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Post-Traumatic Stress in Disaster First Responders

  • Joshua C. Morganstein (a1), David M. Benedek (a1) and Robert J. Ursano (a1)


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1. Fullerton, CS, McKibben, JB, Reissman, DB, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use in public health workers after the 2004 Florida hurricanes. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7(1):89-95. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2013.6.
2. Skogstad, L, Fjetland, AM, Ekeberg, O. Exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms among first responders working in proximity to the terror sites in Norway on July 22, 2011 – a cross-sectional study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015;23(1):23.
3. Benedek, DM, Fullerton, C, Ursano, RJ. First responders: mental health consequences of natural and human-made disasters for public health and public safety workers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:55-68.
4. Osofsky, HJ, Osofsky, JD, Arey, J, et al. Hurricane Katrina’s first responders: the struggle to protect and serve in the aftermath of the disaster. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(suppl 2):S214-S219.
5. Loo, GT, DiMaggio, CJ, Gershon, RR, et al. Coping behavior and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder among federal disaster responders [published online ahead of print Dec 23, 2015]. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2015.141.
6. Harvey, SB, Devilly, GJ, Forbes, D, et al. Expert Guidelines: Diagnosis and Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Emergency Service Workers. Black Dog Institute. Published 2015. Accessed January 13, 2016.
7. Benedek, DM. Promoting Resilience in Disaster First Responders: A Psychological First Aid-Based Approach. Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress and the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health [slide set]. Published May 22, 2014. Accessed January 20, 2016.
8. Ursano, RJ, McKibben, JBA, Reissman, DB, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida hurricanes. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88467.
9. Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, Liu, X, et al. Depressive symptom severity and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida Hurricanes. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130863. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130863.


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