Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Early and Middle Pleistocene environments, landforms and sediments in Scotland

  • Adrian M. HALL (a1), Jon W. MERRITT (a2), E. Rodger CONNELL (a3) and Alun HUBBARD (a4)

Abstract

This paper reviews the changing environments, developing landforms and terrestrial stratigraphy during the Early and Middle Pleistocene stages in Scotland. Cold stages after 2.7 Ma brought mountain ice caps and lowland permafrost, but larger ice sheets were short-lived. The late Early and Middle Pleistocene sedimentary record found offshore indicates more than 10 advances of ice sheets from Scotland into the North Sea but only 4–5 advances have been identified from the terrestrial stratigraphy. Two primary modes of glaciation, mountain ice cap and full ice sheet modes, can be recognised. Different zones of glacial erosion in Scotland reflect this bimodal glaciation and the spatially and temporally variable dynamics at glacier beds. Depths of glacial erosion vary from almost zero in Buchan to hundreds of metres in glens in the western Highlands and in basins both onshore and offshore. The presence of tors and blockfields indicates repeated development of patches of cold-based, non-erosive glacier ice on summits and plateaux. In lowlands, chemical weathering continued to operate during interglacials, but gruss-type saprolites are mainly of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene age. The Middle Pleistocene terrestrial stratigraphic record in Scotland, whilst fragmentary and poorly dated, provides important and accessible evidence of changing glacial, periglacial and interglacial environments over at least three stadial–interstadial–interglacial cycles. The distributions of blockfields and tors and the erratic contents of glacial sediments indicate that the configuration, thermal regime and pattern of ice flow during MIS 6 were broadly comparable to those of the last ice sheet. Improved control over the ages of Early and Middle Pleistocene sediments, soils and saprolites and on long-term rates of weathering and erosion, combined with information on palaeoenvironments, ice extent and sea level, will in future allow development and testing of new models of Pleistocene tectonics, isostasy, sea-level change and ice sheet dynamics in Scotland.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Andersen, J. L., Egholm, D. L., Knudsen, M. F., Linge, H., Jansen, J. D., Pedersen, V. K., Nielsen, S. B., Tikhomirov, D., Olsen, J. & Fabel, D. 2018. Widespread erosion on high plateaus during recent glaciations in Scandinavia. Nature Communications 9, 830.
André, M.-F. 2004. The geomorphic impact of glaciers as indicated by tors in North Sweden (Aurivaara, 68° N). Geomorphology 57, 403421.
Andrews, I. J., Long, D., Richards, P. C., Thomson, A. R., Brown, S., Chesher, J. A. & McCormac, M. 1990. United Kingdom Offshore Regional Report: the geology of the Moray Firth. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.
Anne, C., Naki, A., Susan, I.-O., Fritz, S., Peter, K. W., Andreas, D., Joachim, K., Meinert, R. & Christian, S. 2017. Timing of early Quaternary gravel accumulation in the Swiss Alpine Foreland. Geomorphology 276, 7185.
Audsley, A., Arosio, R. & Howe, J. A. 2016. A geomorphological reconstruction of the deglaciation of Loch Etive during the Loch Lomond Stadial. Scottish Journal of Geology 52, 5563.
Augustinus, P. C. & Macphail, M. K. 1997. Early Pleistocene stratigraphy and timing of the Bulgobac Glaciation, Western Tasmania, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 128, 253267.
Auton, C. A., Gordon, J. E., Merritt, J. W. & Walker, M. J. C. 2000. The glacial and interstadial sediments at the Burn of Benholm, Kincardineshire: evidence for onshore pre-Devensian ice movement in northeast Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 15, 141156.
Bailey, I., Hole, G. M., Foster, G. L., Wilson, P. A., Storey, C. D., Trueman, C. N. & Raymo, M. E. 2013. An alternative suggestion for the Pliocene onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation based on the geochemical provenance of North Atlantic Ocean ice-rafted debris. Quaternary Science Reviews 75, 181194.
Bain, D. C., Mellor, A., Robertson-Rintoul, M. & Buckland, S. 1993. Variations in weathering processes and rates with time in a chronosequence of soils from Glen Feshie, Scotland. Geoderma 57, 275293.
Balco, G., Rovey, C. W. & Stone, J. O. H. 2005a. The First Glacial Maximum in North America. Science 307, 222.
Balco, G., Stone, J. O. & Mason, J. A. 2005b. Numerical ages for Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediment sequences by 26Al/10Be dating of quartz in buried paleosols. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 232, 179191.
Balco, G., Stone, J. O. H. & Jennings, C. 2005c. Dating Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments using the cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides Be-10 and Al-26. American Journal of Science 305, 141.
Balco, G. & Rovey, C. W. 2010. Absolute chronology for major Pleistocene advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Geology 38, 795798.
Ballantyne, C. K. 1984. The Late Devensian periglaciation of upland Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 3, 1030.
Ballantyne, C. K. 1994a. Gibbsitic soils on former nunataks: implications for ice sheet reconstruction. Journal of Quaternary Science 9, 7380.
Ballantyne, C. K. 1994b. Scottish Landform Examples 10: the tors of the Cairngorms. Scottish Geographical Magazine 110, 5459.
Ballantyne, C. K. 1997. Periglacial trimlines in the Scottish Highlands. Quaternary International 38/39, 119136.
Ballantyne, C. K. 1998. Age and signficance of mountain-top detritus. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 9, 327345.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2000. A Late Devensian nunatak on the Knoydart Peninsula, NW Scotland: Implications for ice-sheet reconstruction. Scottish Geographical Magazine 115, 319328.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2002. Paraglacial geomorphology. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 1935–2017.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2010a. Extent and deglacial chronology of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet: implications of exposure dating using cosmogenic isotopes. Journal of Quaternary Science 25, 515534.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2010b. A general model of autochthonous blockfield evolution. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 21(4), 289300.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2013. Lateglacial Rock-Slope Failures in the Scottish Highlands. Scottish Geographical Journal 129, 6784.
Ballantyne, C. K. 2019. After the ice: Lateglacial and Holocene landforms and landscape evolution in Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S175569101800004X.
Ballantyne, C. K., McCarroll, D., Nesje, A. & Dahl, S. O. 1997. Periglacial trimlines, former nunataks and the altitude of the last ice sheet in Wester Ross, northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 12, 225238.
Ballantyne, C. K., McCarroll, D., Nesje, A., Dahl, S. O. & Stone, J. O. 1998. The last ice sheet in northwest Scotland: reconstruction and implications. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, 11491184.
Ballantyne, C. K., Hall, A. M., Phillips, W. M., Binnie, S. & Kubik, P. 2007. Age and significance for former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands. Scottish Journal of Geology 43, 107114.
Ballantyne, C. K., Wilson, P., Gheorghiu, D. & Rodés, À. 2013. Enhanced rock-slope failure following ice-sheet deglaciation: timing and causes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39(7). DOI: 10.1002/esp.3495
Ballantyne, C. K., Fabel, D., Gheorghiu, D., Rodés, Á., Shanks, R. & Xu, S. 2017. Late Quaternary glaciation in the Hebrides sector of the continental shelf: cosmogenic nuclide dating of glacial events on the St Kilda archipelago. Boreas 46(4), 605621.
Ballantyne, C. K. & Hall, A. M. 2008. The altitude of the last ice sheet in Caithness and east Sutherland, Northern Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 44, 169181.
Ballantyne, C. K. & Hallam, G. E. 2001. Maximum altitude of Late Devensian glaciation on South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Proceedings of the Geologists Association 112, 155167.
Ballantyne, C. K. & Harris, C. 1994. The Periglaciation of Great Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. x+330 pp.
Ballantyne, C. K. & Small, D. 2019. The last Scottish ice sheet. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. DOI: /10.1017/S1755691018000038.
Barr, I. D., Ely, J. C., Spagnolo, M., Clark, C. D., Evans, I. S., Pellicer, X. M., Pellitero, R. & Rea, B. R. 2017. Climate patterns during former periods of mountain glaciation in Britain and Ireland: Inferences from the cirque record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 485, 466475.
Bartsch, A., Gude, M. & Gurney, S. 2009. Quantifying sediment transport processes in periglacial mountain environments at a catchment scale using geomorphic process units. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 91, 19.
