Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Anatomy, cranial ontogeny and phylogenetic relationships of the pareiasaur Deltavjatia rossicus from the Late Permian of central Russia

  • Linda A. Tsuji (a1) (a2)

Abstract

New material of the pareiasaur Deltavjatia rossicus from the Kotel'nich locality, Kirov Province, Russia, is described in detail. The taxon is characterised by a distinctive pattern of dermal sculpture and the exaggerated embayment of the posterior skull roof, resulting in the dorsal exposure of the braincase. Postcranially, Deltavjatia shares some aspects of its morphology with basal pareiasaurs, including the osteoderm pattern. Features such as the forward-slanting and pointed iliac blade are shared with stratigraphically younger, more derived forms. Well-preserved material of the taxon spans a wide size-range, allowing an assessment of ontogenetic trends. A geometric morphometric analysis of the skull roof of Deltavjatia reveals an allometric increase in snout length and postorbital area, a result that can serve as a basis for examining morphological trends within pareiasaurs. A reassessment of pareiasauromorph relationships, using both parsimony and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference, recovers similar topologies in both cases. Four Bayesian analyses were completed, with and without a gamma-shaped parameter and with and without the inclusion of autapomorphies. Despite differing taxon and outgroup selection, the recovered topologies are similar to previous phylogenies of pareiasaurian relationships, with Deltavjatia appearing as a relatively basal taxon.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Abdala, F. & Giannini, N. P. 2000. Gomphodont cynodonts of the Chañares Formation: the analysis of an ontogenetic sequence. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20, 501–06.
Amalitzky, V. 1922. Diagnoses of the new forms of vertebrates and plants from the Upper Permian on North Dvina. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences 16, 112.
Angielczyk, K. D. & Sheets, D. H. 2007. Investigation of simulated tectonic deformation in fossils using geometric morphometrics. Paleobiology 33, 125–48.
Benton, M. J., Newell, A. J., Khlyupin, A. Y., Shumov, I. S., Price, G. D. & Kurkin, A. A. 2012. Preservation of exceptional vertebrate assemblages in Middle Permian fluviolacustrine mustones of Kotel'nich, Russia: stratigraphy, sedimentology, and taphonomy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 319–320, 5883.
Benton, M. J. & Kirkpatric, R. 1989. Heterochrony in a fossil reptile: juveniles of the rhynchosaur Scaphonyx fischeri from the Late Triassic of Brazil. Palaeontology 32, 335–53.
Bookstein, F. L. 1991. Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. New York: Cambridge University Press. 435 pp.
Boonstra, L. D. 1929a. Pareiasaurian studies. Part III. On the pareiasaurian manus. Annals of the South African Museum 28, 97112.
Boonstra, L. D. 1929b. Pareiasaurian studies. Part IV. On the pareiasaurian pes. Annals of the South African Museum 28, 113–22.
Boonstra, L. D. 1930. A contribution to the cranial osteology of Pareiasaurus serridens Owen. Annals of the University of Stellenbosch 8, 118.
Boonstra, L. D. 1932. Pareiasaurian studies. Part VIII. The osteology and mycology of the locomotor apparatus B. Fore Limb. Annals of the South African Museum 28, 436503.
Boonstra, L. D. 1934a. Pareiasaurian studies. Part XI. The vertebral column and ribs. Annals of the South African Museum 31, 4966.
Boonstra, L. D. 1934b. Pareiasaurian studies. Part X. The dermal armour. Annals of the South African Museum 31, 3948.
Brink, A. S. 1955. On Nanoparia Broom. Palaeontologia Africana 3, 5763.
Broom, R. 1913. On the manus and pes of Pareiasaurus . Annals of the South African Museum 7, 353–57.
Bulanov, V. V. & Yashina, O. V. 2005. Elginiid pareiasaurs of Eastern Europe. Paleontological Journal 39, 428–32.
Bystrov, A. P. 1957. Cherep pareiazavra. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiya Nauk SSSR 68, 318.
Campione, N. E. & Evans, D. C. 2011. Cranial growth and variation in Edmontosaurs (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae): implications for Latest Cretaceous megaherbivore diversity in North America. PLoS ONE 6, e25186. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025186.
Carroll, R. L. & Lindsay, W. 1985. Cranial anatomy of the primitive reptile Procolophon . Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 22, 1571–87.
