Skip to main content Accessibility help

A global synthesis of the latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas

  • Rong Jia-yu (a1) and David A. T. Harper (a2)


A global review of new and existing data on the distribution of uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) brachiopods indicates the existence of at least three biogeographically distinct faunas. The typical Hirnantia fauna characterised subtropical and temperate latitudes and comprised a variety of ecological associations; the fauna reached its acme during the bohemicus and uniformis zones. Atypical Hirnantia faunas, developed marginal to Gondwana, are of low diversity and have few species in common with the typical Hirnantia fauna; their spatial distribution probably marked the margin of the polar ice sheets. The extinction of the Hirnantia fauna occurred in response to changes in sea level. Diverse and quite different faunas, including those from the Midcontinent of North America, Kolyma, the Oslo Region and probably Anticosti Island, occupied equatorial latitudes during the latest Ordovician. The Holorhynchus fauna, on evidence to date, predates the Hirnantia fauna.



Hide All
Amsden, T. W. 1974. Late Ordovician and early Silurian articulate brachiopods from Oklahoma, southwestern Illinois and eastern Missouri. OKLAHOMA GEOL SURV 119, 1154.
Amsden, T. W. 1986. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian strata in the central United States and the Hirnantian Stage. Part I—Paleoenvironment of the Keel-Edgewood oolitic province and the the Hirnantian strata of Europe, USSR and China. OKLAHOMA GEOL SURV 139, 155.
Amsden, T. W. & Barrick, J. E. 1986. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian strata in the central United States and the Hirnantian Stage. OKLAHOMA GEOL SURV 139, 195.
Apollonov, M. K., Bandaletov, S. M. & Nikitin, I. F. (eds). 1980. The Ordovician-Silurian Boundary in Kazakhstan. NAUKA KAZAKH SSSR PUBL HOUSE ALMA-ATA.
Baarli, B. G. & Harper, D. A. T. 1986. Relict Ordovician brachiopod faunas in the Lower Silurian of Asker, Oslo Region, Norway. NORSK GEOL TIDSSK 66, 8798.
Baillie, P. W., Banks, M. R. & Rickards, R. B. 1978. Early Silurian graptolites from Tasmania and their significance. SEARCH 9, 4647.
Bassett, D. A., Whittington, H. B. & Williams, A. 1966. The stratigraphy of the Bala district, Merionethshire. Q J GEOL SOC LONDON 122, 219271.
Benedetto, J. L. 1986. The first typical Hirnantia fauna from South America (San Juan Province, Argentine Precordillera). BIOSTRATIGR PALÉOZOÏQUE 4, 439–337, pls. 1–2.
Bennacef, A., Beuf, S., Biju-Duval, B., De Charpal, O., Gariel, O. & Rognon, P. 1971. Examples of cratonic sedimentation: Lower Paleozoic of Algerian Sahara. BULL AM ASSOC PET GEOL 55, 22252245.
Bergström, J. 1968. Upper Ordovician brachiopods from Västergötland, Sweden. GEOL PALAEONTOL 2, 135.
Beuf, S., Biju-Duval, V., de Charpal, O., Rognon, P., Gariel, O. & Bennacef, A. 1971. Les Grès du Paléozoique inférieur au Sahara—sédimentation et discontinuites, évolution structural d'un craton. PUBL INST FRANCE PÉT 18, 1464.
Boucot, A. J. 1975. Evolution and extinction rates controls. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Brenchley, P. J. 1984. Late Ordovician extinctions and their relationship to the Gondwana Glaciation. In Brenchley, P. J. (ed.) Fossils and Climate, 291315. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Brenchley, P. J. & Cocks, L. R. M. 1982. Ecological associations in a regressive sequence: the latest Ordovician of the Oslo-Asker district, Norway. PALAEONTOLOGY 25, 783815.