Batchelor, C. L., Ottesen, D. & Dowdeswell, J. A. 2017. Quaternary evolution of the northern North Sea margin through glacigenic debris-flow and contourite deposition. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 416426.
Bendixen, C., Lamb, R. M., Huuse, M., Boldreel, L. O., Jensen, J. B. & Clausen, O. R. 2017. Evidence for a grounded ice sheet in the central North Sea during the early Middle Pleistocene Donian Glaciation. Journal of the Geological Society 175(2), 291.
Bierman, P. R. 1994. Using in situ produced cosmogenic isotopes to estimate rates of landscape evolution; a review from the geomorphic perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 99, 13885–96.
Bierman, P. R. & Caffee, M. 2002. Cosmogenic exposure and erosion history of Australian bedrock landforms. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114, 787803.
Bloodworth, A. J. 1990. Clay mineralogy of Quaternary sediments from the Dalcharn Interglacial site. In Auton, C. A. & Firth, C. R. & Merritt, J. W. (eds) Beauly to Nairn, Field Guide, 6061. Cambridge: Quaternary Research Association.
Blyth, F. G. H. 1969. Structures in the southern part of the Cabrach igneous area, Banffshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 80, 6379.
Boardman, J. 1985. The Troutbeck Palaeosol, Cumbria England, In Boardman, J. (ed.) Soils and Quaternary landscape evolution, 231260. Chichester: Wiley. 402 pp.
Boulton, G. S. & Hagdorn, M. 2006. Glaciology of the British Isles Ice Sheet during the last glacial cycle: form, flow, streams and lobes. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 33593390.
Boulton, G. S. & Jones, A. S. 1979. Stability of temperate ice caps and ice sheets resting on beds of deformable sediment. Journal of Glaciology 24, 2944.
Bowen, D. Q. 1991. Time and space in the glacial sediment systems of the British Isles. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. L. & Rose, J. (eds) Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland, 3-12. Rotterdam: Balkema. ix+580 pp.
Bowen, D. Q. & Sykes, G. A. 1988. Correlation of marine events and glaciations on the north-east Atlantic margin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B318, 619635.
Bradwell, T., Stoker, M. S. & Larter, R. 2007. Geomorphological signature and flow dynamics of The Minch palaeo-ice stream, northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 22, 609617.
Bradwell, T., Stoker, M. & Krabbendam, M. 2008a. Megagrooves and streamlined bedrock in NW Scotland: the role of ice streams in landscape evolution. Geomorphology 97, 135156.
Bradwell, T., Stoker, M. S., Golledge, N. R., Wilson, C., Merrit, J. W., Long, D., Everest, J. D., Hestvik, O. B., Stevenson, A., Hubbard, A., Finlayson, A. & Mathers, H. 2008b. The northern sector of the Last British Ice Sheet: maximum extent and demise. Earth-Science Reviews 88, 207226.
Bremner, A. 1934. The glaciation of Moray and ice movements in the north of Scotland. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society 13, 1756.
Bridgland, D. R., Saville, A. & Sinclair, J. M. 1997. New evidence for the origin of the Buchan Ridge Gravel, Aberdeenshire. Scottish Journal of Geology 33, 4350.
Bridgland, D. R., Howard, A. J., White, M. J., White, T. S. & Westaway, R. 2015. New insight into the Quaternary evolution of the River Trent, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 126, 466479.
Briner, J. P., Goehring, B. M., Mangerud, J. & Svendsen, J. I. 2016. The deep accumulation of 10Be at Utsira, southwestern Norway: implications for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating in peripheral ice sheet landscapes. Geophysical Research Letters 43, 91219129.
Brown, E. J., Rose, J., Coope, R. G. & Lowe, J. J. 2006. An MIS 3 age organic deposit from Balglass Burn, central Scotland: palaeoenvironmental significance and implications for the timing of the onset of the LGM ice sheet in the vicinity of the British Isles. Journal of Quaternary Science 22, 295308.
Browne, M. A. E. & McMillan, A. A. 1989. Quaternary Geology of the Clyde Valley. British Geological Survey. 63 pp.
Buckley, F. A. 2017. A glaciogenic sequence from the Early Pleistocene of the Central North Sea. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 145168.
Burke, M. J. 1969. The Forth valley: an ice-moulded lowland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 48, 5159.
Busfield, M. E., Lee, J. R., Riding, J. B., Zalasiewicz, J. & Lee, S. V. 2015. Pleistocene till provenance in east Yorkshire: reconstructing ice flow of the British North Sea Lobe. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 126, 8699.
Cambridge, P. G. 1982. A note on the supposed Crag shells from the Kippett Hills, Aberdeenshire. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Norfolk 32, 3738.
Cameron, T. D. J., Stoker, M. S. & Long, D. 1987. The history of Quaternary sedimentation in the UK sector of the North Sea basin. Journal of the Geological Society, London 144, 4358.
Cave, J. A. S. & Ballantyne, C. K. 2016. Catastrophic Rock-Slope Failures in NW Scotland: Quantitative Analysis and Implications. Scottish Geographical Journal 132, 185209.
Chapelhowe, R. 1965. On the glaciation in North Roe, Shetland. Geographical Journal 131, 6070.
Clapperton, C. M. 1997. Greenland Ice Cores and North Atlantic Sediments: Implications for the Last Glaciation in Scotland, In Gordon, J. E. (ed.) Reflections on the Ice Age in Scotland, 45–58. Edinburgh: The Scottish Association of Geography Teachers and Scottish Natural Heritage. viii+188 pp.
Clapperton, C. M. & Sugden, D. E. 1977. The Late Devensian glaciation of northeast Scotland, In Gray, J. M. & Lowe, J. J. (eds) Studies in the Scottish Lateglacial environment, 113. Oxford: Pergamon. 197 pp.
Clark, C. D., Hughes, A. L. C., Greenwood, S. L., Jordan, C. J. & Sejrup, H.-P. 2012. Pattern and timing of retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews 44, 112146.
Clark, C. D., Ely, J. C., Greenwood, S. L., Hughes, A. L. C., Meehan, R., Barr, I. D., Bateman, M. D., Bradwell, T., Doole, J., Evans, D. J. A., Jordan, C. J., Monteys, X., Pellicer, X. M. & Sheehy, M. 2018. BRITICE Glacial Map, version 2: a map and GIS database of glacial landforms of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet. Boreas 47, 11-e18.
Clark, P. U., Archer, D., Pollard, D., Blum, J. D., Rial, J. A., Brovkin, V., Mix, A. C., Pisias, N. G. & Roy, M. 2006. The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric CO2. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 31503184.
Clark, P. U., Dyke, A. S., Shakun, J. D., Carlson, A. E., Clark, J., Wohlfarth, B., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W. & McCabe, A. M. 2009. The last glacial maximum. Science 325, 710714.
Clark, P. U. & Pollard, D. 1998. Origin of the middle Pleistocene transition by ice sheet erosion of regolith. Palaeoceanography 13, 19.
Clayton, K. 1996. Quantification of the impact of glacial erosion on the British Isles. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS 21, 124140.
Clayton, K. M. 1974. Zones of glacial erosion. In Brown, E. H. & Waters, R. S. (eds) Progress in Geomorphology. Institute of British Geographers Special Publication 7, 163176. London: Institute of British Geographers. 251 pp.
Clough, C. T., Hinxman, L. W., Wilson, J. S. G., Crampton, C. B., Wright, W. B., Bailey, E. B., Anderson, E. M., Carruthers, R. G. & Grabham, G. W. 1925. The Geology of the Glasgow District. Glasgow District Map Including Parts of Sheets 30, 31, 22 and 23. Memoirs of the Geological Survey: Scotland. Edinburgh: HM Stationery Office. 299 pp.
Connell, E. R. 2015. The Pleistocene sediments at Savock Quarry, Buchan, NE Scotland. Quaternary Newsletter 136, 2225.
Connell, E. R., Edwards, K. J. & Hall, A. M. 1982. Evidence for two pre-Flandrian palaeosols in Buchan, Scotland. Nature 297, 570572.
Connell, E. R., Hall, A. M. & Romans, J. C. C. 1984. Kirkhill Quarry, In Hall, A. M. (ed.) Buchan Field Guide, 5781. Cambridge: Quaternary Research Association.
Connell, E. R. & Hall, A. M. 1987. The periglacial history of Buchan, Scotland. In Boardman, J. (ed.) Periglacial Processes and Landforms in Britain and Ireland, 277285. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 308 pp.