Cisneros, J. C., Abdala, F. & Malabarba, M. C. 2005. Pareiasaurids from the Rio do Rasto Formation, Southern Brazil: biostratigraphic implications for Permian faunas of the Paraná Basin. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8, 1324.
Cisneros, J. C., Rubidge, B. S., Mason, R. & Dube, C. 2008. Analysis of millerettid parareptile relationships in the light of new material of Broomia perplexa Watson, 1914, from the Permian of South Africa. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 6, 453–62.
Clack, J. A. 1997. The evolution of tetrapod ears and the fossil record. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 50, 198212.
Clack, J. A. 2002. Gaining Ground: the origin and evolution of tetrapods. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 369 pp.
Coffa, A. A. 2007. Geology and stratigraphy of the Upper Permian Kotel'nich locality, Vyatka River, Russia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
Damiani, R. & Modesto, S. P. 2001. The morphology of the pareiasaurian vomer. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 2001, 423–34.
deBraga, M. & Reisz, R. R. 1996. The Early Permian reptile Aceistorhinus pteroticus and its phylogenetic position. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16, 384–95.
deBraga, M. & Rieppel, O. 1997. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120, 281354.
Emerson, S. B. & Bramble, D. M. 1993. Scaling and the evolution of skull design. In Hanken, J. & Hall, B. K. (eds) The Vertebrate Skull. Vol. III, 384421. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
Goloboff, P. A., Farris, J. S. & Nixon, K. C. 2008. TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24, 774–86.
Hartmann-Weinberg, A. P. 1933. Die Evolution der Pareiasauriden. Trudy Paleontogichesky Akademii Nauk SSSR 3, 366.
Hartmann-Weinberg, A. P. 1937. Pareiasauriden als Leitfossilien. Problems in Paleontology 2/3, 649712.
Haughton, S. H. 1929. Pareiasaurian studies. Part II. Notes on some pareiasaurian brain-cases. Annals of the South African Museum 28, 2126.
Haughton, S. H. & Boonstra, L. D. 1929. Pareiasaurian studies. Part I. An attempt at classification of the Pareiasauria based on skull features. Annals of the South African Museum 28, 7987.
Hauser, D. L. & Presch, W. 1991. The effect of ordered characters on phylogenetic reconstruction. Cladistics 7, 243–65.
Hedges, S. B. & Poling, L. L. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of reptiles. Science 283, 9981001.
Hill, R. V. 2005. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling. Systematic Biology 54, 530–47.
Holder, M. & Lewis, P. O. 2003. Phylogeny estimation: traditional and Bayesian approaches. Nature Reviews: Genetics 4, 275–84.
Horner, J. & Goodwin, M. B. 2006. Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273, 2757–61.
Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Ronquist, F. 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics 17, 754–55.
Ivakhnenko, M. F. 1987. [Permian parareptiles of the USSR]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituita, Akademiia Nauk SSSR 223, 1160. [Russian]
Jalil, N.-E. & Janvier, P. 2005. Les pareiasaures (Amniota, Parareptilia) du Permien supérieur du Bassin d'Argana, Maroc. Geodiversitas 27, 35132.
Jones, M. E. H. 2008. Skull shape and feeding strategy in Sphenodon and other Rhynchocephalia (Diapsida: Lepidosauria). Journal of Morphology 269, 945–66.
Kass, R. E. & Rafferty, A. E. 1995. Bayes factors. Journal of the American Statistical Association 90, 773–95.
Ketchum, H. F. & Barrett, P. M. 2004. New reptile material from the Lower Triassic of Madagascar: implications for the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 41, 18.
Klingenberg, C. P. 2008. MorphoJ. Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, UK. http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm.
Kordikova, E. G. & Khlyupin, A. J. 2001. First evidence of a neonate dentition in pareiasaurs from the Upper Permian of Russia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46, 589–94.
Kuhn, O. 1969. Part 6: Cotylosauria. In Kuhn, O. (ed) Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag.
Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Classis Reptilium. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsis Reptilium emendatum, cum experimentis circa venena et antidote Reptilium Austriacorum. Vienna: Joan. Thomae, Nob. de Trattnern.
