The genus Stubendorffia (Brassicaceae) is distinguished from Lepidium solely by the dehiscent vs. indehiscent angustiseptate fruits. By contrast, Winklera is separated from Lepidium by a combination of perennial habit, pinnatisect leaves, yellow flowers, and wingless fruits, characters all of which occur individually and in various combinations within Lepidium. Extensive molecular studies strongly show that Winklera and polyphyletic Stubendorffia are nested within the earlier-published Lepidium and, therefore, the three genera are herein formally united. The new name Lepidium pavlovii and 10 new combinations, L. afghanicum, L. apterum, L. botschantzevii, L. curvinervium, L. lipskyi, L. olgae, L. orientalis, L. patrinoides, L. pterocarpum, and L. silaifolium, are proposed. Lepidium apterum is lectotypified. A complete generic synonymy of Lepidium and an expanded generic description are presented.