’, ‘Liverpool English’, ‘Old English’, ‘Tag questions’) – you can enter anything here, but please keep the keywords short and descriptive; please note that keywords will need to be included in manuscript as well (see Section 6)
  • the details of any co-authors
  • a covering letter, containing any information about the submission that you would like the editors to see
  • the number of figures and tables (these can be 0)
  • the number of words
  • details of any colour figures or supplementary material

You will be asked to upload the file or files containing your submission. Most submissions will only consist of one file, but if you have multiple files (involving figures or appendices, for example), you can upload them all together. The final step is to click on ‘submit’. Your piece will not be submitted for consideration unless you go through all these steps.

6. Formatting and style guidelines for submissions

Please follow the guidelines below in the preparation of your manuscript. The requirements apply equally to all categories of contribution – articles, squibs and review articles – with a few exceptions for review articles, set out in point 19. Guidelines for book review authors are set out in point 20. All the guidelines incorporate advice from Cambridge Core.

Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the editor and any reviewers. We list a number of third-party services specialising in language editing and/or translation, and suggest that authors contact as appropriate:

Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge Core published journal.

The format and style requirements listed below are to facilitate a smooth conversion of text from file(s) into print. Please note that if many adjustments are required, then this may be a source of new typographic and other errors in the printed version. The editors reserve the right to return a manuscript, asking for an improved format, which may result in a delay in publication. Authors may like to refer to a recent issue of English Language and Linguistics to confirm certain features of formatting and style. Users of the EndNote bibliography program may wish to download an EndNote style file which follows the bibliographic conventions given below.

1. ORGANISATION AND PAGINATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT. The various components of the FINAL VERSION of a manuscript should appear in the following order: title page, abstract, keywords, article’s main text, author’s address, appendix (if applicable), and references. Insert a page number in the top right corner of every page; number continuously throughout the entire manuscript. The various components of the manuscript are to follow in the order just given. NB: preliminary versions of a manuscript submitted for review should not have the author’s name or address, as they need to be anonymous.

The title page should include only the title of the article, author’s name and affiliation, on separate lines and centred, as in the pattern shown here. An acknowledgements footnote should be marked with a superscript ‘1’ – not an asterisk – at the end of the title. The rest of the page should be left blank for copy-editing purposes. The title page of a review article is slightly different; see section 19 below. NB: preliminary versions of a manuscript submitted for review should not have the author’s name, address or acknowledgements, as they need to be anonymous.

Article title
Author’s affiliation

2. TYPOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS. Please refer to section 17 below for recommendations on the use of various typefaces.

3. SPACING AND MARGINS. Double-space throughout. Leave 3cm/1.5" margins on all four sides of all the pages. Except for the first paragraph of a new section or subsection, the first line of every new paragraph is indented, as is shown in section 5 below. Please do not mark paragraph breaks by extra line spacing.

4. ABSTRACT and KEYWORDS. Article abstracts (but usually not abstracts of Review Articles) will appear in print. The abstract, on a separate page, should follow the title page of an Article. Following the abstract, please list up to five keywords, which should explain the content of the piece very briefly; these keywords should match those entered in Scholar One: e.g. ‘Keywords: Phonology, Liverpool English, Old English, Tag questions’.

5. SECTION AND SUBSECTION HEADINGS. These should be typed on separate lines, in small capitals and italics, respectively, numbered and punctuated exactly as in the following example:


____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ _________________________________.

1.1 Metrical phonology

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________.

______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ________________________________.

1.1.1 Metrical grids

6. STYLE. Contributors should be sensitive to the social implications of language choice and seek wording free of discriminatory overtones in matters such as race and gender. The style of writing should be non-elliptical: abbreviations of rule names, languages, etc. are to be kept to an absolute minimum and clearly introduced at first occurrence. If abbreviations of less commonly-known technical terms are used extensively in an article, they should be set out clearly in a footnote or an end-of-article glossary. Natural data sources (from Old English texts, contemporary novels, etc.) should be clearly identified.


7. SPELLING. Either British English or US English conventions for spelling and expression should be followed consistently. In words with alternative -ize/-ise spellings, either can be used, consistently throughout the text, but note that if analyze is used, it must be accompanied by US spelling conventions throughout. Please run a spellchecker on the final draft to eliminate detectable typos.

