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An emended description of the poorly known Begonia serotina A.DC. (Begoniaceae) is provided and B. asympeltata L.B.Sm. & Wassh. is newly synonymised with that species. The classification of Begonia serotina in B. sect. Knesebeckia (Klotzsch) A.DC. is confirmed. Begonia compacticaulis Irmsch. is shown to be a synonym of B. ludwigii Irmsch., while the circumscription of B. compacticaulis in the Flora of Ecuador is shown to be based on specimens of both B. ludwigii and B. serotina. Begonia serotina is more widely distributed than previously recorded and is newly reported from Ecuador’s Los Rios, Bolivar and Loja provinces and Peru’s Tumbes region. Begonia serotina is reassessed as Vulnerable (VU), according to IUCN criteria.