Connell, E. R. & Romans, J. C. C. 1984. Palaeosols, In Hall, A. M. (ed.) Buchan Field Guide, 7076. Cambridge: Quaternary Research Association.
Crampton, C. B. & Carruthers, R. G. 1914. The Geology of Caithness. Edinburgh: Geological Survey of Scotland.
Crest, Y., Delmas, M., Braucher, R., Gunnell, Y. & Calvet, M. 2017. Cirques have growth spurts during deglacial and interglacial periods: Evidence from 10Be and 26Al nuclide inventories in the central and eastern Pyrenees. Geomorphology 278, 6077.
Croll, J. 1875. Climate and Time in their Geological Relations. London: Daldy. 626 pp.
Dethier, D. P. & Lazarus, E. D. 2006. Geomorphic inferences from regolith thickness, chemical denudation and CRN erosion rates near the glacial limit, Boulder Creek catchment and vicinity, Colorado. Geomorphology 75, 384399.
Dickin, A., Moorbath, S. & Welke, H. 1981. Isotope, trace element and major element geochemistry of Tertiary igneous rocks, Isle of Arran, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 72, 159170.
Dill, H. G., Gerdes, A. & Weber, B. 2010a. Age and mineralogy of supergene uranium minerals – tools to unravel geomorphological and palaeohydrological processes in granitic terrains (Bohemian Massif, SE Germany). Geomorphology 117, 4465.
Dill, H. G., Hansen, B., Keck, E. & Weber, B. 2010b. Cryptomelane: A tool to determine the age and the physical–chemical regime of a Plio-Pleistocene weathering zone in a granitic terrain (Hagendorf, SE Germany). Geomorphology 121, 370377.
Dove, D., Arosio, R., Finlayson, A., Bradwell, T. & Howe, J. A. 2015. Submarine glacial landforms record Late Pleistocene ice-sheet dynamics, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 123, 7690.
Dowdeswell, J. & Ottesen, D. 2013. Buried iceberg ploughmarks in the early Quaternary sediments of the central North Sea: A two-million year record of glacial influence from 3D seismic data. Marine Geology 344, 19.
Duller, G. A. T., Wintle, A. G. & Hall, A. M. 1995. Luminescence dating and its application to key pre-Late Devensian sites in Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 14, 495519.
Duxbury, J., Bierman, P. R., Portenga, E. W., Pavich, M. J., Southworth, S. & Freeman, S. P. H. T. 2015. Erosion rates in and around Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, determined using analysis of cosmogenic 10Be. American Journal of Science 315, 4676.
Dypvik, H. 1983. Clay mineral transformations in Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments from North Sea. AAPG Bulletin 67, 160165.
Ebert, K., Hättestrand, C., Hall, A. M. & Alm, G. 2011. DEM identification of macro-scale stepped relief in arctic northern Sweden. Geomorphology 132, 339350.
Ebert, K., Willenbring, J. K., Norton, K. P., Hall, A. M. & Hättestrand, C. 2012. Meteoric 10Be concentrations from saprolite and till in northern Sweden saprolite: Implications for genesis and age. Quaternary Geochronology 12, 1122.
Ebert, K., Hall, A. M., Kleman, J. & Andersson, J. 2015. Unequal ice sheet erosional impacts across low-relief shield terrain in northern Fennoscandia. Geomorphology 233, 6474.
Egholm, D. L., Jansen, J. D., Brædstrup, C. F., Pedersen, V. K., Andersen, J. L., Ugelvig, S. V., Larsen, N. K. & Knudsen, M. F. 2017. Formation of plateau landscapes on glaciated continental margins. Nature Geoscience 10, 592597.
Eldrett, J. S., Harding, I. C., Wilson, P. A., Butler, E. & Roberts, A. P. 2007. Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene. Nature 446, 176179.
Etzelmuller, B., Romstad, B. & Fjellanger, J. 2007. Automatic regional classification of topography in Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 87, 167180.
Evans, D. J. & Hansom, J. D. 1996. The Edinburgh Castle crag-and-tail. Scottish Geographical Magazine 112, 129131.
Everest, J. D., Bradwell, T. & Golledge, N. R. 2007. Subglacial Landforms of the Tweed Palaeo-Ice Stream. Scottish Geographical Journal 121, 163173.
Fabel, D., Ballantyne, C. K. & Xu, S. 2012. Trimlines, blockfields, mountain-top erratics and the vertical dimensions of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet in NW Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 55, 91102.
Fame, M. L., Owen, L. A., Spotila, J. A., Dortch, J. M. & Caffee, M. W. 2018. Tracking paraglacial sediment with cosmogenic 10Be using an example from the northwest Scottish Highlands. Quaternary Science Reviews 182, 2036.
Finlayson, A., Merritt, J., Browne, M., Merritt, J., McMillan, A. & Whitbread, K. 2010. Ice sheet advance, dynamics, and decay configurations: evidence from west central Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 969988.
Finlayson, A., Fabel, D., Bradwell, T. & Sugden, D. 2014. Growth and decay of a marine terminating sector of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet: a geomorphological reconstruction. Quaternary Science Reviews 83, 2845.
Firth, C. R. & Stewart, I. S. 2000. Postglacial tectonics of the Scottish glacio-isostatic uplift centre. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 14691493.
Flesche Kleiven, H., Jansen, E., Fronval, T. & Smith, T. 2002. Intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations in the circum Atlantic region (3.5–2.4 Ma) – ice-rafted detritus evidence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 184, 213223.
Fletcher, T. P., Auton, C. A., Highton, A. J., Merritt, J. W., Robertson, S. & Rawlin, K. E. 1996. Geology of the Fortrose and eastern Inverness District. Memoir for 1:50 000 Geological Sheet 84W (Scotland). Edinburgh: HMSO. 137 pp.
Flett, J. S. & Read, H. H. 1921. Tertiary gravels of the Buchan district of Aberdeenshire. Geological Magazine 58, 215225.
Flinn, D. 1978a. The glaciation of the Outer Hebrides. Geological Journal 13, 195199.
Flinn, D. 1978b. The most recent glaciation of the Orkney-Shetland Channel and adjacent areas. Scottish Journal of Geology 14, 109123.
Forsyth, I. H., Hall, I. H. S. & McMillan, A. 1996. Geology of the Airdrie district: Memoir for 1: 50 000 geological sheet 31W (Scotland). Edinburgh: HMSO. 94 pp.
Francis, E., Forsyth, I. H., Read, W. A. & Armstrong, M. 1970. The Geology of the Stirling District (Explanation of One-inch Geological Sheet 39), 357. Edinburgh: HMSO. 368 pp.
Fredin, O., Bergstrøm, B., Eilertsen, R., Hansen, L., Longva, O., Nesje, A. & Sveian, H. 2013. Glacial landforms and Quaternary landscape development in Norway. Geological Survey of Norway, Special Publication 13, 525.
Fredin, O., Viola, G., Zwingmann, H., Sørlie, R., Brönner, M., Lie, J.-E., Grandal, E. M., Müller, A., Margreth, A. & Vogt, C. 2017. The inheritance of a Mesozoic landscape in western Scandinavia. Nature Communications 8, 14879.
Gatliff, R. W., Richards, P. C., Smith, K., Graham, C. C., McCormac, M., Smith, N. J. P., Long, D., Cameron, T. D. J., Evans, D., Stevenson, A. G., Bulat, J. & Ritchie, J. D. 1994. The geology of the central North Sea. London: HMSO. vii+118 pp.
Geikie, A. 1887. The scenery of Scotland. London: Macmillan.
Geikie, A. 1901. The scenery of Scotland. London: Macmillan.
Gemmell, A. M. D., Murray, A. S. & Connell, E. R. 2007. Devensian glacial events in Buchan (NE Scotland): A progress report on new OSL dates and their implications. Quaternary Geochronology 2, 237242.
Glasser, N. F. 1995. Modelling the effect of topography on ice sheet erosion, Scotland. Geografiska Annaler, Series A Physical Geography 77(1–2), 6782.
Glasser, N. F. 1997. The origin and significance of sheet joints in the Cairngorm granite. Scottish Journal of Geology 33, 125132.
Glasser, N. F. & Hall, A. M. 1997. Calculating Quaternary erosion rates in North East Scotland. Geomorphology 20, 2948.