Brenchley, P. J. & Cullen, B. 1984. The environmental distribution of associations belonging to the Hirnantia fauna—Evidence from North Wales and Norway. In Bruton, D. L. (ed.) Aspects of the Ordovician System, 113125. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Brenchley, P. J. & Newall, G. 1984. Late Ordovician environmental changes and their effects on faunas. In Bruton, D. L. (ed.) Aspects of the Ordovician System, 6579. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Burrett, C. F. & Stait, B. 1985. South East Asia as part of an Ordovician Gondwanaland—a palaeobiogeographic test of a tectonic hypothesis. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 75, 184190.
Campsie, J., Johnson, G. L., Jones, J. E. & Rich, J. E. 1984. Episodic volcanism and evolutionary crises. EOS 65, 796800.
Caputo, M. V. & Crowell, J. C. 1985. Migration of glacial centres across Gondwana during the Paleozoic Era. BULL GEOL SOC AM 96, 10201036.
Caputo, M. V. & Lima, E. C. 1984. Estratigrafia, Idade e Correlacao do Grupo Serra Grande. GEOL SOC BRASIL 2, 740753.
Xu, Chen & Lens, A. C. 1984. Ordovician graptolite zonation and correlation with specific reference to the Pacific faunal realm. N JB GEOL PALAONT MH 1984, 212222.
Cocks, L. R. M. 1972. The origin of the Silurian Clarkeia shelly fauna of South America, and its extension to West Africa. PALAEONTOLOGY 15, 623630.
Cocks, L. R. M. 1982. The commoner brachiopods of the latest Ordovician of the Oslo-Asker district, Norway. PALAEONTOLOGY 25, 755781.
Cocks, L. R. M., Brunton, C. H. C., Rowell, A. J. & Rust, I. C. 1970. The first Lower Palaeozoic fauna proved from South Africa. Q J GEOL SOC LONDON 125, 583603.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Copper, P. 1981. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary at the eastern end of Anticosti Island. CAN J EARTH SCI 18, 10291034.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Fortey, R. A. 1982. Faunal evidence for oceanic separations in the Palaeozoic of Britain. J GEOL SOC LONDON 139, 465478.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Fortey, R. A. 1986. New evidence on the South African Lower Palaeozoic: age and fossils reviewed. GEOL MAG 123, 437444.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Fortey, R. A. 1988. Lower Palaeozoic facies and faunas around Gondwana. SPEC PUBL GEOL SOC LONDON (in press).
Cocks, L. R. M. & Price, D. 1975. The biostratigraphy of the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian of South-west Dyfed, with comments on the Hirnantia fauna. PALAEONTOLOGY 18, 703724.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Rickards, R. B. 1988. A global analysis of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary. BULL BR MUS NAT HIST (GEOL) 43, 1394.
Crowell, J. C., Suarez-Sorucco, R., & Rocha-Campos, A. C. 1981. The Silurian Cancaniri (Zapla) Formation of Bolivia, Argentina and Peru. In Hambrey, M. J. & Harland, W. B. (eds) Earth's Pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record, 902907. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Destombes, J. 1968. Sur la nature glaciaire des sédiments du 2 me bani; Ashgill Supérieur de l'Anti Atlas (Maroc). CR ACAD SCI PARIS 267, 684689.
Destombes, J., Hollard, H. & Willefert, S. 1985. Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Morocco. In Holland, C. H. (ed.) Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World, vol. 4, Lower Palaeozoic of north-western and west-central Africa, 91336. Chichester: John Wiley.
Elkin, E. A., Obut, A. M. & Sennikov, I. Y. 1978. The Ordovician–Silurian Boundary in Gorny Altai. TRUDY AKAD NAUK SSSR INST GEOL GEOF SIBIRSK OTDEL 397, 514.
Elles, G. L. 1922. The age of the Hirnant Beds. GEOL MAG 59, 409414.
Elles, G. L. 1923. The age of the Hirnant Beds. GEOL MAG 60, 559560.
Fortey, R. A. & Cocks, L. R. M. 1986. Marginal faunal belts and their structural implications, with examples from the Lower Palaeozoic. J GEOL SOC LONDON 143, 151160.