8. QUOTATIONS. Quotations of under 25 words should be included in single quotation marks in the running text. Any punctuation normally FOLLOWS the closing quotation mark. Longer quotations should be set out as a separate paragraph (or paragraphs) on a new line, indented at the left margin throughout, without any quotation marks and with no extra indent on the first line. The source work and page number must be given for all the quotations. Please check thoroughly against the source the accuracy of the quoted text in the manuscript (wording, punctuation, capitalisation, emphasis) and the page number(s) from which the quotation is taken.

9. SHORT REFERENCES IN TEXT. As is shown below, variants of the author-date-page format are used for literature citations depending on the context of the sentence. With more than one work listed, works are ordered chronologically, not alphabetically, unless two or more works by different authors have the same year of publication.

... for arguments against see Smith & Jones (1993: 481–3), Chomsky (1995: 154, 286f.; 1997), Vikner (1995: chapter 5), Rizzi (1997), Iwakura (1999) ...

... and elsewhere (see Seuren 1985: 295–313; Browning 1996: 238, fn. 2) ...

... distinguish certain words from others ‘without having any meaning of its own’ (Hockett 1958: 575).

Please note: (i) the ampersand (&) immediately preceding the surname of the second (or last) co-author; (ii) a space between the colon and the page number; (iii) a ‘long hyphen’ (en-rule) between page numbers; (iv) elliptical page number spans; (v) no space and a full stop, respectively, before and after ff./f.; (vi) NO comma between author’s name and year; (vii) punctuation follows the quotation mark and the quotation source details.

10. FOOTNOTES. Notes should be in the form of footnotes (rather than endnotes) and appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Footnotes should be double-spaced and numbered consecutively, starting from number 1, even if the first footnote contains acknowledgements only. As far as possible, the number and length of footnotes should be kept to an absolute minimum.

11. NUMBERED EXAMPLES. Include all the example numbers and any letters identifying sub-examples in separate parentheses, and align as is shown below, using small word-processor tabs. Example numbering begins at the left margin.

In the article text, examples should be referred to as (4a), (5b, c), (6b–e), (7)–(9) (NOT: (4)a, (5b) and (5c), (6)b–e, (7–9)). Examples in footnotes should be numbered with small roman numerals, also in parentheses, i.e. (i), (ii), etc. Please note the use of a ‘long hyphen’.

12. EXAMPLES FROM LANGUAGES OTHER THAN MODERN ENGLISH. Sentences, phrases and words in languages other than modern English which are set out as numbered examples are followed by a line of word-for-word (or morpheme-for-morpheme) gloss and a line of literary translation, all double-spaced. Glosses are fully aligned with the appropriate words or morphemes of the original. The translation is included in single quotation marks and sentence-final punctuation is within the quotation marks. All the text in numbered examples is in roman type but if a part of a numbered example is to be highlighted, it is set in bold. Linguistic category labels appearing in the gloss are in SMALL CAPITALS, following Leipzig glossing conventions. The following illustrates:

(4) (a) John likes Mary. (NOT: 4 a., (4) a., etc.)
(b) Mary doesn’t like John.
(c) *Like does Mary John not.

(5) Siroi huku-o kita wakai baaten-ga sutando-no utigawa-ni san-nin
white clothing-ACC wore young bartender-NOM bar-GEN inside-LOC three-CLASS
‘Three young bartenders dressed in white were working behind the bar.’

A translation or a gloss of a non-modern-English example in the running text immediately follows the example at its first occurrence and is enclosed in single quotes; the grammatical category gloss, if present, is given in lower-case roman type in parentheses and within the quotes, e.g. moja matka ‘my mother (nom, 3sg, fem)’.

13. COMPETING INTERESTS DECLARATION. All authors should include a competing interests declaration at the end of their manuscripts before their references. However, if a declaration contains identifiable information, authors should include their declarations in a cover letter instead of including it within their manuscript – to preserve the anonymity of their manuscript. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article.

Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations.

If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.

14. REFERENCES. The style is that of the Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics Journals ( with the exception that (i) all page numbers are preceded by a comma, i.e. there is a comma rather than a full-stop after journal/proceedings volume number; (ii) page numbers are elided as far as possible except for teens, e.g 21–4, 121–4 but 112–14; and (iii) dissertation entries specify the university but no ‘place of publication’ separately.

