Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Restoration of the Caledonian Baltoscandian margin from balanced cross-sections: the problem of excess continental crust

  • R. A. Gayer (a1), A. H. N. Rice (a1), D. Roberts (a2), C. Townsend (a3) and A. Welbon (a4)...

Abstract

Consideration of six balanced cross-sections through parts of the Finnmark Caledonides, N Norway indicates that shortening varies between 25% and 75%. A restored long cross-section across the width of the orogen, constructed with the aid of a branch line map, demonstrates a foreland propagating thrust system, with earlier formed more internal metamorphic nappes thrust SE 330 km under ductile conditions and then carried piggyback ESE a further 296 km on later brittle thrust sheets. Total shortening is 78·7% with a translation of the most internal thrust sheet of 626 km.

The restored section suggests that: (1) the rate of propagation of deformation from hinterland to foreland is c. 2·27 cm y−1; (2) incorporation of basement into the nappes resulted from inversion of extensional faults formed during Iapetus rifting; (3) during rifting a Finnmark basement ridge separated a 220 km wide southeasterly Gaissa basin from the passive Iapetus continental margin which was at least 423 km wide; (4) the Finnmark Caledonides resulted from a continent-microcontinent collision which obducted continental crust at least 600 km across the Baltic margin; and (5) the Caledonian Baltoscandian margin prior to Iapetus suturing extended at least 400 km W of the Norwegian coast. On a Bullard reconstruction this overlaps with Laurentian rocks in Greenland. The excess continental crust is accounted for by shortening of the Baltoscandian margin during collision.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Akselsen, J. 1982. Precambrian and Caledonian tectonometamorphic evolution of northeastern Seiland, Finnmark, North Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 373, 4562.
Åm, K. 1975. Aeromagnetic basement complex mapping north of latitude 62°N, Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 316, 351–74.
Andersen, T. B., Austrheim, H., Sturt, B. A., Pedersen, S. & Kjaesrud, K. 1982. Rb-Sr whole rock ages from Magerøy, North Norwegian Caledonides. NOR GEOL TIDSSKR 62, 7985.
Banks, N. L., Edwards, M. B., Geddes, W. P., Hobday, D. K. & Reading, H. G. 1971. Late Precambrian and Cambro-Ordovician sedimentation in East Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 296, 197236.
Barker, A. J. & Gayer, R. A. 1985. Caledonian-Appalachian tectonic analysis and evolution of related oceans. In Gayer, R. A. (ed.) The Tectonic Evolution of the Caledonide-Appalachian Orogen. Braunschweig; Wiesbaden: Vieweg. EARTH EVOL SCI, 126–65.
Beaumont, C. 1981. Foreland basins. GEOPHYS J R ASTR SOC 65, 291329.
Bevins, R. E., Robinson, D., Gayer, R. A. & Allman, S. 1986. Low grade metamorphism and its relationship to thrust tectonics in the Caledonides of Finnmark, North Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 404, 3344.
Bluck, B. J. 1984. Pre-Carboniferous history of the Midland Valley of Scotland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH: EARTH SCI 75, 275–95.
Boyer, S. E. & Elliot, D. 1982. Thrust systems. BULL AM ASSOC PETROL GEOL 66, 1196–230.
Bruton, D. L. & Bockelie, J. F. 1980. Geology and Palaeontology of the Holanda area, Western Norway—a fragment of North America. In Wones, D. R. (ed.) The Caledonides in the U.S.A. IGCP Project 27. DEP, GEOL SCI, VIRGINIA POLYTECH STATE UNIV MEM 2, 41–7.
Bullard, E. C., Everett, J. & Smith, A. G. 1965. The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON A258, 4151.
Butler, R. W. H. 1986. Thrust tectonics, deep structure and crustal subduction in the Alps & Himalayas. J GEOL SOC LONDON 143, 857–73.
Carswell, D. A., Krogh, E. J. & Griffin, W. L. 1985. Norwegian orthopyroxene eclogites: calculated equilibrium conditions and petrogenetic implications. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (ed) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 823–42. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Chenga, Chang & 26 others 1986. Preliminary conclusions of the Royal Society and Academia Sinica 1985 geotraverse of Tibet. NATURE 323, 501–07.
Chapman, T. J. 1980. The geological evolution of the Laksefjord Nappe Complex, Finnmark, north Norway. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff.
Chapman, T. J., Gayer, R. A. & Williams, G. D. 1985. Structural cross-sections through the Finnmark Caledonides and timing of the Finnmarkian event. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and Related areas, pp. 593669. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Chapman, T. J., Milton, N. J. & Williams, G. D. 1979. Shape fabric variations in deformed conglomerates at the base of the Laksefjord Nappe, North Norway. J GEOL SOC LONDON 136, 683–89.
Christie, R. L., Dawes, P. R., Frisch, T., Higgins, A. K., Hurst, J. M., Kerr, J. Wm. & Peel, J. A. 1981. Geological evidence against major displacement in the Nares Strait. NATURE 291, 478–80.
Cooper, M. A. 1983. The calculation of bulk strain in oblique and inclined balanced sections. J STRUCT GEOL 5, 161–6.
Cuthbert, S. J., Harvey, M. A. & Carswell, D. A. 1983. A tectonic model for the metamorphic evolution of the Basal Gneiss Complex, Western South Norway. J METAMORPH GEOL 1, 6390.
Dahlstrom, C. D. A. 1969. Balanced cross-sections. CAN J EARTH SCI 6, 743–57.
Dallmeyer, R. D., Gee, D. G. & Beckholmen, M. 1985. 40Ar/39Ar mineral age record of early Caledonian tectonothermal activity in the Baltoscandian miogeocline. AM J SCI 285, 532–68.
Elliott, D. 1976. The energy balance and deformation mechanisms of thrust sheets. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON A283, 289312.
Elliott, D. & Johnson, M. R. W. 1980. The structural evolution of the northern part of the Moine thrust zone. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH: EARTH SCI 71, 6996.
England, P. C. & Thompson, A. B. 1984. Pressure-temperature-time paths of regional metamorphism, Part I: Heat transfer during the evolution of regions of thickened continental crust. J PETROL 25, 894928.
Føyn, S. 1964. Den tillittførende formasjonsgruppe i Alta—en jevnføring med Øst-Finnmark og med indre Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 228, 139–50.
Føyn, S. 1967. Dividal-gruppen (‘Hyolithus-sonen’) i Finnmark og dens forhold til de eokabrisk-kambriske formasjoner. NOR GEOL UNDERS 249, 184.
Føyn, S. 1985. The Late Precambrian in northern Scandinavia. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 233–45. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Føyn, S. & Siedlecki, S. 1980. Glacial stadials and interstadials of the Late Precambrian Smalfjord Tillite on Laksefjordvidda, North Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 358, 3145.
Føyn, S., Chapman, T. J. & Roberts, D. 1983. Adamsfjord og Ul'lugai'sa. Beskrivelse til de berggrunnsgeologiske kart 2135 I og 2135—M 1:50000. NOR GEOL UNDERS 381, 178.
Furnes, H., Skjerlie, F. J. & Tysseland, M. 1976. Plate tectonic model based on greenstone geochemistry in the Late Precambrian-Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Solund-Stavfjorden areas, west Norway. NOR GEOL TIDSSKR 56, 161–86.
Furnes, H., Ryan, P. D., Grenne, T., Roberts, D., Sturt, B. A. & Prestvik, T. 1985. Geological and geochemical classification of the ophiolite fragments in the Scandinavian Caledonides. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 657–69. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Gayer, R. A. 1971. The stratigraphy of the Kolvik Nappe of West Porsangerfjord, Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 269, 295306.
Gayer, R. A., Hayes, S. J. & Rice, A. H. N. 1985. The structural development of the Kalak Nappe Complex of eastern and central Porsangerhalvøya, Finnmark, Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS BULL 400, 6787.
Gayer, R. A. & Roberts, J. D. 1973. Stratigraphic review of the Finnmark Caledonides with possible tectonic implications. PROC GEOL ASSOC LONDON 84, 304–41.
Gee, D. G. 1975. A tectonic model for the central part of the Scandinavian Caledonides. AM J SCI 275A, 468515.
Gee, D. G. 1986. Svalbard's Caledonian terranes reviewed. GEOL FÖREN STOCKH FÖRH 108, 284–86.
Griffin, W. L., Austrheim, H., Brastad, K., Bryhni, I., Krill, A. G., Krogh, E. J., Mørk, M. B. E., Qvale, H. & Tørudbakken, B. 1985. High pressure metamorphism in the Scandinavian Caledonides. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 783802. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Harland, W. B. 1965. A symposium on Continental Drift. V Discussion. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON 258, 5975.
Harland, W. B., Cox, A., Llewellyn, P. G., Pickton, C. A. G. & Walters, R. 1982. A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harland, W. B. & Gayer, R. A. 1972. The Arctic Caledonides and earlier oceans. GEOL MAG 109, 289314.
Hayes, S. J. 1980. The Caledonian geology of Northeast Porsangerhaluøya, Finnmark, North Norway. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.