Hambrey, M. J. 1985. The Late Ordovician-Early Silurian glacial period. PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL PALAEOECOL 51, 273289.
Harper, D. A. T. 1979. The environmental significance of some faunal changes in the Upper Ardmillan successsion (upper Ordovician), Girvan, Scotland. SPEC PUBL GEOL SOC LONDON 8, 439445.
Harper, D. A. T. 1981. The stratigraphy and faunas of the Upper Ordovician High Mains Formation of the Girvan district. SCOTT J GEOL 17, 247255.
Harper, D. A. T. 1984. Brachiopods from the Upper Ardmillan succession (Ordovician) of the Girvan district, Scotland. Part 1. PALAEONTOGR SOC MONOGR, 178.
Harper, D. A. T. 1986. Distributional trends within the Ordovician brachiopod faunas of the Oslo Region, south Norway. BIOSTRATIGR PALÉOZOÏQUE 4, 465475.
Harper, D. A. T. 1988. Ordovician-Silurian junctions in the Girvan district, S. W. Scotland. BULL MUS NAT HIST (GEOL) 43, 4552.
Havlíček, V. 1971. Brachiopodes de l'Ordovicien du Maroc. NOT MÉM SERV GEOL 230, 1135.
Havlíček, V. 1977. Brachiopods of the order Orthida in Czechoslovakia. ROZPR ÚSTŘ ÚST GEOL 44, 1327.
Havlíček, V. 1982. Ordovician in Bohemia: development of the Prague Basin and its benthic communities. SBOR GEOL VĚD GEOL 37, 103136.
Havlíček, V. & Branisa, L. 1980. Ordovician brachiopods of Bolivia. ROZPR CES AKAD RAD MAT PRI 90, 154.
Havlíček, V. & Massa, D. 1973. Brachiopodes de l'Ordovicien supérieur de Libye occidentale. Implications stratigraphiques regionales. GEOBIOS 6, 267290.
Havlíček, V. & Vanek, J. 1966. The biostratigraphy of the Ordovician of Bohemia. VĚST ÚSTRED ÚST GEOL 8, 769.
Ho, Xin-yi 1980. Tetracoral fauna of the Late Ordovician Guanyinqiao Formation, Bijie, Guizhou Province. PROF PAP STRATIGR PALAEONTOL 6, 145.
Ingham, J. K. & Wright, A. D. 1970. A revised classification of the Ashgill Series. LETHAIA 3, 233242.
Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In Robison, A. & Teichert, C. (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part A, Introduction + Biogeography and Biostratigraphy, A136–A166. University of Kansas Press.
Jaanusson, V. 1982. The Siljan district. In Bruton, D. L. & Williams, S. H. (eds) Field Excursion Guide. 4th International Symposium on the Ordovician System. PAL CONTR UNIV OSLO 279, 1542.
Jaeger, Von H., Havlíček, V. & Schonlaub, H. P. 1975. Biostratigraphie der Ordovizium/Silur-Grenze in der Sudalpen. Ein Beitrag zur Dikussion um die Hirnantia-Fauna. VER GEOL BUNDES 4, 271289.
Jones, O. T. 1923. The Hirnant Beds and the base of the Valentian. GEOL MAG 23, 514519.
Kielan, Z. 1960. Upper Ordovician trilobites from Poland and some related forms from Bohemia and Scandinavia. PALAEONT POLONICA 11, 1198.
Koren, T. N., Sobolevskaya, R. F., Mikhajlova, N. F. & Tzai, D. T. 1979. New evidence on graptolite succession across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary in the Asian part of the USSR. ACTA PALEONT POLONICA 24, 123136.
Koren, T. N., Oradovskaya, M. M., Pylma, L. Y., Sobolevskaya, R. F. & Chugaeva, M. N. 1983. The Ordovician–Silurian Boundary in the Northeast of the USSR, 1192. Leningrad: Nauka.
Kul'kov, N. P. & Severgina, L. G. 1987. Ordovician and Silurian boundary in Gorny Altai. SER GEOL 9, 6974.
