Distribution maps and IUCN threat categories for the 30 named species of Hieracium section Alpina (Asteraceae) in Britain are given, based on taxonomic and distribution studies by D.J. Tennant and others over the last 30 years. Twenty-seven taxa are endemic to Scotland, one to England, one to Britain and one also occurs in mainland Europe and the Arctic. There are three main centres of diversity in Scotland: the Eastern Highlands (especially the Cairngorm Mountains), the Western Highlands and the Northern Highlands. Under the IUCN threat categories, seven taxa are Critically Endangered, seven are Endangered, two are Vulnerable, ten are Near Threatened and seven are Nationally Scarce. The main threats are collecting, natural events such as rock falls and avalanches, global warming, acid rain, over-grazing and tourism. There is particular concern for the long-term survival of four taxa.