Godard, A. 1961. L'efficacité de l'erosion glaciare en Écosse du Nord. Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique 12, 3242.
Godard, A. 1962. Essais de corrélation entre l'altitudes des reliefs et les caracteres pétrographiques des roches dans les socles de l'Écosse du Nord. Compte Rendus Academie des Sciences 255, 139141.
Godard, A. 1965. Recherches en géomorphologie en Écosse du Nord-Ouest. Paris: Masson et Cie.
Godard, A. 1969. L'île d'Arran (Écosse): contribution a l'étude géomorphologique des racines de volcans. Revue de Géographie Physique et de Géologie Dynamique 11, 330.
Golledge, N. R., Hubbard, A. & Sugden, D. E. 2008. High-resolution numerical simulation of Younger Dryas glaciation in Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 888904.
Golledge, N., Hubbard, A. & Bradwell, T. 2010. Influence of seasonality on glacier mass balance, and implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Climate Dynamics 35, 757770.
Golledge, N. & Hubbard, A. 2005. Evaluating Younger Dryas glacier reconstructions in part of the western Scottish Highlands: a combined empirical and theoretical approach. Boreas 34(3), 274286.
Golledge, N. & Stoker, M. S. 2006. A palaeo-ice stream of the British Ice Sheet in eastern Scotland. Boreas 35, 231243.
Goodfellow, B., Stroeven, A., Fabel, D., Fredin, O., Derron, M., Bintanja, R. & Caffee, M. 2014a. Arctic-alpine blockfields in northern Sweden: Quaternary not Neogene. Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions 2, 4793.
Goodfellow, B. W., Skelton, A., Martel, S. J., Stroeven, A. P., Jansson, K. N. & Hättestrand, C. 2014b. Controls of tor formation, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 119, 225246.
Gordon, J. E. 1977. Morphometry of cirques in the Kintail–Affric–Cannich area of northwest Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 59A, 177194.
Gordon, J. E. 1979. Reconstructed Pleistocene ice sheet temperatures and glacial erosion in northern Scotland. Journal of Glaciology 22, 331344.
Gordon, J. E. 1981. Ice-scoured topography and its relationships to bedrock structure and ice movement in parts of northern Scotland and west Greenland. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 63, 5565.
Gordon, J. E. 1993a. Boyne Quarry. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 233236. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. 1993b. The Cairngorms. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 259276. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. 1993c. Kippet Hills. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 242245. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. 1993d. Leavad. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) The Quaternary of Scotland, 9495: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. 1993e. Nigg Bay. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 479481. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. 1993f. Northwest coast of Lewis. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 414421. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. 1993a. Windy Hills. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds), Quaternary of Scotland, 216218. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) 1993b. Quaternary of Scotland. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Graf, W. L. 1970. The geomorphology of the glacial valley cross section. Arctic and Alpine Research, 303312.
Graham, A. G. C., Lonergan, L. & Stoker, M. S. 2007. Evidence for Late Pleistocene ice stream activity in the Witch Ground Basin, central North Sea, from 3D seismic reflection data. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 627643.
Graham, A. G. C., Lonergan, L. & Stoker, M. S. 2010. Depositional environments and chronology of Late Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation in the central North Sea. Boreas 39, 471491.
Graham, A. G., Stoker, M. S., Lonergan, L., Bradwell, T. & Stewart, M. A. 2011. The Pleistocene glaciations of the North Sea Basin. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. L. & Hughes, P. D. (eds) Developments in Quaternary Science, 261278. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Greenwood, S. L., Clark, C. D. & Hughes, A. L. 2007. Formalising an inversion methodology for reconstructing ice-sheet retreat patterns from meltwater channels: application to the British Ice Sheet. Journal of Quaternary Science 22, 637645.
Gregersen, U. & Johannessen, P. 2007. Distribution of the Neogene Utsira Sand and the succeeding deposits in the Viking Graben area, North Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology 24, 591606.
Grohmann, C. H., Smith, M. J. & Riccomini, C. 2011. Multiscale analysis of topographic surface roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 12001213.
Hall, A. M. 1985. Cenozoic weathering covers in Buchan, Scotland, and their significance. Nature 315, 392395.
Hall, A. M. 1986. Deep weathering patterns in north-east Scotland and their geomorphological significance. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF 30, 407422.
Hall, A. M. 1991. Pre-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Scottish Highlands. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 82, 126.
Hall, A. M. 1993a. Deep weathering in Scotland: a review. In Dawson, A. H., Jones, H. R., Small, A. & Soulsby, J. A. (eds) Scottish Geographical Studies, 3746. St. Andrews: Universities of Dundee and St. Andrews. 352 pp.
Hall, A. M. 1993b. Hill of Longhaven. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 223225. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Hall, A. M. 1993c. Moss of Cruden. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 218221. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Hall, A. M. 1993d. Pittodrie. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 221223. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Hall, A. M. 1996. Quaternary geomorphology of the Outer Hebrides, In Gilbertson, D., Kent, M. & Grattan, J. (eds) The Outer Hebrides: the last 14,000 years, 5–12: Sheffield Academic Press.
Hall, A. M. 2005. The Buchan Surface. Scottish Geographical Journal 121, 107118.
Hall, A. M. 2007. The shaping of Lochnagar: pre-glacial, glacial and post-glacial processes, In Rose, N. (ed.) Lochnagar: The natural history of a mountain lake, 5162. Dordrecht: Springer. xxx + 503 pp.
Hall, A. M. 2013. The last glaciation of Shetland: local ice cap or invasive ice sheet? Norwegian Journal of Geology 93, 229242.
Hall, A. M., Jarvis, J. & Duck, R. W. 1989a. Survey of Quaternary deposits adjacent to Kirkhill Quarry, Banff and Buchan district, and recommendations for site conservation. (CDS Report) Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. 72 pp.
Hall, A. M., Mellor, T. & Wilson, M. J. 1989b. The clay mineralogy and age of deeply weathered rock in northeast Scotland. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie SupplementBand 72, 97108.
Hall, A. M., Whittington, G., Duller, G. A. T. & Jarvis, J. 1995. Late Pleistocene environments in lower Strathspey, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 85(for 1994), 253273.
Hall, A. M., Gordon, J. E., Whittington, G., Duller, G. A. T. & Heijnis, H. 2002. Sedimentology, palaeoecology and geochronology of Marine Isotope Stage 5 deposits on the Shetland Isles, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 17, 5168.
Hall, A. M., Ebert, K. & Hättestrand, C. 2013a. Pre-glacial landform inheritance in a glaciated shield landscape. Geografiska Annaler Series A, Physical Geography 95, 3349.
Hall, A. M., Gillespie, M., Thomas, C. & Ebert, K. 2013b. The Cairngorms – a pre-glacial upland granite landscape. Scottish Geographical Journal 129, 214.
Hall, A. M., Gilg, H. A., Fallick, A. E. & Merritt, J. 2015a. Kaolins in gravels and saprolites in northeast Scotland: evidence from stable H and O isotopes for Palaeocene–Miocene deep weathering. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 424, 616.
Hall, A. M., Sarala, P. & Ebert, K. 2015b. Late Cenozoic deep weathering patterns on the Fennoscandian shield in northern Finland: a window on ice sheet bed conditions at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geomorphology 246, 472488.
Hall, A. M., Binnie, S. A., Sugden, D., Dunai, T. J. & Wood, C. 2016. Late readvance and rapid final deglaciation of the last ice sheet in the Grampian Mountains, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 31, 869878.
Hall, A. M. & Bishop, P. 2002. Scotland's denudational history: an integrated view of erosion and sedimentation at an uplifted passive margin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 196, 271290.
Hall, A. M. & Connell, E. R. 1986. A preliminary report on the Quaternary sediments at Leys gravel pit, Buchan. Quaternary Newsletter 48, 1728.
Hall, A. M. & Connell, E. R. 1991. The glacial deposits of Buchan, north-east Scotland. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. L. & Rose, J. (eds) Glacial Deposits in Great Britain and Ireland, 129136. Rotterdam: Balkema. ix+580 pp.
Hall, A. M. & Gillespie, M. 2016. Fracture control on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland. International Journal of Earth Sciences 106, 22032219.
Hall, A. M. & Glasser, N. F. 2003. Reconstructing former glacial basal thermal regimes in a landscape of selective linear erosion: Glen Avon, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Boreas 32, 191207.