Lamont, A. 1935. The Drummuck Group, Girvan; a stratigraphical revision with descriptions of new fossils from the lower part of the group. TRANS GEOL SOC GLASGOW 19, 288334.
Lamont, A. 1949. New species of Calymenidae from Scotland and Ireland. GEOL MAG 86, 313323.
Laurie, J. R. 1982. The taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the Ordovician and Early Silurian articulate brachiopods of Tasmania. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tasmania.
Lespérance, P. J. 1974. The Hirnantian fauna of the Percé area (Quebec) and the Ordovician-Silurian boundary. AM J SCI 274, 1030.
Lespérance, P. J. 1985. Faunal distributions across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, Anticosti Island and Percé, Quebec, Canada. CAN J EARTH SCI 22, 838849.
Lespérance, P. J. & Sheehan, P. M. 1976. Brachiopoda from the Hirnantian Stage (Ordovician-Silurian) at Percé, Quebec. PALAEONTOLOGY 19, 719731.
Marek, L. & Havlíček, V. 1967. The articulate brachiopods of the Kosov Formation (Upper Ashgillian). VĚST ÚSTR ÚST GEOL 42, 275284.
McClure, H. A. 1978. Early Palaeozoic glaciation in Arabia. PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL PALAEOECOL 25, 315326.
M'Coy, F. 1851. On some new Cambro-Silurian fossils. ANN MAG NAT HIST 8, 387409.
Melou, M. 1987. Decouverte de Hirnantia sagittifera (M'Coy, 1851) Orthida Brachiopoda dans l'Ordovicien superieur (Ashgillien) de l'extremité occidentale du Massif Armoricain. GEOBIOS 20, 679686.
Mergl, M. 1983. New brachiopods (Cambrian-Ordovician) from Algeria and Morocco (Mediterranean Province). CASOPIS PRO MIN GEOL 28, 337347, pls. 1–14.
Mikhajlova, N. F. 1970. On the discovery of Glyptograptus persculptus (Salter) in the Dalmanitina Beds of Kazakhstan. ISV AKAD NAUK ESTONIAN SSR CHEM GEOL 19, 177178.
Mu, En-zhi, Zhu, Zhao-ling, & Rong, Jia-yu 1978. The Ordovician strata in the vicinity of Shuanghe, Changning district of Sichuan. ACTA STRAT SINICA 2, 105121.
Mu, En-Zhi et al. 1980. Ordovician graptolite sequences and biogeographic regions in China. In Scientific papers on geology for international exchange, prepared for the 26th Geological Congress. 4, Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, 3542. Beijing: Beijing Press.
Mu, En-zhi, Zhu, Zhao-ling, Lin, Yao-kun & Wu, Hong-li 1984. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary in Yichang, Hubei. In Stratigraphy and palaeontology of systemic boundaries in China. Ordovician-Silurian Boundary 1, 1541. Nanjing: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica.
Mu, En-zhi & Rong, Jia-yu 1983. On the international Ordovician and Silurian boundary. J STRAT 7, 8191.
Neuman, R. B. 1968. Paleogeographic implications of Ordovician shelly fossils in the Magog belt of the Northern Appalachian region. In Zen, E. A., White, W. S., Hadley, J. B. & Thompson, J. B. Jr. (ed) Studies of Appalachian Geology: Northern and Maritime, 3548. New York: Interscience.
Ni, Yu-nan, Xu, Han-kui & Cheng, Ting-en 1981. Boundary of the Ordovician-Silurian in the Xianza area, Xizang. J STRAT 5, 146147.
Nicholson, R. 1979. Caledonian correlations: Britain and Ireland. SPEC PUBL GEOL SOC LONDON 8, 318.
Nikiforova, O. I. & Sapelnikov, V. P. 1973. Some early pentamerids of the Zerashan Mountains. TRUDY INST GEOL GEOCHIM URAL 99, 6482.
Nikitin, I. F. 1972. Ordovician of Kazakhstan, pt. 1. Stratigraphy. Alma Ata: Nauka Kazakh SSSR Publ House.
Nikitin, I. F. 1976. Ordovician–Silurian deposits in the Chu-Illi Mountains (Kazakhstan) and the problem of the Ordovician–Silurian boundary. In Bassett, M. G. (ed.) The Ordovician System: Proceedings of a Palaeontological Association Symposium, Birmingham, Sept. 1974, 293300. Cardiff: University of Wales Press and National Museum of Wales.
Owen, A. W. 1986. The uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) trilobites of Girvan, SW Scotland with a review of coeval trilobite faunas. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 77, 231239.
Raup, D. & Sepkoski, J. J. 1984. Periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past. PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA 81, 801805.
Reed, F. R. C. 1915. Supplementary Memoir on new Ordovician and Silurian fossils from the Northern Shan States. PALAEONT INDICA 6, 1122.
Rong, Jia-yu. 1979. The Hirnantia fauna of China with comments on the Ordovican-Silurian boundary. ACTA STRAT SINICA 3, 18.
Rong, Jia-yu 1984a. Distribution of the Hirnantia fauna and its meaning. In Bruton, D. L. (ed.) Aspects of the Ordovician System, 101112, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Rong, Jia-yu 1984b. Brachiopods of Latest Ordovician in the Yichang District, Western Hubei, Central China. In Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Systemic Boundaries in China: Ordovician-Silurian 1, 111176.
Rong, Jia-yu 1986. Ecostratigraphy and community analysis of Late Ordovician and Silurian in southern China. PAL SOC CHINA, 123.
Rong, Jia-yu & Han, Nai-ren 1986. Preliminary report on Upper Ordovician (Mid-Ashgillian) brachiopods from Yushan, northeastern Jiangxi (Eastern China). In Rachebouef, P. R. & Emig, C. C. (eds.) Les Brachiopodes fossiles et actuels. BIOSTRATIGR PALÉOZOIQUE 4, 485490.
Rong, Jia-yu & Sun, Dong-li 1983. A latest Ordovician brachiopod fauna from Luxi, Western Yunnan, S. China. In Papers for the Symposium on the Cambrian-Ordovician and Ordovician-Silurian boundaries, Nanjing, China, October 1983, 138.
Rong, Jia-yu & Xu, Han-kui 1983. Terminal Ordovicial Hirnantia fauna of the Xainza District, Northern Xizang (N. Tibet). In Papers for the Symposium on the Cambrian-Ordovician and Ordovician-Silurian boundaries, Nanjing, China, October, 1983, 139.
Rozman, Kh.S. 1977. Biostratigraphy and Zoogeography of the Upper Ordovician of North Asia and North America. ACAD SCI USSR ORD RED BAN LAB GEOL INST TRANS 305, 3170 (in Russian).
Rukavishnikova, T. B. & Sapelnikov, V. P. 1973. New taxa of late Ashgillian Pentameracea in Kazahkstan. TRUDY INST GEOL GEOCHIM URAL 99, 89114.
Sanchez, T. M. 1985. El genero Modiolopsis (Bivalvia, Modiomorphoida) en el Ashgilliano de la Sierra de Villicum y la comunidad de Hirnantia-Modiolopsis. REUN COMUNIC CIENT ASS PALEONT ARGENTINA, 5859.
Sapelnikov, V. P. & Rukavishnikova, T. B. 1975. Upper Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian pentamerids of Kazakhstan. AKAD NAUKA SSSR URAL.
Schonlaub, H. P. 1971. Palaeo-environmental studies at the Ordovician/Silurian Boundary in the Carnic Alps. In Colloque Ordovicien-Silurien, Brest, Sept. 1971. MEM BUR RECH GEOL MIN 73, 367378.
Scotese, C. R., Bambach, R. K., Barton, C., Voo, R. V. D. & Ziegler, A. M. 1979. Paleozoic base maps. J GEOL 87, 217277.
Sheehan, P. M. 1973. The relation of Late Ordovician glaciation to the Ordovician-Silurian changeover in North American brachiopod faunas. LETHAIA 6, 147154.
Sheehan, P. M. 1975. Brachiopod synecology in a time of crisis (Late Ordovician-Early Silurian). PALEOBIOLOGY 1, 205212.
Sheehan, P. M. 1979. Swedish Late Ordovician marine benthic assemblages and their bearing on brachiopod zoogeography. In Gray, J. & Boucot, A. J. (eds.) Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment, 6173. Corvallis: The Oregon State University Press.
Sheehan, P. M. 1982. Brachiopod macroevolution at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary. PROC N AM PALEONT CONV 3, 477481.
Spjeldnæs, N. 1981. Lower Palaeozoic palaeoclimatology. In Holland, C. H. (ed.) Lower Palaeozoic of the Middle East, Eastern and Southern Africa, and Antarctica, 199256. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Stanley, S. M. 1984a. Temperature and biotic crises in the marine realm. GEOLOGY 12, 205208.
Stanley, S. M. 1984b. Mass extinctions in the ocean. SCIENTIFIC AM, 4654.
Størmer, L. 1967. Some aspects of the Caledonian geosyncline and foreland west of the Baltic Shield. Q J GEOL SOC LONDON 123, 183214.
Temple, J. T. 1965. Upper Ordovician brachiopods from Poland and Britain. ACTA PALAEONT POLONICA 10, 379450.
Temple, J. T. 1968. The Lower Llandovery (Silurian) brachiopods from Keisley, Westmorland. PALAEONTOGR SOC MONOGR, 158.
Wang, Xiao-feng, Zen, Qing-luan, Ni, Shi-mei, Xiang, Li-wen & Lai, Cai-gen. 1986. Rediscussion of the division and correlation of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary. BULL CHINESE ACAD GEOL SCI 12, 157164.
Wang, Yu, Boucot, A. J., Jia-yu, Rong & Xue-chang, Yang 1987. Community paleoecology as a geologic tool: The Chinese Ashgillian-Eifelian (latest Ordovician through Devonian) as an example. GEOL SOC AM SPEC PAP 211, 1100.
Williams, A. & Wright, A. D. 1981. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary in the Garth area of southwest Powys, Wales. GEOL J 16, 139.
Williams, S. H. 1983. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary graptolite fauna of Dob's Linn, southern Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 26, 605639.
Williams, S. H. 1986. Top Ordovician lowest Silurian of Dob's Linn. SPEC PUBL GEOL SOC LONDON 20, 165171.
Wright, A. D. 1968. A westward extension of the Upper Ashgillian Hirnantia fauna. LETHAIA 1, 352367.
Wright, A. D. 1985. The Ordovician-Silurian boundary at Keisley, northern England. GEOL MAG 122, 261273.
Young, G. M. 1981. Early Palaeozoic tillites of the northern Arabian Peninsula. In Hambrey, M. J. & Harland, W. B. (eds) Earth's Pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record, 275277. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yu, Jian-hua, Fang, Yi-ting & Zhang, Da-liang 1986. Ordovician-Silurian Boundary section at Sanlanpu, Xixiang, Shaanxi. NANJING UNIV J NAT SCI 22, 475487.
Zhang, Wen-tang, Chen, Xu, Xu, Han-kui, Wang, Jun-geng, Lin, Yao-kun & Chen, Jun-yuan 1964. Silurian of Northern Guizhou. In Paleozoic Rocks of Northern Guizhou, 79110. Nanjing: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica.
Ziegler, A. M. 1965. Silurian marine communities and their environmental significance. NATURE 207, 270272.
Ziegler, A. M., Scotese, C. R., McKerrow, W. S., Johnson, M. E. & Bambach, R. K. 1979. Paleozoic paleogeography. ANN REV EARTH PLANET SCI 7, 473502.
Zonenshayn, L. P. & Gorodnitskiy, A. M. 1977. Paleozoic and Mesozoic Reconstructions of the Continents and Oceans, Article 1, Early and Middle Paleozoic Reconstructions. GEOTECTONICS 11, 8394.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A global synthesis of the latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas

  • Rong Jia-yu (a1) and David A. T. Harper (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.