Laurin, M. & Reisz, R. R. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113, 165223.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1995a. Evolutionary morphology of pareiasaurs. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Cambridge University, UK.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1995b. Historical burden in systematics and the interrelationships of ‘parareptiles’. Biological Reviews 70, 459547.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1996. Correlated progression and the origin of turtles. Nature 379, 812–15.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1997a. Pareiasaur phylogeny and the origin of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120, 197280.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1997b. A taxonomic revision of pareiasaurian reptiles: implications for Permian terrestrial Palaeoecology. Modern Geology 21, 231–98.
Lee, M. S. Y. 1998. Similarity, parsimony and conjectures of homology: The chelonian shoulder girdle revisited. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11, 379–87.
Lee, M. S. Y. 2000. The Russian pareiasaurs. In Benton, M. J., Shishkin, M. A., Unwin, D. M. & Kurochkin, E. N. (eds) The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, 7185. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, M. S. Y., Gow, C. E. & Kitching, J. W. 1997. Anatomy and relationships of the pareiasaur Pareiasuchus nasicornis from the Upper Permian of Zambia. Palaeontology 40, 307–35.
Lee, M. S. Y. & Worthy, T. H. 2011. Likelihood reinstates Archaeopteryx as a primitive bird. Biology Letters 8, 299303.
Lewis, P. O. 2001. A likelihood approach to estimating phylogeny from discrete morphological character data. Systematic Biology 50, 913–25.
Lyson, T. R., Bever, G. S., Bhullar, B.–A., Joyce, W. G. & Gauthier, J. A. 2010. Transitional fossils and the origin of turtles. Biology Letters 6, 830–33.
Lyson, T. R., Sperling, E. A., Heimberg, A. M., Gauthier, J. A., King, B. L. & Petersen, K. J. 2012. MicroRNAs support a turtle+lizard clade. Biology Letters 8, 104–07.
Maddison, W. P. & Maddison, D. R. 2009. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.72 http://mesquiteproject.org.
Maxwell, W. D. 1991. The pareiasaur Elginia from Elgin, north-east Scotland, and the Late Permian extinction event . PhD Thesis, Queen's University Belfast, UK.
Meyer, A. & Zardoya, R. 2003. Recent Advances in the (Molecular) Phylogeny of Vertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34, 311–38.
Modesto, S. P. & Rybczynski, N. 2000. The amniote faunas of the Russian Permian: implications for Late Permian terrestrial vertebrate biogeography. In Benton, M. J., Shishkin, M. A., Unwin, D. M. & Kurochkin, E. N. (eds) The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, 1734. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Müller, J. 2004. The relationships among diapsid reptiles and influence of taxon selection. In Arratia, G., Wilson, M. V. H. & Cloutier, R (eds) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates, 379408. Munich: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.
Müller, J. & Reisz, R. R. 2006. The phylogeny of early Eureptiles: comparing parsimony and Bayesian approaches in the investigation of a basal fossil clade. Systematic Biology 55, 503–11.
Müller, J. & Tsuji, L. A. 2007. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution. PloS ONE 2, e889.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000889.
Olson, E. C. 1947. The Family Diadectidae and its bearing on the classification of reptiles. Fieldiana: Geology 11, 153.
Reisz, R. R., Müller, J., Tsuji, L. & Scott, D. 2007. The cranial osteology of Belebey vegrandis (Parareptilia: Bolosauridae), from the Middle Permian of Russia, and its bearing on reptilian evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151, 191214.
Reisz, R. R. & Scott, D. 2002. Owenetta kitchingorum, sp. nov., a small parareptile (Procolophonia: Owenettidae) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22, 244–56.
Rieppel, O. & Reisz, R. R. 1999. The origin and early evolution of turtles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30, 122.
Rohlf, F. J. 2006. TPS-Dig. Ver. 2.05. Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Romer, A. S. 1956. Osteology of the Reptiles. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. 772 pp.
Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. 2003. Mr. Bayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572–74.
Seeley, H. G. 1888. Researches on the structure, organisation, and classification of the fossil Reptilia. II. On Pareiasaurus bombidens (Owen), and the significance of affinities to amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 179, 59109.
Sidor, C. A., Blackburn, D. C. & Gado, B. 2003. The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger—II Preliminary description of a new pareiasaur. Palaeontologica Africana 39, 4552.