Henningsmoen, G. 1961. Cambro-Silurian fossils in Finnmark, northern Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 213, 91–5.
Henriksen, N. 1985. The Caledonides of central East Greenland 70°-76°N. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 10951113. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Horne, G. S. 1979. Mélange in the Trondheim nappe suggests a new tectonic model for central Norwegian Caledonides. NATURE LONDON 281, 267–70.
Hossack, J. R. 1979. The use of balanced sections in the calculation of orogenic contraction: a review. J GEOL SOC LONDON 135, 705–11.
Hossack, J. R. 1983. A cross-section through the Scandinavian Caledonides constructed with the aid of branchline maps. J STRUCT GEOL 5, 103–12.
Hossack, J. R., Garton, M. R. & Nickelsen, R. P. 1985. The geological section from the foreland up to the Jotun thrust sheet in the Valdres area, south Norway. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 443–56. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Hossack, J. R. & Cooper, M. A. 1986. Collision tectonics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. In Coward, M. P. & Ries, A. C. (eds) Collision tectonics. GEOL SOC SPEC PUBL 19, 287304.
Hurst, J. M., Jepsen, H. F., Kalsbeek, F., McKerrow, W. S. & Peel, J. S. 1985. The geology of the northern extremity of the East Greenland Caledonides. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 1047–63. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Johnson, H. D., Levell, B. K. & Siedlecki, S. 1978. Late Precambrian sedimentary rocks in East-Finnmark, north Norway, and their relationship to the Trollfjord-Komagelv fault. J GEOL SOC LONDON 135, 517–34.
Kjøde, J., Storetvedt, K. M., Roberts, D. & Gidskehaug, A. 1978. Palaeomagnetic evidence for large-scale dextral movement along the Trollfjord-Komagelv Fault, Finnmark, north Norway. PHYS EARTH PLANET INT 16, 132–44.
Livermore, R. A., Smith, A. G. & Briden, J. C. 1985. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the distribution of continents in the Silurian and Early Devonian. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON B309, 2956.
Milton, N. J. & Williams, G. D. 1981. The strain profile above a major thrust fault. In McClay, K. R. & Price, N. J. (eds) Thrust and Nappe Tectonics. GEOL SOC SPEC PUBL 9, 235–39.
Passe, C. R. 1978. The structural geology of East Snøfjord, Finnmark, North Norway. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.
Pedersen, S. A. S. 1987. A transverse, thin skinned, thrust-fault belt in the Palaeozoic North Greenland fold belt. BULL GEOL SOC AM 98, 1442–55.
Pharaoh, T. C. 1985. The stratigraphy and sedimentology of autochthonous metasediments in the Repparfjord-Komagfjord Tectonic Window, west Finnmark. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 347–57. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Pharaoh, T. C., Macintyre, R. M. & Ramsay, D. M. 1982. K-Ar age determinations on the Raipas suite in the Komagfjord Window, Northern Norway. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 62, 51–7.
Pharaoh, T., Ramsay, D. M. & Jansen, Ø. 1983. Stratigraphy and structure of the northern part of the Repparfjord-Komagfjord window, Finnmark, northern Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 377.
Piper, J. D. A. 1982. The Precambrian palaeomagnetic record: the case for the Proterozoic supercontinent. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 59, 6189.
Powell, C. McA. & Conaghan, P. J. 1973. Plate tectonics and the Himalayas. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 20, 120.
Ramsay, D. M. 1971. Stratigraphy of Sørøy. NOR GEOL UNDERS 269, 314–22.
Ramsay, D. M. & Sturt, B. A. 1963. A study of fold styles, their associations and symmetry relationships from Sørøy, North Norway. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 43, 411–30.
Ramsay, D. M. & Sturt, B. A. 1977. A sub-Caledonian unconformity within the Finnmarkian nappe sequence and its regional significance. NOR GEOL UNDERS 344, 107–16.
Ramsay, D. M. & Sturt, B. A. 1986. The contribution of the Finnmarkian orogeny to the framework of the Scandinavian Caledonides. In Fettes, D. J. & Harris, A. L. (eds) Synthesis of the Caledonian Rocks of Britain, pp. 221–46. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Ramsay, D. M., Sturt, B. A. & Andersen, T. B. 1979. The sub-Caledonian unconformity of Hjelmsøy—new evidence of primary basement/cover relations in the Finnmarkian nappe sequence. NOR GEOL UNDERS 351, 112.
Ramsay, D. M., Sturt, B. A., Zwaan, K. B. & Roberts, D. 1985a. Caledonides of northern Norway. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 163–84. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Ramsay, D. M., Sturt, B. A., Jansen, Ø., Andersen, T. B. & Sinha Roy, S. 1985b. The tectonostratigraphy of western Porsangerhalvøya, Finnmark, North Norway. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 611–22. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Reading, H. G. & Walker, R. G. 1966. Sedimentation of Eocambrian Tillites and associated sediments in Finnmark, northern Norway. PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL PALAEOECOL 2, 177212.
Reitan, P. H. 1960. Windows in the Caledonides in the Ofoten district, Troms and Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 208, 6772.
Reitan, P. H. 1963. The geology of the Komagfjord Tectonic Window of the Raipas suite, Finnmark, Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 221, 171.
Rhodes, S. 1976. The geology of the Kalak Nappe and its relation to the north east margin of the Komagfjord Tectonic Window. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.
Rice, A. H. N. 1982. The geology of the Kalak Nappe between Revsbotn and Repparfjord, Finnmark, Norway. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.
Rice, A. H. N. 1984a. Metamorphic and structural diachroneity in the Finnmarkian nappes of north Norway. J METAMORPH GEOL 2, 219–36.
Rice, A. H. N. 1984b. The significance of a thrust fault lineation in the Kalak Nappe Complex of Finnmark. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 64, 173–80.
Rice, A. H. N. 1985. Staurolite growth and metamorphic zones in the Kalak Nappe Complex of northeastern Porsangerhalvøya, north Norway. LITHOS 18, 281–94.
Rice, A. H. N. 1987. Continuous out-of-sequence ductile thrusting in the Norwegian Caledonides. GEOL MAG 124, 249–60.
Rice, A. H. N. & Mackay, A. 1986. The autochthonous and allochthonous Caledonian rocks west of Stabburselva, Cakkarassa map sheet 1934 I (1:50000). Unpublished report to Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse.
Rice, A. H. N. & Townsend, C. 1985. The Gaissa Nappe and Dividal Group of the Skoganvarre and Cakkarassa map sheets, Finnmark. Unpublished report to Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse.
Roberts, D. 1968. Hellefjord Schist Group—a probable turbidite formation from the Cambrian of Sørøya, West Finnmark. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 48, 231–44.
Roberts, D. 1974. Hammerfest. Beskrivelse til det 1:250000 berggrunnsgeologiske kart. NOR GEOL UNDERS 301, 166.
Roberts, D. 1980. Petrochemistry and palaeogeographic setting of the Ordovician volcanic rocks of Smøla, Central Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 359, 4360.
Roberts, D. 1985. The Caledonian fold belt in Finnmark: a synopsis. NOR GEOL UNDERS BULL 403, 161–77.
Roberts, D., Sturt, B. A. & Furnes, H. 1985. Volcanite assemblages and environments in the Scandinavian Caledonides and the sequential development history of the mountain belt. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 919–30. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Roberts, D. & Fareth, E. 1974. Correlation of autochthonous stratigraphical sequences in the Alta-Repparfjord region, West Finnmark. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 54, 123–29.
Roberts, D. & Gale, G. H. 1978. The Caledonian-Appalachian Iapetus Ocean. In Tarling, D. H. (ed.) Evolution of the Earth's Crust, pp. 255342. London: Academic Press.
Roberts, D. & Gee, D. G. 1985. An introduction to the structure of the Scandinavian Caledonides. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 5568. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Roberts, J. D. 1974. Stratigraphy and correlation of Gaissa Sandstone Formation and Børselv Subgroup (Porsangerfjord Group), South Porsanger, Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 303, 57118.
Robins, B. & Gardner, P. M. 1975. The magmatic evolution of the Seiland province, and Caledonian plate boundaries in northern Norway. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 26, 167–78.
Scotese, C. R., Van, der Voo R. & Barrett, S. F. 1985. Silurian and Devonian base maps. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON B309, 5777.
Siedlecka, A. 1976. Silicified Precambrian evaporite nodules from northern Norway: a preliminary report. SEDIMENT GEOL 16, 193204.
Siedlecka, A., Krill, A. G., Often, M., Sandstad, J. S., Solli, A., Iversen, E. & Lieungh, B. 1985. Lithostratigraphy and correlation of the Archean and Early Proterozoic rocks of Finnmarksvidda and the Sørvaranger district. NOR GEOL UNDERS BULL 403, 736.
Sigmond, E. M. O., Gustavson, M. & Roberts, D. 1984. Berggrunnskart over Norge—M. 1:1 million. NOR GEOL UNDERS.