All and only works mentioned in the text and footnotes must be included in the references at the end of the article. Authors should check carefully that this is the case, and that the authors and dates cited match the names and the dates in the references, that the page numbers of all the articles in journals and books are correctly supplied, and that the list is in strict alphabetic order and formatted according to the specification below.

References start on a fresh page, immediately after the main body of the text. The heading REFERENCES is in capitals and centred, and not in bold. The list is double-spaced throughout. There are no lines or blank spaces for repeated names of authors – the names are always typed as in the first entry. THE FIRST NAMES OF ALL THE AUTHORS AND EDITORS ARE GIVEN IN FULL. This convention must be followed consistently throughout with the exception for those authors who are known to use initials only (e.g. R. M. W. Dixon, S. J. Hannahs). Note that the full first name follows the surname only at the beginning of a new entry. A full-stop separates author name(s) and the year of the publication. If an entry is longer than one line, the second and subsequent lines are indented (‘hanging indent’). In the case of joint authors or editors, list the names in full (do not use "et al.") and use the ampersand (&), not the word ‘and’, before the final name. Please note also a ‘long hyphen’ in number spans and ellipsis of repeated digits (i.e. 1985–91, 134–62; NOT: 1985–1991, 134–162). Abbreviations are to be avoided in the case of journal titles (e.g. English Language and Linguistics, NOT: ELL) but citations from conference proceedings include the meeting’s or the society’s acronym are ok. US state names are given using the standard two-letter abbreviation, e.g. MA (NOT: Mass.) Examples follow:


Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A. Demers & Robert M. Harnish. 1985. Linguistics, 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Blevins, Juliette. 2004. Evolutionary phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kemenade, Ans van & Nigel B. Vincent (eds.). 1997. Parameters of morphosyntactic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kiparsky, Paul & Gilbert Youmans (eds.). 1989. Phonetics and phonology, vol. 1: Rhythm and meter. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lahiri, Aditi (ed.). 2000. Analogy, leveling, markedness: Principles of change in phonology and morphology (Trends in Linguistics 127). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Luce, R. Duncan, Robert R. Bush & Eugene Galanter (eds.). 1963. Handbook of mathematical psychology, vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edn. 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pintzuk, Susan, George Tsoulas & Anthony Warner (eds.). 2000. Diachronic syntax: Models and mechanisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Webelhuth, Gert (ed.). 1995. Government and binding theory and the minimalist program: Principles and parameters in syntactic theory (Generative Syntax). Oxford: Blackwell.

Articles in edited volumes, conference proceedings and working papers

If more than one article is cited from a single edited volume, a short reference to the volume appears in the article entries (as in the examples below) and the full details of the volume appear in a separate entry.

Abraham, Werner. 1997. The interdependence of case, aspect, and referentiality in the history of German: The case of the verbal genitive. In van Kemenade & Vincent (eds.), 29–61.

Archangeli, Diana. 1985. Yawelmani noun stress: Assignment of extrametricality. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 6, 1–13.

Casali, Roderic F. 1998. Predicting ATR activity. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society(CLS) 34(1), 55–68.

Clark, Alexander. 2006. Pac-learning unambiguous NTS languages. International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference 8, 59–71. Berlin: Springer.

Del Gobbo, Francesca. 2003a. Appositives and quantification. Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium 26 (University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 9), 73–88.

Hornstein, Norbert & Amy Weinberg. 1995. The Empty Category Principle. In Webelhuth (ed.), 241–96.

Hudson, Richard. 1996. The difficulty of (so-called) self-embedded structures. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 8, 283–314.

Kemenade, Ans van. 2000. Jespersen’s cycle revisited: Formal properties of grammaticalization. In Pintzuk et al. (eds.), 51–74.

Kiparsky, Paul. 1997. The rise of positional licensing. In van Kemenade & Vincent (eds.), 460–94.

Rice, Curt. 2006. Norwegian stress and quantity: Gaps and repairs at the phonology–morphology interface. The North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 36(1), 27–38. [ROA 781.]

Rissanen, Matti. 1999. Syntax. In Roger Lass (ed.), Cambridge history of the English language, vol. 3, 187–331. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, Ian & Anders Holmberg. 2005. On the role of parameters in Universal Grammar: A reply to Newmeyer. In Hans Broekhuis, Norbert Corver, Riny Huybregts, Ursula Kleinhenz & Jan Koster (eds.), Organizing grammar: Linguistic studies in honor of Henk van Riemsdijk, 538–53. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Williams, Edwin. 1995. Theta theory. In Webelhuth (ed.), 97–124.