Hall, A. M. & Jarman, D. 2004. Quaternary landscape evolution – plateau dissection by glacial breaching, In Lukas, S., Merritt, J. W. & Mitchell, W. A. (eds) The Quaternary of the Central Grampian Highlands, 2640. London: Quaternary Research Association.
Hall, A. M. & Jarvis, J. 1993. Kirkhill. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 225230. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Hall, A. M. & Jarvis, J. 1995. A multiple till sequence near Ellon, Grampian Region : T. F. Jamieson's Indigo Boulder Clay re-examined. Scottish Journal of Geology 31, 5359.
Hall, A. M. & Kleman, J. 2014. Glacial and periglacial buzzsaws: fitting mechanisms to metaphors. Quaternary Research 81, 189192.
Hall, A. M. & Mellor, T. 1988. The characteristics and significance of deep weathering in the Gaick area, Grampian Highlands, Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 70A, 309314.
Hall, A. M. & Phillips, W. M. 2006a. Glacial modification of granite tors in the Cairngorms, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 21, 811830.
Hall, A. M. & Phillips, W. M. 2006b. Weathering pits as indicators of the relative age of granite surfaces in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 88A, 135150.
Hall, A. M. & Riding, J. 2016. The last glaciation in Caithness, Scotland: revised till stratigraphy and ice-flow paths indicate multiple ice flow phases. Scottish Journal of Geology 52, 7789.
Hall, A. M. & Sugden, D. E. 1987. Limited modification of mid-latitude landscapes by ice sheets: the case of northeast Scotland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 12, 531542.
Hall, A. M. & Sugden, D. E. 2007. The significance of tors in glaciated lands: a view from the British Isles. In Andre, M.-F. (ed.) Du continent au bassin versant : theories et practiques en géographie physique (Hommage au Professeur Alain Godard), 301311. Lyon: Presses Universitaires Blaise-Pascal.
Hall, I. H. S., Browne, M. & Forsyth, I. H. 1998. Geology of the Glasgow district, 30. Stationery Office Books (TSO).
Haynes, V. M. 1968. The influence of glacial erosion and rock structure on corries in Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 50A, 221234.
Haynes, V. M. 1977. The modification of valley patterns by ice sheet activity. Geografiska Annaler 59A, 195207.
Haynes, V. M. 1983. Scotland's Landforms. In Clapperton, C. M. (ed.) Scotland: a new study, 2863. Newton Abbott: David and Charles. 344 pp.
Head, M. J. & Gibbard, P. L. 2005. Early-Middle Pleistocene transitions: an overview and recommendation for the defining boundary. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 247, 118.
Hebdon, N. J., Atkinson, T. C., Lawson, T. J. & Young, I. R. 1998. Rate of glacial valley deepening during the late Quaternary in Assynt, Scotland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22, 307315.
Henderson, J. 1893. On sections exposed on the line of the Barnton railway. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society 6, 297300.
Holmes, R. 1997. Quaternary Stratigraphy: the Offshore Record. In Gordon, J. E. (ed.) New Light on the Ice Age in Scotland, 7294. Edinburgh: Scottish Natural Heritage.
Holzhausen, G. R. 1989. Origin of sheet structure, 1. Morphology and boundary conditions. Engineering Geology 27, 225278.
Hopkinson, C. & Ballantyne, C. K. 2014. Age and Origin of Blockfields on Scottish Mountains. Scottish Geographical Journal 130, 116141.
Hubbard, A. 1999. High-Resolution Modeling of the Advance of the Younger Dryas Ice Sheet and Its Climate in Scotland. Quaternary Research 52, 2743.
Hubbard, A., Bradwell, T., Golledge, N. R., Hall, A. M., Patton, H., Sugden, D. E., Cooper, R. & Stoker, M. S. 2009. Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British–Irish ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 758776.
Hughes, A. L. C., Clark, C. D. & Jordan, C. J. 2010. Subglacial bedforms of the last British Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, 543563.
Hughes, A. L. C., Clark, C. D. & Jordan, C. J. 2014. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews 89, 148168.
Humphries, D. W. 1961. The Upper Cretaceous White Sandstone of Loch Aline, Argyll, Scotland. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 33, 4776.
Huybers, P. & Tziperman, E. 2008. Integrated summer insolation forcing and 40,000-year glacial cycles: The perspective from an ice-sheet/energy-balance model. Paleoceanography 23, PA 1208.
Japsen, P. 1997. Regional Neogene exhumation of Britain and the western North Sea. Journal of the Geological Society, London 154, 239247.
Jardine, W. G., Dickson, J. H., Haughton, P. D. W., Harkness, D. D., Bowen, D. Q. & Sykes, G. A. 1988. A late Middle Devensian site at Sourlie, near Irvine, Strathclyde. Scottish Journal of Geology 24, 288295.
Jarman, D. 2006. Large rock slope failures in the Highlands of Scotland: Characterisation, causes and spatial distribution. Engineering Geology 83, 161182.
Jarman, D. 2007. Alain Godard on the NW Highlands of Scotland: present relevance for long-term landscape evolution studies. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 13, 177203.
Jarman, D. 2017. Very long-term landscape evolution – a geomorphological contextual approach, In Merritt, J., Auton, C. A. & Phillips, E. R. (eds) The Quaternary around Nairn and the Inverness Firth: Field Guide, 1827. London: Quaternary Research Association.
Kaplan, M. R., Hein, A. S., Hubbard, A. & Lax, S. M. 2009. Can glacial erosion limit the extent of glaciation? Geomorphology 103, 172179.
Kendall, P. F. & Bailey, E. B. 1908. The glaciation of East Lothian south of the Garleton Hills. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 46, 131.
Kesel, R. H. & Gemmell, A. M. D. 1981. The 'Pliocene' gravels of Buchan: a reappraisal. Scottish Journal of Geology 17, 185203.
Kirkbride, M. P. 2006. Boulder edge-roundness as an indicator of relative age: a Lochnagar case study. Scottish Geographical Journal 121, 219236.
Kirkbride, M. P. & Bell, C. M. 2010. Edge-roundness of boulders of Torridonian Sandstone (northwest Scotland): applications for relative dating and implications for warm and cold climate weathering rates. Boreas 39, 187198.
Kleman, J., Stroeven, A. P. & Lundqvist, J. 2008. Patterns of Quaternary ice sheet erosion and deposition in Fennoscandia and a theoretical framework for explanation. Geomorphology 97, 7390.
Krabbendam, M. & Bradwell, T. 2011. Glacial erosion and bedrock properties in NW Scotland: Abrasion and plucking, hardness and joint spacing. Geomorphology 130, 374383.
Krabbendam, M. & Bradwell, T. 2013. Glacial erosion of gneiss terrains: a re-assessment of the'landscape of areal scouring'and implications for bed roughness below ice sheets, EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 4102.
Krabbendam, M. & Bradwell, T. 2014. Quaternary evolution of glaciated gneiss terrains: pre-glacial weathering vs. glacial erosion. Quaternary Science Reviews 95, 2042.
Kuchar, J., Milne, G., Hubbard, A., Patton, H., Bradley, S., Shennan, I. & Edwards, R. 2012. Evaluation of a numerical model of the British–Irish ice sheet using relative sea-level data: implications for the interpretation of trimline observations. Journal of Quaternary Science 27(6), 597605.
Larsen, E., Sejrup, H.-P., Janocko, J., Landvik, J. Y., Stalsberg, K. & Steinsund, P. I. 2000. Recurrent interaction between the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream and terrestrial-based ice across southwest Norway. Boreas 29, 185203.
Lawson, T. J. 1993. Creag nan Uamh. In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 127132. London: Chapman & Hall. 720 pp.
Lawson, T. J. & Atkinson, T. C. 1995. Quaternary chronology. In Lawson, T. J. (ed.) The Quaternary of Assynt and Coigach, 1218. Cambridge: Quaternary Research Association.
Le Coeur, C. 1988. Late Tertiary warping and erosion in western Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 70A, 361368.
Le Coeur, C. 1999. Rythmes de denudation tertiaire et quaternaire en Ecosse occidentale. Geomorphologie 1999, 291304.
Lee, J. R., Rose, J., Riding, J. B., Moorlock, B. S. P. & Hamblin, R. J. O. 2002. Testing the case for a Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian glaciation in Eastern England: evidence for a Scottish ice source for tills within the Corton Formation of East Anglia, UK. Boreas 31, 345355.
