Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A new terrestrial millipede fauna of earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) age from southeastern Scotland helps fill ‘Romer's Gap'

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 July 2018

Andrew J. Ross
Affiliation:
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK. a.ross@nms.ac.uk
Gregory D. Edgecombe
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. Email: g.edgecombe@nhm.ac.uk
Neil D. L. Clark
Affiliation:
The Hunterian, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Email: neil.clark@glasgow.ac.uk
Carys E. Bennett
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. Email: ceb28@leicester.ac.uk
Vicen Carrió
Affiliation:
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK. a.ross@nms.ac.uk
Rubén Contreras-Izquierdo
Affiliation:
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK. a.ross@nms.ac.uk
Bill Crighton
Affiliation:
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK. a.ross@nms.ac.uk

Abstract

A diverse millipede (diplopod) fauna has been recovered from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) Ballagan Formation of the Scottish Borders, discovered by the late Stan Wood. The material is generally fragmentary; however, six different taxa are present based on seven specimens. Only one displays enough characters for formal description and is named Woodesmus sheari Ross, Edgecombe & Clark gen. & sp. nov. The absence of paranota justifies the erection of Woodesmidae fam. nov. within the Archipolypoda. The diverse fauna supports the theory that an apparent lack of terrestrial animal fossils from ‘Romer's Gap' was due to a lack of collecting and suitable deposits, rather than to low oxygen levels as previously suggested.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Royal Society of Edinburgh 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Almond, J. E. 1985. The Silurian–Devonian fossil record of the Myriapoda. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 309, 227237.Google Scholar
Anderson, J. S., Smithson, T., Mansky, C. F., Meyer, T. & Clack, J. 2015. A Diverse Tetrapod Fauna at the Base of ‘Romer's Gap'. PLoS ONE 10(4), e0125446. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125446, 127.Google ScholarPubMed
Andrée, K. 1913. Weiteres über das carbonische Arthrostraken-Genus Arthropleura Jordan. Palaeontographica 60, 295310.Google Scholar
Attems, C. G. 1926. Myriopoda. Handbuch der Zoologie. Vol. 4. Berlin: W. De Gruyter. 402 pp.Google Scholar
Bennett, C. E., Kearsey, T. I., Davies, S. J., Millward, D., Clack, J. A., Smithson, T. R. & Marshall, J. E. A. 2016. Early Mississippian sandy siltstones preserve rare vertebrate fossils in seasonal flooding episodes. Sedimentology 63(6), 16771700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brade-Birks, S. G. 1923. Notes on Myriapoda, xxviii. Kampecaris tuberculata, n.sp., from the Old Red Sandstone of Ayrshire. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 20(6), 277280.Google Scholar
Briggs, D. E. G., Rolfe, W. D. I. & Brannan, J. 1979. A giant myriapod trail from the Namurian of Arran, Scotland. Palaeontology 22(2), 273291.Google Scholar
Cater, J. M. L., Briggs, D. E. G. & Clarkson, E. N. K. 1989. Shrimp-bearing sedimentary successions in the Lower Carboniferous (Dinantian) Cementstone and Oil Shale Groups of northern Britain. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 80, 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clack, J. A., Bennett, C. E., Carpenter, D. K., Davies, S. J., Fraser, N. C., Kearsey, T. I., Marshall, J. E. A., Millward, D., Otoo, B. K. A., Reeves, E. J., Ross, A. J., Ruta, M., Smithson, K. Z., Smithson, T. R. & Walsh, S. A. 2016. Phylogenetic and environmental context of a Tournaisian tetrapod fauna. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1(2), 111.Google ScholarPubMed
Clough, C. T., Hinxman, L. W., Wilson, J. S. G., Crampton, C. B., Wright, W. B., Bailey, E. B., Anderson, E. M., Carruthers, R. G., Grabham, G. W., Flett, J. S., Lee, G. W., MacGregor, M. & Dinham, C. H. 1925. The Geology of the Glasgow District. 2nd Ed. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland. 299 pp.Google Scholar
Gervais, M. P. 1844. Études sur les Myriapodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Ser. 3 2, 5180.Google Scholar
Hall, I. H. S., Browne, M. A. E. & Forsyth, I. H. 1998. Geology of the Glasgow district, Memoir for 1:50 000 Geological Sheet 30E (Scotland). British Geological Survey. 117 pp.Google Scholar
Hunt, A. P., Milàn, J., Lucas, S. G. & Spielmann, J. A. (eds) 2012. Vertebrate Coprolites. New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin 57. 387 pp.Google Scholar
Jordan, H. & von Meyer, H. 1856. Ueber die Crustacean der Steinkohlenformation von Saarbrücken. Palaeontographica 4, 115.Google Scholar
Kearsey, T. I., Bennett, C. E., Millward, D. Davies, S. J., Gowing, C. J. B., Kemp, S. J., Leng, M. J., Marshall, J. E. A. & Browne, M. A. E. 2016. The terrestrial landscapes of tetrapod evolution in earliest Carboniferous seasonal wetlands of SE Scotland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 457, 5269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latreille, P. A. 1802-03. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Vol. 2. 380 pp. Paris: F. Dufart.Google Scholar
Lerner, A., Mansky, C. F. & Lucas, S. G. 2013. A possible diplopod from the Lower Mississippian (Tournaisian) Horton Bluff Formation, Blue Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. In Lucas, S. G., DiMichele, W. A., Barrick, J. E., Schneider, J. W. & Spielmann, J. A. (eds) The Carboniferous–Permian Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60, 212213. Albuquerque: New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science. 465 pp.Google Scholar
Mansky, C. F. & Lucas, S. G. 2013. Romer's Gap revisited: continental assemblages and ichno-assemblages from the basal Carboniferous of Blue Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. In Lucas, S. G., DiMichele, W. A., Barrick, J. E., Schneider, J. W. & Spielmann, J. A. (eds) The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60, 244273. Albuquerque: New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science. 465 pp.Google Scholar