Willis, David. 2000. Verb movement in Slavonic conditionals. In Pintzuk et al. (eds.), 322–48.

Articles in journals

Iverson, Gregory K. 1983. Korean /s/. Journal of Phonetics 11, 191–200.

Murray, Robert W. & Theo Vennemann. 1983. Sound change and syllable structure in Germanic phonology. Language 59(3), 514–28.

Suñer, Margarita.1988. The role of agreement in clitic-doubled constructions. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 6, 391–434.

Online papers, reviews, dissertations and other kinds of publication

Ellison. T. Mark & Ewan Klein. 2001. The best of all possible words. Review article on Diana Archangeli & D. Terence Langendoen (eds.), Optimality Theory: An overview, 1997. Journal of Linguistics 37(1), 127–43.

Franks, Steven. 2005. Bulgarian clitics are positioned in the syntax, 15 pp. (accessed 10 May 2007).

Harley, Heidi. 1995. Subjects, events and licensing. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Joseph, Brian D. 2001. Review of R. M. W. Dixon, The rise and fall of languages, 1997. Journal of Linguistics 37(1), 180–6.

Lattewitz, Karen. 1996. Movement of verbal complements. Ms., University of Groningen.

Pedersen, Johan. 2005. The Spanish impersonal se-construction: Constructional variation and change. Constructions 1, http://www.constructions-onlin... (accessed 10 May 2007).

Schneider, Ulrike & Britta Mondorf. 2015. Moderate transitivity contexts as breeding grounds for novel verbs: An analysis of waxing and waning verbs. Presented at the 36th Annual Conference of the International Computer Archive for Modern and Medieval English (ICAME), University of Trier, Germany.

Yu, Alan C. L. 2003. The morphology and phonology of infixation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.


Any corpora used in an article should also be included in the references, with a web address where available and the date that you accessed it; corpora should be listed under the name of the compiler where possible – where this is not possible, use a conventional reference. Titles of corpora, like titles of journals, are capitalized.

Davies, Mark. 2008-. The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 520 million words, 1990-present. [accessed 1 July 2015].

Huber, Magnus, Magnus Nissel, Patrick Maiwald & Bianca Widlitzki. 2012. The Old Bailey Corpus. Spoken English in the 18th and 19th centuries. [accessed 1 July 2015].

ICE: International Corpus of English [accessed 1 July 2015].

15. AUTHOR’S CONTACT DETAILS. In the final, accepted version, this comes immediately before the references, set on a new page, in the following format (please note the italics and the layout):

Author’s address:
Full postal details including post or zip code
E-mail: name@domain

16. ARTWORK. Tables, tree diagrams, tableaux, etc. are usually single-spaced.

(a) Only horizontal lines are normally used in tables but both horizontal and vertical lines are acceptable in OT tableaux and intricate tables.

(b) Tree diagrams, tableaux, AVMs and the like are numbered like other examples. Some tables can also be numbered in this way.

(c) Tables and figures (e.g. graphs and drawings) should appear in their appropriate place in the text, though authors need to be aware that final typesetting may make it necessary for tables or figures to be moved slightly. Tables are labelled above, centered, with the caption in italics. Figures are labelled underneath, centered, with the caption in roman. They should be referred to in the text as ‘table 1’ or ‘figure 1’, not as ‘the figure above’ or ‘the following table’.

(d) Charges apply for all colour figures that appear in the print version of the journal. At the time of submission, contributors should clearly state whether their figures should appear in colour in the online version only, or whether they should appear in colour online and in the print version. There is no charge for including colour figures in the online version of the Journal but it must be clear that colour is needed to enhance the meaning of the figure, rather than simply being for aesthetic purposes. If you request colour figures in the printed version, you will be contacted by CCC-Rightslink who are acting on our behalf to collect Author Charges. Please follow their instructions in order to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.

17. TYPOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS. Please use Times/Times Roman size 12pt font throughout the manuscript. Special typefaces are used as follows:


(i) technical terms when first introduced

(ii) section headings

(iii) the names of grammatical categories in the glosses of numbered examples

Please use true small caps, not full capitals with a reduced font size.