Steel, R., Siedlecka, A. & Roberts, D. 1985. The Old Red Sandstone basins of Norway and their deformation: a review. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide orogen—Scandinavia and related areas, pp. 293316. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Sturt, B. A. 1984. The accretion of ophiolitic terrains in the Scandinavian Caledonides. GEOL MIJNBOUW 63, 201–12.
Sturt, B. A., Pringle, I. R. & Roberts, D. 1975. Caledonian nappe sequence of Finnmark, northern Norway, and the timing of orogenic deformation and metamorphism. BULL GEOL SOC AM 86, 710–18.
Sturt, B. A., Pringle, I. R. & Ramsay, D. M. 1978. The Finnmarkian Phase of the Caledonian Orogeny. J GEOL SOC LONDON 135, 597610.
Sturt, B. A., Roberts, D. & Furnes, H. 1984. A conspectus of Scandinavian ophiolites. GEOL SOC SPEC PUBL 13, 381–91.
Sturt, B. A. & Austrheim, H. 1985. Age of gneissic rocks in the Caledonian nappes of the Alta District, Northern Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS BULL 403, 179–81.
Swett, K. 1981. Cambro-Ordovician strata in Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen and their palaeotectonic significance. GEOL MAG 118, 225–50.
Thompson, A. B. & England, P. C. 1984. Pressure-temperature-time paths of regional metamorphism, Part II: Their inference and interpretation using mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks. J PETROL 25, 929–55.
Törnebohm, A. E. 1888. Om fjällproblemet. GEOL FOREN STOCKHOLM FÖRH 10, 328–36.
Torsvik, T. H., Løvlie, R. & Sturt, B. A. 1985. Palaeomagnetic argument for a stationary Spitsbergen relative to the British Isles (Western Europe) since Late Devonian and its bearing on North Atlantic reconstruction. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 75, 278–88.
Torsvik, T. H., Sturt, B. A., Ramsay, D. M., Kisch, H. J. & Bering, D. 1986. The tectonic implications of Solundian (Upper Devonian) magnetization of the Devonian rocks of Kvamshesten, Western Norway. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 80, 337–47.
Townsend, C. 1986. Thrust tectonics within the Caledonides of Northern Norway. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales.
Townsend, C. 1987. Thrust transport directions and thrust sheet restoration in the Caledonides of Finnmark. J STRUCT GEOL 9, 345–52.
Townsend, C., Roberts, D., Rice, A. H. N. & Gayer, R. A. 1986. The Gaissa Nappe, Finnmark, North Norway: An example of a deeply eroded external imbricate zone within the Scandinavian Caledonides. J STRUCT GEOL 8, 431–40.
Tucker, M. E. 1976. Replaced evaporites from the Late Precambrian of Finnmark, Arctic Norway. SEDIMENT GEOL 16, 193204.
Tucker, M. E. 1977. Stromatolite biostromes and associated facies in the Late Precambrian Porsanger Dolomite Formation of Finnmark, Arctic Norway. PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL PALAEOECOL 21, 5583.
Van, der Voo R. 1979. Palaeozoic assembly of Pangaea: a new plate tectonic model for the Taconic, Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies (abstr.). EOS TRANS AM GEOPHYS UNION 60, 241.
Welbon, A. I. F. 1986. Structural studies of the upper Caissa Nappe, Finnmark. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Wales.
White, B. 1969. The Stabbursnes Formation and Porsanger Dolomite Formation in the Kolvik District, northern Norway: the development of a Precambrian algal environment. NOR GEOL UNDERS 258, 79115.
Williams, D. M. 1976a. A revised stratigraphy of the Gaissa Nappe, Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 324, 6378.
Williams, D. M. 1976b. A possible equivalent of the Laksefjord Nappe, southwest of Porsangerfjorden, Finnmark, Norway. NORSK GEOL TIDSSKR 56, 713.
Williams, G. D., Rhodes, S., Powell, D. B., Passe, C. R., Noake, J. S. & Gayer, R. A. 1976. A revised tectonostratigraphy for the Kalak Nappe in Central Finnmark. NOR GEOL UNDERS 324, 4761.
Williams, G. D., Chapman, T. J. & Milton, N. J. 1984. Generation and modification of finite strain patterns by progressive thrust faulting in the Laksefjord Nappe. TECTONOPHYSICS 107, 177–86.
Worthing, M. A. 1984. Fracture patterns on eastern Seiland, North Norway, and their possible relationship to regional faulting. NOR GEOL UNDERS BULL 396, 3541.
Zwaan, K. B. & Roberts, D. 1978. Tectonostratigraphic successions and development of the Finnmarkian nappe sequence, North Norway. NOR GEOL UNDERS 343, 5371.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed