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Are Iranian Sulfur Mustard Gas-Exposed Survivors More Vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2? Some Similarity in Their Pathogenesis

  • Gholamreza Farnoosh (a1), Mostafa Ghanei (a2), Hossein Khorramdelazad (a3) (a4), Gholamhossein Alishiri (a2), Alireza Jalali Farahani (a5), Alireza Shahriary (a2) and Seyed Reza Hosseini Zijoud (a6)...

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged as a health problem worldwide. It seems that COVID-19 is more lethal for Iranian veterans with a history of exposure to mustard gas. There are some similarities in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas in immune system disruption and pulmonary infection. SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure are more susceptible and vulnerable to COVID-19. It is suggested that the principles of COVID-19 infection prevention and control be adhered to more stringently in Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure than others who have not been exposed to mustard gas. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between this damage and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to COVID-19.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to Seyed Reza Hosseini Zijoud, Clinical Research Development Unit, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (e-mail: hosseini7sr@gmail.com).

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Keywords

Are Iranian Sulfur Mustard Gas-Exposed Survivors More Vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2? Some Similarity in Their Pathogenesis

  • Gholamreza Farnoosh (a1), Mostafa Ghanei (a2), Hossein Khorramdelazad (a3) (a4), Gholamhossein Alishiri (a2), Alireza Jalali Farahani (a5), Alireza Shahriary (a2) and Seyed Reza Hosseini Zijoud (a6)...

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