Lee, J. R., Busschers, F. S. & Sejrup, H. P. 2012. Pre-Weichselian Quaternary glaciations of the British Isles, The Netherlands, Norway and adjacent marine areas south of 68°N: implications for long-term ice sheet development in northern Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 44, 213228.
Lee, J. R., Woods, M. A. & Moorlock, B. S. P. 2015. British Regional Geology: East Anglia (fifth edition). Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey. 272 pp.
Lee, J. R., Phillips, E., Rose, J. & Vaughan-Hirsch, D. 2017. The Middle Pleistocene glacial evolution of northern East Anglia, UK: a dynamic tectonostratigraphic–parasequence approach. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 231260.
Linton, D. L. 1940. Some aspects of the evolution of the rivers Earn and Tay. Scottish Geographical Magazine 56, 6979.
Linton, D. L. 1949. Watershed breaching by ice in Scotland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 15, 116.
Linton, D. L. 1959. Morphological contrasts between eastern and western Scotland. In Miller, R. & Watson, J. W. (eds) Geographical essays in memory of Alan G. Ogilvie, 1645. Edinburgh: Nelson. 245 pp.
Linton, D. L. 1962. Glacial erosion on soft-rock outcrops in central Scotland. Biuletyn Peryglacjalny 11, 247257.
Linton, D. L. 1963. The forms of glacial erosion. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 33, 128.
Linton, D. L. 1972. Radiating valleys in glaciated lands. In Embleton, C. (ed.) Glaciers and Glacial Erosion, 130-48. London: Macmillan. 287 pp.
Løseth, H., Raulline, B. & Nygård, A. 2013. Late Cenozoic geological evolution of the northern North Sea: development of a Miocene unconformity reshaped by large-scale Pleistocene sand intrusion. Journal of the Geological Society 170, 133145.
Lowe, J. J. 1984. A critical evaluation of pollen-stratigraphic investigations of pre-Late Devensian sites in Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 3, 405432.
Lowe, J. J. 2016. Volcanic Ash Stratigraphy: An Emerging Dating Tool Helping to Refine the Glacial History of Scotland During the Late Devensian. Scottish Geographical Journal 132, 171176.
Marquette, G. C., Gray, G. T., Gosse, J. C., Courchesne, F., Stockli, L., Macpherson, G. & Finkel, R. C. 2004. Felsenmeer persistence under non-erosive ice in the Torngat and Kaumajet mountains, Quebec and Labrador, as determined by soil weathering and cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 41, 1938.
Martel, S. J. 2017. Progress in understanding sheeting joints over the past two centuries. Journal of Structural Geology 94, 6886.
May, F. & Phemister, J. 1968. Kaolin deposits in the Shetland Islands. U.K. Proceedings XXIII International Geological Congress, 2329.
McCarroll, D. 2016. Trimline Trauma: The Wider Implications of a Paradigm Shift in Recognising and Interpreting Glacial Limits. Scottish Geographical Journal 132(2), 130139.
McMartin, I. & McClenaghan, M. B. 2001. Till geochemistry and sampling techniques in glaciated shield terrain: a review. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 185, 1943.
McMillan, A. A., Hamblin, R. J. O. & Merritt, J. W. 2011. A lithostratigraphical framework for onshore Quaternary and Neogene (Tertiary) superficial deposits of Great Britain and the Isle of Man. British Geological Survey Research Report . Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey. 343 pp.
McMillan, A. A. & Aitken, A. M. 1981. The sand and gravel resources of the country west of Peterhead, Grampian Region. Mineral Assessment Report 58. Institute of Geological Sciences. 107 pp.
Merritt, J. W. 1981. The sand and gravel resources of the country around Ellon, Grampian Region. Mineral Assessment Report 114. Institute of Geological Sciences. 114 pp.
Merritt, J. W. 2004. The glacial stratigraphy along the southern margin of the Gaick Plateau. In Lukas, S., Merritt, J. W. & Mitchell, W. A. (eds) The Quaternary of the Central Grampian Highlands, 133138. London: Quaternary Research Association.
Merritt, J. W., Connell, E. R., Hall, A. M. & Peacock, J. D. 2000. An introduction to the Cainozoic geology of coastal Morayshire, Banffshire and Buchan. In Merritt, J. W., Connell, E. R. & Bridgland, D. R. (eds) The Quaternary of the Banffshire coast and Buchan: Field Guide, 120. London: Quaternary Research Association.
Merritt, J. W., Auton, C. A., Connell, E. R., Hall, A. M. & Peacock, J. D. 2003. Cainozoic geology and landscape evolution of north-east Scotland. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheets 66E, 67, 76E, 77, 86E, 87W, 87E, 95, 96W, 96E and 97 Scotland). Keyworth, Nottingham: NERC. 178 pp.
Merritt, J. W., Auton, C. A., Boston, C. M., Everest, J. D. & Merritt, J. E. 2013. An overview of the main Late Devensian glaciation of the Central Grampian Highlands. In Boston, C., Lukas, S. & Merritt, J. (eds) The Quaternary of the Monadhliath Mountains and the Great Glen: field guide, 2540. Quaternary Research Association.
Merritt, J. W., Akhurst, M. C., Wilkinson, I. P., Riding, J. B., Phillips, E. R., Smith, R. A., Finlayson, A. & Dean, M. T. 2014. The Late Pleistocene Afton Lodge Clay Formation, Ayrshire, Scotland: evidence for Early to Middle Devensian climatic changes and Late Devensian onshore ice flow and rafting from the Firth of Clyde. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 125, 195214.
Merritt, J. W., Connell, E. R. & Hall, A. M. 2017. Middle to Late Devensian glaciation of north-east Scotland: implications for the north-eastern quadrant of the last British-Irish ice sheet. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 276294.
Merrit, J. W., Hall, A. M., Gordon, J. E. & Connell, E. R. 2019. Late Pleistocene sediments, landforms and events in Scotland: a review of the terrestrial record. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in press.
Merritt, J. W. & Auton, C. A. 2017. The Dalcharn interglacial site. In Merritt, J. W., Auton, C. A. & Phillips, E. R. (eds) The Quaternary around Nairn and the Inverness Firth: Field Guide, 132144. London: Quaternary Research Association.
Mudie, P. J. & McCarthy, F. M. G. 2006. Marine palynology: potentials for onshore–offshore correlation of Pleistocene–Holocene records. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 61, 139157.
Näslund, J. O., Rodhe, L., Fastook, J. L. & Holmlund, P. 2003. New ways of studying ice sheet flow directions and glacial erosion by computer modelling – examples from Fennoscandia. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 245258.
Nesje, A. & Whillans, I. M. 1994. Erosion of Sognefjord, Norway. Geomorphology 9, 3345.
Nielsen, O. B., Rasmussen, E. S. & Thyberg, B. I. 2015. Distribution of Clay Minerals In the Northern North Sea Basin During the Paleogene and Neogene: A Result of Source-Area Geology and Sorting Processes. Journal of Sedimentary Research 85, 562581.
Nielsen, S. B., Gallagher, K., Leighton, C., Balling, N., Svenningsen, L., Jacobsen, B. H., Thomsen, E., Nielsen, O. B., Heilmann-Clausen, C. & Egholm, D. L. 2009. The evolution of western Scandinavian topography: a review of Neogene uplift versus the ICE (isostasy–climate–erosion) hypothesis. Journal of Geodynamics 47, 7295.
Orr, C. 1979. Rapid weathering dolerites. Civil Engineer in South Africa 21, 161167.
Ottesen, D., Dowdeswell, J. A. & Bugge, T. 2014. Morphology, sedimentary infill and depositional environments of the Early Quaternary North Sea Basin (56–62°N). Marine and Petroleum Geology 56, 123146.
Parnell, J., Baron, M. & Boyce, A. 2000. Controls on kaolinite and dickite distribution, Highland Boundary Fault Zone, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society 157, 635640.
Paterson, I. B., Hall, I. H. S., Stephenson, D. & Forsyth, I. H. 1990. Geology of the Greenock district: Memoir for 1: 50 000 Geological Sheet 30W and part of Sheet 29E (Scotland). Edinburgh: HMSO.
Patterson, C. J. 1998. Laurentide glacial landscapes: The role of ice streams. Geology 26, 643646.