(i) language material in the running text

(ii) foreign words

(iii) emphasis in the main body of the text or footnotes

(iv) subsection headings

(v) titles of books, journals and dissertations

(vi) headings in numbered examples (if applicable)


(i) article title

(ii) emphasis in numbered examples

(iii) author’s name in the bibliographical information about the book discussed in a Review Article

‘Single quotation marks’

(i) terms used in a semi-technical sense or terms whose validity is questioned

(ii) meanings of words and sentences

(iii) quotations and ‘direct speech’

"Double quotation marks" – quotations within quotations only.

& (ampersand) is used instead of the word and before the second/last surname of a co-author or co-editor in references as well as in the main text.

A ‘long hyphen’ (en-rule –) is used

(i) to mark a ‘dash’ – it is then preceded and followed by a space – and

(ii) to mark number spans, such as in page numbers (e.g. 123–54) in the main text as well as in References

Please distinguish between a ‘long hyphen’/the en-rule (–) and a short hyphen (-). The em-rule (—) is used only in tables, to mark an empty cell.

18. KEEPING TRACK OF NUMBERING SEQUENCES. If (sub)sections, numbered examples or footnotes are added to or removed from the article in the process of revising it, every care should be taken to ensure that all subsequent (sub)sections, examples or footnotes are appropriately renumbered and that any in-text and in-footnote references to them by numbers (e.g. ‘given the arguments in section 3.2 above’) be checked and adjusted if necessary. While it is acceptable for files to include automatic footnote (i.e. endnote) numbering, please DO NOT use automatic example, figure and table numbering and cross-referencing.


Title page. Review articles must have their own title as well as category heading. The details of the book under review are typed on the front page, which has the following format:

Tracking the origins of transformational generative grammar1
University of Edinburgh

Marcus Tomalin, Linguistics and the formal sciences: The origins of generative grammar (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. xiv + 233.

Abstract. There is usually no abstract in the printed version.

In-text references to the book under review. The name of a single author or editor of the book under review is to be given in full at each mention, rather than abbreviated. However, the names of two or more authors or editors may be abbreviated thus: ‘Chomsky & Halle 1968 (henceforth C&H)’. Please note the use of the ampersand (&) and the lack of spaces in the abbreviation. Alternatively, the book under review may be referred to by an abbreviation of the title, e.g. ‘The book The origins of complex language by Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy (henceforth OCL)’. Please note that the abbreviation is in italics.

Page references. Page references to passages in or quotations from the book under review are given in parentheses, e.g. (p. 39). Please note that the full stop immediately follows the page reference if this appears at the end of a sentence, thus: ‘the author notes that "the problem becomes traceable"’ (p. 39).


The following special features should be noted for the formatting of book reviews:

a. Reviews are headed by (i) the details of the book under review and (ii) the reviewer’s name and affiliation: the latter must be RIGHT-ALIGNED. These details precede the text and have the following exact format, double-spaced; please note the order of information and exact use of punctuation, bold, italics, capital letters and small capitals:

Artemis Alexiadou, Elena Anagnostopoulou & Martin Everaert (eds.), The unaccusativity puzzle: Explorations of the syntax–lexicon interface (Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics 5). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Pp. x + 372.

Reviewed by FIRST NAME SURNAME [in small caps], Institution Name

b. When referring to chapter titles, or the titles of individual papers in an edited volume, the following EXACT format for punctuation should be used:

I turn now to chapter 3, ‘Syntactic variation in English: A global perspective’, which is an excellent summary ...

The first paper in the volume is by Kim Blogg, entitled ‘Syllable structure in Klingon’, and this proposes ...

Note that the initial letter of both the title and the subtitle of the chapter or paper are in capitals, and that the title appears in single quotation marks (not in italic or bold font). Note also that lower case ‘c’ is used when referring to chapters by number. The author’s name (or authors’ names) must be given in full at first mention.

c. References should be kept to a minimum. As a rule of thumb, there should be no more than eight references in a 3,000-word review and no more than five in a shorter review. The review editor may cut longer lists. References start on a new page, headed REFERENCES (in capital letters, centred). The list must be double-spaced throughout. Please see section 17 above for style details.

d. Only in exceptional circumstances will a review contain footnotes. If present, notes must be formatted as described in point 10, above.


In lieu of offprints, contributors will be supplied with a PDF file of their contribution upon publication.

Last updated 2 January 2020