Mesibov, R. 2014. The Australian millipede Dicranogonus pix Jeekel, 1982 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae): a species with and without paranota. ZooKeys 454, 2939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peach, B. N. 1882. On some fossil myriapods from the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Forfarshire. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 7(1), 177188.Google Scholar
Peach, B. N. 1899. On some new myriapods from the Palaeozoic rocks of Scotland. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 14, 113126.Google Scholar
Pearson, P. N. 1992. Walking traces of the giant myriapod Arthropleura from the Strathclyde Group (Lower Carboniferous) of Fife. Scottish Journal of Geology 28(2), 127133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pocock, R. I. 1887. On the classification of the Diplopoda. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Ser. 5 20, 283295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
RolfeW. I. & Ingham, J. K. W. I. & Ingham, J. K. 1967. Limb structure, affinity and diet of the Carboniferous ‘centipede' Arthropleura. Scottish Journal of Geology 3(1), 118124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, A. J. 2018. Fossil Insects, Arthropods and Amber: Preface. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 107 (for 2016), 7378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scudder, S. H. 1869. On the fossil myriapods of the Coal formations of Nova Scotia and England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 25, 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scudder, S. H. 1873. On the Carboniferous myriapods preserved in the sigillarian stumps of Nova Scotia. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 2(2), 231239.Google Scholar
Scudder, S. H. 1882. Archipolypoda, a subordinal type of spined myriapods from the Carboniferous Formation. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 3(5), 143182.Google Scholar
Shear, W. A. 1994. Myriapodous arthropods from the Viséan of East Kirkton, West Lothian, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 84 (for 1993), 309316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shear, W. A. 1998. The fossil record and evolution of the Myriapoda. In Fortey, R. A. & Thomas, R. H. (eds) Arthropod relationships. Systematics Association Special Volume 55, 211219. London: Chapman & Hall. xii+383 pp.Google Scholar
Shear, W. A. & Edgecombe, G. D. 2010. The geological record and phylogeny of the Myriapoda. Arthropod Structure & Development 39, 174190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smithson, T. R., Wood, S. P., Marshall, J. E. A. & Clack, J. A. 2012. Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 109(12), 45324537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suarez, S. E., Brookfield, M. E., Catlos, E. J. & Stöckli, D. F. 2017. The supposed oldest-recorded air-breathing land animal is early Devonian, not late Silurian in age. PloS One 12(6), e0179262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
TrewinN. H., Gurr, P. R., Jones, R. B. & Gavin, P. N. H., Gurr, P. R., Jones, R. B. & Gavin, P. 2012. The biota, depositional environment and age of the Old Red Sandstone of the island of Kerrera, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 48(2), 7790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, P., Labandeira, C., Laurin, M. & Berner, R. A. 2006. Confirmation of Romer's Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 103(45), 1681816822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48(5), 11011110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, H. M. 2006. Juliformian millipedes from the Lower Devonian of Euramerica: implications for the timing of millipede cladogenesis in the Paleozoic. Journal of Paleontology 80(4), 638649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, H. M., Daeschler, E. B. & Desbiens, S. 2005. New flat-backed archipolypodan millipedes from the Upper Devonian of North America. Journal of Paleontology 79(4), 738744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, H. M. & Anderson, L. I. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78(1), 169184.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, H. M. & Hannibal, J. T. 2005. Taxonomy and trunk-ring architecture of pleurojulid millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Pleurojulida) from the Pennsylvanian of Europe and North America. Journal of Paleontology 79(6), 11051119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodward, H. 1866. Notes on some fossil Crustacea, and a chilognathous myriapod, from the Coal Measures of the west of Scotland. Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow 2, 234247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodward, H. 1871. On Euphoberia brownii, H. Woodw., a new species of myriapod from the Coal-Measures of the west of Scotland. Geological Magazine 8, 102104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 16
Total number of PDF views: 130 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 16th July 2018 - 23rd January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-frjnl Total loading time: 0.234 Render date: 2021-01-23T12:39:23.323Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A new terrestrial millipede fauna of earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) age from southeastern Scotland helps fill ‘Romer's Gap'
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

A new terrestrial millipede fauna of earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) age from southeastern Scotland helps fill ‘Romer's Gap'
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

A new terrestrial millipede fauna of earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) age from southeastern Scotland helps fill ‘Romer's Gap'
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *