Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A small group intervention for older primary school-aged low-progress readers: Further evidence for efficacy

  • Kevin Wheldall (a1) (a2), Nicola Bell (a1), Robyn Wheldall (a1) (a2), Alison Madelaine (a1), Meree Reynolds (a1) and Sarah Arakelian (a1)...

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a small-group reading instruction program that was delivered over two school terms to Australian students in Years 3 through 6. A large cohort (n = 239) of primary school children was assessed on their literacy skills before and after receiving ‘MacqLit’, a phonics-based program designed for older struggling readers. Parametric and nonparametric difference tests were used to compare results at pre- and postintervention time points. Statistically significant improvements with large effect sizes were observed on all raw score measures of word reading, nonword reading, passage reading and spelling. Statistically significant improvements were also observed on standard score measures of nonword reading and passage reading, suggesting the gains were greater than what might be expected to have resulted from typical classroom instruction. The results indicate that older middle primary school-aged students may benefit from phonics-based, small-group reading instruction.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Kevin Wheldall, Email: kevin.wheldall@pecas.com.au

References

Hide All
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2011). Guide to understanding ICSEA. Sydney, Australia: Author.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2019). My School. Retrieved from https://www.myschool.edu.au/.
Balu, R., Zhu, P., Doolittle, F., Schiller, E., Jenkins, J., & Gersten, R. (2015). Evaluation of Response to Intervention practices for elementary school reading. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Buckingham, J., Beaman, R., & Wheldall, K. (2012). A randomised control trial of a MultiLit small group intervention for older low-progress readers. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 17, 7999.
Buckingham, J., Beaman-Wheldall, R., & Wheldall, K. (2014). Evaluation of a two-phase experimental study of a small group (‘MultiLit’) reading intervention for older low-progress readers. Cogent Education, 1, 111.
Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19, 551.
Catts, H.W., Hogan, T.P., & Adlof, S.M. (2005). Developmental changes in reading and reading disabilities. In Catts, H.W. & Kahmi, A.G. (Eds.), The connections between language and reading disabilities (pp. 2540). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Catts, H.W., Herrera, S., Nielsen, D.C., & Bridges, M.S. (2015). Early prediction of reading comprehension within the simple view framework. Reading and Writing, 28, 14071425.
Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of reading development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chall, J.S., & Jacobs, V.A. (2003). Poor children’s fourth-grade slump. American Educator, 27, 1415.
Coltheart, M., & Leahy, J. (1996). Assessment of lexical and nonlexical reading abilities in children: Some normative data. Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 136140.
Department of Education , Science & Training. (2005).
Fieldhouse, A. E. (1952). Oral word reading test. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Garcia, J.R., & Cain, K. (2014). Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84, 74111.
Gilmore, A., Reid, N.A., & Croft, C. (1981). Burt word reading test. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Hjetland, H.N., Lervåg, A., Lyster, S.H., Hagtvet, B.E., Hulme, C., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2019). Pathways to reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from 4 to 9 years of age. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111, 751763.
Hoover, W.A., & Gough, P.B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2 127160.
Language and Reading Research Consortium. (2015). Learning to read: should we keep things simple? Reading Research Quarterly, 50, 151169.
Lonigan, C.J., Burgess, S.R., & Schatschneider, C. (2018). Examining the Simple View of Reading with elementary school children: Still simple after all these years. Remedial and Special Education, 39, 260273.
Martin, F., & Pratt, C. (2001). Martin and Pratt nonword reading test. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
MultiLit. (2016a). MacqLit: the Macquarie program for small group instruction. Sydney, Australia: MultiLit Pty Ltd.
MultiLit. (2016b). MacqLit Manual. Sydney, Australia: MultiLit Pty Ltd.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No 00-4769). National Institute of Child Health & Development. Retrieved from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf
Neale, M.D. (1999). Neale analysis of reading ability (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Piasta, S.B., & Justice, L.M. (2010). Cohen’s d statistic. In Salkind, N.J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 181185). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Rose, J. (2006). Independent review of the teaching of early reading. Nottingham, UK: Department for Education and Skills.
Rowe, K. (2005). Teaching reading: National inquiry into the teaching of literacy. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. Retrieved from https://research.acer.edu.au/tll_misc/5/.
Shearer, E., & Apps, R.A. (1975). Restandardization of the Burt-Vernon and Schonell graded word reading tests. Educational Research, 18, 6773.
Snow, P.C. (2016). Elizabeth Usher Memorial Lecture: Language is literacy is language – positioning speech-language pathology in education policy, practice, paradigms and polemics. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18, 216228.
Snowling, M.J., Stothard, S.E., Clarke, P., Bowyer-Crane, C., Harrington, A., Nation, K., Truelove, E., & Hulme, C. (2012). York assessment of reading for comprehension – passage reading (Australian ed.). London, UK: GL Assessment.
Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360407.
Thomson, S., Hillman, K., Schmid, M., Rodrigues, S., & Fullarton, J. (2017). Reporting Australia’s results: PIRLS 2016. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Westwood, P. (2005). Spelling: Approaches to teaching and assessment (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Westwood, P.S. (2017). Learning disorders: A response-to-intervention perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.
Wheldall, K., & Madelaine, A. (2000). A curriculum-based passage reading test for monitoring the performance of low-progress readers: The development of the WARP. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 47, 371382.
Woodcock, R.N. (1987). Woodcock reading mastery tests-revised examiner’s manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
World Literacy Foundation. (2015). WLF final economic report. Retrieved from https://worldliteracyfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/WLF-FINAL-ECONOMIC-REPORT.pdf

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A small group intervention for older primary school-aged low-progress readers: Further evidence for efficacy

  • Kevin Wheldall (a1) (a2), Nicola Bell (a1), Robyn Wheldall (a1) (a2), Alison Madelaine (a1), Meree Reynolds (a1) and Sarah Arakelian (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.