Patton, H., Hubbard, A., Andreassen, K., Winsborrow, M. & Stroeven, A. 2016. The build-up, configuration, and dynamical sensitivity of the Eurasian ice-sheet complex to Late Weichselian climatic and oceanic forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 153, 97121.
Payne, A. J. & Sugden, D. E. 1990. Topography and ice sheet growth. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 15, 625639.
Peach, B. N., Gunn, W., Clough, C. T., Hinxman, L. W., Crampton, C., Anderson, Ė. & Flett, J. S. 1912. The Geology of Ben Wyvis, Carn Chuinneag, Inchbae and the Surrounding County, Including Grave, Evanton, Alness and Kincardine.(Explanation of Sheet 93). Edinburgh: HM Stationery Office. 207 pp.
Peacock, J. D. 1984. Quaternary Geology of the Outer Hebrides. Report of the British Geological Survey 16, 126.
Peacock, J. D. & Merritt, J. W. 2000. Glacial deposits at the Boyne Bay Limestone Quarry, Portsoy, and their place in the late Pleistocene history of northeast Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 15, 543556.
Phillips, E., Everest, J. & Reeves, H. 2013. Micromorphological evidence for subglacial multiphase sedimentation and deformation during overpressurized fluid flow associated with hydrofracturing. Boreas 42, 395427.
Phillips, E. & Merritt, J. 2008. Evidence for multiphase water-escape during rafting of shelly marine sediments at Clava, Inverness-shire, NE Scotland. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 988–1011.
Phillips, W. M., Hall, A. M., Mottram, R., Fifield, K. & Sugden, D. E. 2006. Cosmogenic exposure ages of tors and erratics on the Cairngorm plateau, Scotland: timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosion. Geomorphology 73, 222245.
Phillips, W. M., Hall, A. M., Ballantyne, C. K., Binnie, S., Kubik, P. & Freeman, S. 2008. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Britain tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages. Journal of Quaternary Science 23, 101107.
Pitkäranta, R. 2009. Lithostratigraphy and age estimations of the Pleistocene erosional remnants near the centre of the Scandinavian glaciations in western Finland. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 166180.
Portenga, E. W., Bierman, P. R., Rizzo, D. M. & Rood, D. H. 2013. Low rates of bedrock outcrop erosion in the central Appalachian Mountains inferred from in situ 10Be. Geological Society of America Bulletin 125, 201215.
Pound, M. J. & Riding, J. B. 2015. Palaeoenvironment, palaeoclimate and age of the Brassington Formation (Miocene) of Derbyshire, UK. Journal of the Geological Society 173, 306319.
Praeg, D., Stoker, M. S., Shannon, P. M., Ceramicola, S., Hjelstuen, B., Laberge, J. S. & Mathiesen, A. 2005. Episodic Cenozoic tectonism and the development of the NW European ‘passive' continental margin. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22, 10071030.
Rabassa, J., Coronato, A. M. & Salemme, M. 2005. Chronology of the Late Cenozoic Patagonian glaciations and their correlation with biostratigraphic units of the Pampean region (Argentina). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 20, 81103.
Rapp, A. 1996. Impact of mountain glaciations on tors, blockfields and cryoplanation features. Nunataks or non-scoured zones as refugia? In McCann, S. B. & Ford, D. C. (eds) Geomorphology Sans Frontières, 137152. Chichester: Wiley.
Raymo, M. & Ruddiman, W. F. 1992. Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature 359, 117122.
Reinardy, B. T. I., Hjelstuen, B. O., Sejrup, H. P., Augedal, H. & Jørstad, A. 2017. Late Pliocene–Pleistocene environments and glacial history of the northern North Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews 158, 107126.
Renssen, H. & Vandenberghe, J. 2003. Investigation of the relationship between permafrost distribution in NW Europe and extensive winter sea-ice cover in the North Atlantic Ocean during the cold phases of the Last Glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 209223.
Richardson, C. & Holmund, P. 1996. Glacial cirque formation in northern Scandinavia. Annals of Glaciology 22, 102106.
Rise, L., Ottesen, D., Berg, K. & Lundin, E. 2005. Large-scale development of the mid-Norwegian margin during the last 3 million years. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22, 3344.
Rolfe, W. D. I. 1966. Woolly rhinceros from the Scottish Pleistocene. Scottish Journal of Geology 2, 253258.
Rose, J., Boardman, J., Kemp, R. & Whiteman, C. 1985. Palaeosols and the interpretation of the British Quaternary stratigraphy. In Richards, K. S., Arnett, R. R. & Ellis, S. (eds) Geomorphology and soils, 348375. London: G. Allen & Unwin.
Roskosch, J., Winsemann, J., Polom, U., Brandes, C., Tsukamoto, S., Weitkamp, A., Bartholomäus, W. A., Henningsen, D. & Frechen, M. 2014. Luminescence dating of ice-marginal deposits in northern Germany: evidence for repeated glaciations during the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 12 to MIS 6). Boreas 44, 103126.
Rudberg, S. 1994. Glacial cirques in Scandinavia. Norsk Geografisk Tidskrift 48, 179197.
Ruddiman, W. F., Raymo, M. E., Martinson, D. G., Clement, B. M. & Backman, J. 1989. Pleistocene evolution: Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and North Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography 4, 353412.
Russell, A. J. 1995. Late Devensian meltwater movement and storage within the Ochil Hills, central Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 31, 6578.
Saillard, M., Hall, S., Audin, L., Farber, D., Hérail, G., Martinod, J., Regard, V., Finkel, R. & Bondoux, F. 2009. Non-steady long-term uplift rates and Pleistocene marine terrace development along the Andean margin of Chile (31°S) inferred from 10Be dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277, 5063.
Salonen, V.-P. 1986. Glacial transport distance distributions of surface boulders in Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Finland 338, 57 pp.
Salt, K. E. & Evans, D. J. A. 2004. Superimposed subglacially streamlined landforms of southwest Scotland. Scottish Geographical Journal 120, 133148.
Sejrup, H. P., Aarseth, I., Ellingsen, K. L., Lovlie, R., Reither, E., Bent, A., Brigham-Grette, J., Jansen, E., Larsen, E. & Stoker, M. S. 1987. Quaternary stratigraphy of the Fladen area, central North Sea: A multidisciplinary study. Journal of Quaternary Science 2, 3558.
Sejrup, H.-P., Larsen, E., Haflidason, H., Berstad, I. M., Hjelstuen, B. O., Jonsdottir, H. E., King, E. L., Landvik, J., Longva, O., Nygård, A., Ottesen, D., Raunholm, S., Rise, L. & Stalsberg, K. 2003. Configuration, history and impact of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream. Boreas 32, 1836.
Sejrup, H. P., Hjelstuen, B. O., Torbjorn Dahlgren, K. I., Haflidason, H., Kuijpers, A., Nygard, A., Praeg, D., Stoker, M. S. & Vorren, T. O. 2005. Pleistocene glacial history of the NW European continental margin. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22, 11111129.
Sejrup, H. & Larsen, E. 1991. Eemian–early weichselian NS temperature gradients; North Atlantic–NW Europe. Quaternary International 10, 161166.
Selby, I. C. 1987. Glaciated shorelines in Barra and Vatersay. Quaternary Newsletter 53, 1622.
Sissons, J. B. 1960. Erosion Surfaces, Cyclic Slopes and Drainage Systems in Southern Scotland and Northern England. Transactions and Papers (Institute of British Geographers), 2338.
Sissons, J. B. 1961. Some aspects of glacial drainage channels in Britain. Part II. Scottish Geographical Magazine 76, 1536.
Sissons, J. B. 1967. The evolution of Scotland's scenery. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 259 pp.
Sissons, J. B. 1969. Drift stratigraphy and buried morphological features in the Grangemouth–Falkirk–Airth area, central Scotland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 55, 145159.
Sissons, J. 1971. The geomorphology of central Edinburgh. Scottish Geographical Magazine 87, 185196.
Sissons, J. B. 1976. Scotland. London: Methuen. 156 pp.
Sissons, J. B. 1981. British shore platforms and ice-sheets. Nature 291, 473475.
Sissons, J. B. & Rhind, D. W. 1970. Drift stratigraphy and buried morphology beneath the Forth at Rosyth. Scottish Journal of Geology 6, 272284.
