Topography.—The extent of the area dealt with in this paper and the position in that area of the various igneous masses under consideration are indicated in the sketch-map (fig. 1). On both sides of the Firth of Forth the ground considered consists of low-lying, undulating, arable land intersected by numerous steep ridges. These ridges, which form conspicuous features in the landscape, indicate the outcrops of doleritic sills. They are often tree-clad, and frequently show lines of cliffs on one side. The ridge known as Mons Hill attains a height of 387 ft., which is the maximum for the district. Other conspicuous ridges occur at Craigie, Dundas, West Craigs, Lindsay's Craigs, and north of the Forth at Braefoot and Aberdour. Where the larger igneous masses reach the shore they tend to form rocky promontories, as, for instance, at Hound Point, Snab Point, and Braefoot. Rocky islets a short distance off shore may also be formed, a good example of which is seen at Hound Point.