Slowinski, J. B. 1993. “Unordered” versus “ordered” characters. Systematic Biology 42, 155–65.
Snively, E., Russel, A. P. & Powell, G. L. 2004. Evolutionary morphology of the coelurosaurian arctometatarsus: descriptive, morphometric and phylogenetic approaches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 142, 525–53.
Spencer, P. S. 2000. The braincase structure of Leptopleuron lacertinum Owen (Parareptilia: Procolophonidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21, 2130.
Spencer, P. S. & Lee, M. S. Y. 2000. A juvenile Elginia and early growth in pareiasaurs. Journal of Paleontology 74, 1191–95.
Stayton, C. T. & Ruta, M. 2006. Geometric morphometrics of the skull roof of the stereospondyls (Amphibia: Temnospondyli). Palaeontology 49, 307–37.
Sues, H. –D. & Reisz, R. R. 2008. Anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Sclerosaurus armatus (Amniota: Parareptilia) from the Buntsandtein (Triassic) of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28, 1031–42.
Sullivan, C., Reisz, R. R. & Smith, R. M. H. 2003. The Permian mammal-like herbivore Diictodon, the oldest known example of sexually dimorphic armament. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 270, 173–78.
Sumida, S. S., Lombard, R. E. & Berman, D. S. 1992. Morphology of the atlas–axis complex of the Late Palaeozoic tetrapod suborders Diadectomorpha and Seymouriamorpha. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 336, 259–73.
Tsuji, L. A. 2006. Cranial anatomy and phylogenetic affinities of the Permian parareptile Macroleter poezicus . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26, 849–65.
Tsuji, L. A., Müller, J. & Reisz, R. R. 2010. Microleter mckinzieorum gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma: the basalmost parareptile from Laurasia. Systematic Palaeontology 8, 245–55.
Tsuji, L. A., Müller, J. & Reisz, R. R. 2012. Anatomy of Emeroleter levis and the phylogeny of the nycteroleter parareptiles. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31, 4567.
Tsuji, L. A., Sidor, C. A., Steyer, J.–S., Smith, R. M. H., Tabor, N. J. & Ide, O. 2013. The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger-VII. Cranial anatomy and relationships of Bunostegos akokanensis (Pareiasauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33, 747–63.
Tsuji, L. A. & Müller, J. 2008. A reevaluation of Parasaurus geinitzi, the first named pareiasaur (Amniota, Parareptilia). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 1111–21.
Tsuji, L. A. & Müller, J. 2009. Assembling the history of the Parareptilia: phylogeny, diversification, and a new definition of the clade. Fossil Record 12, 7181.
Watson, D. M. S. 1914. On the skull of a pareiasaurian reptile, and on the relationship of that type. Journal of Zoology 1914, 155180.
Wiens, J. J. 2003. Missing data, incomplete taxa, and phylogenetic accuracy. Systematic Biology 52, 528–38.
Wiens, J. J., Fetzner, J. W. Jr., Parkinson, C. L. & Reeder, T. W. 2005. Hylid frog phylogeny and sampling strategies for speciose clades. Systematic Biology 54, 778807.
Wiens, J. J. & Moen, D. S. 2008. Missing data and the accuracy of Bayesian phylogenetics. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46, 307–14.
Wild, R. 1985. Ein Schädelrest von Parasaurus geinitzi H. v. Meyer (Reptilia, Cotylosauria) aus dem Kupferschiefer (Perm) von Richelsdorf (Hessen). Geologische Blätter für Nordost-Bayern 34/35, 897920.
Wiley, E. O., Siegel-Causey, D., Brooks, D. R. & Funk, V. A. 1991. The Compleat Cladist: A Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication 19.
Witzmann, F., Scholz, H. & Ruta, M. 2009. Morphospace occupation of temnospondyl growth series: a geometric morphometric approach. Alcheringa 33, 237–55.
Zardoya, R. & Meyer, A. 2001. The evolutionary position of turtles revised. Naturwissenschaften 88, 193200.
Zelditch, M. L., Swiderski, D. L., Sheets, H. D. & Fink, W. L. 2004. Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 443 pp.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Tsuji Supplementary Material
Appendix 2

 PDF (31 KB)
31 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Tsuji Supplementary Material
Appendix 3

 PDF (35 KB)
35 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Tsuji supplementary material
Appendix 1

 PDF (91 KB)
91 KB

Anatomy, cranial ontogeny and phylogenetic relationships of the pareiasaur Deltavjatia rossicus from the Late Permian of central Russia

  • Linda A. Tsuji (a1) (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.