Small, D., Rinterknecht, V., Austin, W., Fabel, D. & Miguens-Rodriguez, M. 2012. In situ cosmogenic exposure ages from the Isle of Skye, northwest Scotland: implications for the timing of deglaciation and readvance from 15 to 11 ka. Journal of Quaternary Science 27, 150158.
Small, D. & Fabel, D. 2016. Was Scotland deglaciated during the Younger Dryas? Quaternary Science Reviews 145, 259263.
Small, E. E., Anderson, R. S., Repka, J. L. & Finkel, R. 1997. Erosion rates of alpine bedrock summit surfaces deduced from in situ 10Be and 26Al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 150, 413425.
Smith, D. E., Stewart, I. S., Harrison, S. & Firth, C. R. 2009. Late Quaternary neotectonics and mass movement in South East Raasay, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 120, 145154.
Smith, D. E., Barlow, N., Bradley, S., Firth, C., Hall, A. M., Jordan, J. & Long, D. 2019. Quaternary sea level change in Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. DOI: 10.1017/S1755691017000469.
Smith, R. A., Merritt, J. W., Leslie, A. G., Krabbendam, M. & Stephenson, D. 2011. Geology of the Newtonmore–Ben Macdui district: description for Sheet 64 (Scotland). Geology and Landscape Open Report (Unpublished). Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey. 122 pp.
Soons, J. M. 1959. The sub-drift surface of the lower Devon valley. Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow 24, 17.
Soulsby, C., Chen, M., Ferrier, R. C., Helliwell, R. C., Jenkins, A. & Harriman, R. 1998. Hydrogeochemistry of shallow groundwater in an upland catchment. Hydrological Processes 12, 11111127.
Stewart, H. A. et al. 2019. Quaternary stratigraphy of the shelves adjacent to Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in press.
Stewart, M. A., Lonergan, L. & Hampson, G. 2013. 3D seismic analysis of buried tunnel valleys in the central North Sea: morphology, cross-cutting generations and glacial history. Quaternary Science Reviews 72, 117.
Stewart, M. A. & Lonergan, L. 2011. Seven glacial cycles in the middle-late Pleistocene of northwest Europe: Geomorphic evidence from buried tunnel valleys. Geology 39, 283286.
Stoker, M. S. 1997. Mid-to late Cenozoic sedimentation on the continental margin off NW Britain. Journal of the Geological Society 154, 509515.
Stoker, M. S., Hitchen, K. & Graham, C. C. 1993. United Kingdom Offshore Regional Report: the geology of the Hebrides and the West Shetland shelves, and adjacent deep water areas. London: HMSO.
Stoker, M. S., Holford, S. P., Hillis, R. R., Green, P. F. & Duddy, I. R. 2010. Cenozoic post-rift sedimentation off northwest Britain: Recording the detritus of episodic uplift on a passive continental margin. Geology 38, 595598.
Stoker, M. S. & Bent, A. J. A. 1985. Middle Pleistocene glacial and glaciomarine sedimentation in the west central North Sea. Boreas 14, 325332.
Stoker, M. S. & Bradwell, T. 2005. The Minch palaeo-ice stream, NW sector of the British–Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of the Geological Society 162, 425428.
Stoker, M. & Bradwell, T. 2009. Neotectonic deformation in a Scottish fjord, Loch Broom, NW Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 45, 107116.
Stone, J. O., Ballantyne, C. K. & Fifield, L. K. 1998. Exposure dating and validation of periglacial weathering limits, northwest Scotland. Geology 26, 587590.
Stone, J. O. & Ballantyne, C. K. 2006. Dimensions and deglacial chronology of the Outer Hebrides Ice Cap, northwest Scotland: implications of cosmic ray exposure dating. Journal of Quaternary Science 21, 7584.
Stroeven, A. P., Fabel, D., Harbor, J., Hättestrand, C. & Kleman, J. 2002. Reconstructing the erosion history of glaciated passive margins: applications of in situ produced cosmogenic nuclide techniques. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 196, 153168.
Stroeven, A. P., Hättestrand, C., Kleman, J., Heyman, J., Fabel, D., Fredin, O., Goodfellow, B. W., Harbor, J. M., Jansen, J. D. & Olsen, L. 2016. Deglaciation of Fennoscandia. Quaternary Science Reviews 147, 91121.
Sugden, D. E. 1968. The selectivity of glacial erosion in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 45, 7992.
Sugden, D. E. 1969. The age and form of corries in the Cairngorms. Scottish Geographical Magazine 85, 3446.
Sugden, D. E., Glasser, N. & Clapperton, C. M. 1992. Evolution of large roches moutonnées. Geografiska Annaler 74A, 253264.
Sugden, D. E. & Watts, S. H. 1977. Tors, felsenmeer, and glaciation in northern Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 14, 28172823.
Sutherland, D. G. 1984. The Quaternary deposits and landforms of Scotland and the neighbouring shelves: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews 3, 157254.
Sutherland, D. G. & Gordon, J. E. 1993. The Quaternary in Scotland, In Gordon, J. E. & Sutherland, D. G. (eds) Quaternary of Scotland, 1347. London: Chapman and Hall. 720 pp.
Sutherland, D. G. & Walker, M. J. C. 1984. A late Devensian ice-free area and possible interglacial site on the Isle of Lewis, Scotland. Nature 309, 701703.
Synge, F. M. 1956. The glaciation of North-East Scotland. Scottish Geographical Magazine 72, 129143.
Synge, F. M. 1963. The Quaternary succession around Aberdeen, North-East Scotland. Report of the VIth International Quaternary Congress 3, 353361.
Thierens, M., Pirlet, H., Colin, C., Latruwe, K., Vanhaecke, F., Lee, J., Stuut, J. B., Titschack, J., Huvenne, V. & Dorschel, B. 2011. Ice-rafting from the British–Irish ice sheet since the earliest Pleistocene (2.6 million years ago): implications for long-term mid-latitudinal ice-sheet growth in the North Atlantic region. Quaternary Science Reviews 44, 229240.
Vandenberghe, J. 2001. Permafrost during the Pleistocene in North West and Central Europe. In Paepe, R. & Melnikov, V. (eds) Permafrost Response On Economic Development, Environmental Security And Natural Resources, 185194. Dordrecht: Springer. xix+636 pp.
von Weymarn, J. 1979. A new concept of glaciation in Lewis and Harris, Outer Hebrides. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Series B: Biological Sciences 77, 97105.
Walker, F. 1935. The late Palaeozoic quartz dolerites and tholeiites of Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine 24, 131159.
Walker, M. J. C., Merritt, J. W., Auton, C. A., Coope, G. R., Field, M. H., Heijnis, H. & Taylor, B. J. 1992. Allt Odhar and Dalcharn: two pre-Late Devensian/Late Weichselian sites in northern Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 7, 6986.
West, R. G. 1962. Vegetational history of the Early Pleistocene of the Royal Society Borehole at Ludham, Norfolk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 155, 437453.
Westaway, R. 2009. Quaternary uplift of northern England. Global and Planetary Change 68, 357382.
Westaway, R. 2016. Isostatic compensation of Quaternary vertical crustal motions: coupling between uplift of Britain and subsidence beneath the North Sea. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 169182.
White, T. S., Bridgland, D. R., Westaway, R. & Straw, A. 2017. Evidence for late Middle Pleistocene glaciation of the British margin of the southern North Sea. Journal of Quaternary Science 32, 261275.
Whittington, G., Hall, A. M. & Jarvis, J. 1993. A pre-Late Devensian pollen site from Camp Fauld, Buchan, Grampian Region. New Phytologist 125, 867874.
Whittington, G., Connell, E. R., Coope, G. R., Edwards, K. J., Hall, A. M., Hulme, P. D. & Jarvis, J. 1998. Devensian organic interstadial deposits and glacier extent in Buchan, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science 13, 309324.
Wilson, M. J., Bain, D. C. & Duthie, D. M. L. 1984. The soil clays of Great Britain: II Scotland. Clay Minerals 19, 709735.
Wright, J. S. 1997. Deep weathering profiles (saprolites) in north east Scotland. Scottish Geographical Magazine 113, 189194.
Ziegler, M., Loew, S. & Moore, J. R. 2013. Distribution and inferred age of exfoliation joints in the Aar Granite of the central Swiss Alps and relationship to Quaternary landscape evolution. Geomorphology 201, 344362.