Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Disaster-Related Injury Management: High Prevalence of Wound Infection After Super Typhoon Haiyan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 September 2015

Yong Won Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
Seong Yeop Kim
Affiliation:
Department of General Surgery, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
Hoon Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Republic of Korea
Moo Eob Ahn
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanlim University, Republic of Korea
Kang Hyun Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
Eun Seok Hong
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Ulsan University, Republic of Korea.
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background

After Super Typhoon Haiyan, a category 5 tropical cyclone, insufficient resources were available for medical management. Many patients in the Philippines were wounded as a result of the disaster. We examined the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of disaster-related wounds and wound infection in the post-disaster period.

Methods

We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted to a Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic at St. Paul’s Hospital, Tacloban City, Republic of Philippines, between December 9 and 13, 2013. Traumatic injury patients were included; patients not exhibiting a wound were excluded.

Results

Of the 160 patients enrolled in the study, 71 (44.4%) had infected wounds. There were no significant differences in the age, sex, past medical history, wound site, wound depth, injury mechanism, or inducer of injury between the uninfected and infected groups. In the univariate analysis, a foreign-body-contaminated wound, a chronic wound, elapsed time from injury to medical contact, an inadequately cared for wound, and need for subsequent wound management were associated with wound infection (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that foreign body contamination and having an inadequately cared for wound were associated with wound infection (odds ratio [OR]: 10.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.59-28.56; OR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.07-11.51, respectively).

Conclusion

In the post-disaster situation, many wound infections required definitive care. Wound infection was associated with inadequately cared for wounds and foreign-body-contaminated wounds. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:28–33)

Type
Brief Reports
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. SitRep No. 73 Effects of Typhoon “Yolanda” (Haiyan). Situational reports re effects of Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council website. http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php/21-disaster-events/1329-situational-report-re-effects-of-typhoon-yolanda-haiyan. Published December 18, 2013. Accessed August 11, 2015.Google Scholar
2. Fischetti, M. Was Typhoon Haiyan a record storm? Scientific American. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/was-typhoon-haiyan-a-record-storm/. Published November 12, 2013. Accessed August 11, 2015.Google Scholar
3. Millie, M, Senkowski, C, Stuart, L, et al. Tornado disaster in rural Georgia: triage response, injury patterns, lessons learned. Am Surg. 2000;66:223-228.Google ScholarPubMed
4. Uscher-Pines, L, Vernick, JS, Curriero, F, Lieberman, R, Burke, TA. Disaster-related injuries in the period of recovery: the effect of prolonged displacement on risk of injury in older adults. J Trauma. 2009;67(4):834-840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31817f2853.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Xu, Y, Huang, J, Zhou, J, Zeng, Y. Patterns of abdominal injury in 37 387 disaster patients from the Wenchuan earthquake. Emerg Med J. 2013;30(7):538-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-201300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Phalkey, R, Reinhardt, JD, Marx, M. Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster. Glob Health Action. 2011;4(00):7196. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v4i0.7196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Whyte, AG. Letter: disaster wound treatment. BMJ. 1975;4(5987):43-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.4.5987.43-b.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Robson, MC. Wound infection. A failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(3):637-650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6109(05)70572-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Norris, SO, Provo, B, Stotts, NA. Physiology of wound healing and risk factors that impede the healing process. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1990;1:545-552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Dryden, SV, Shoemaker, WG, Kim, JH. Wound management and nutrition for optimal wound healing. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2013;21(1):37-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cxom.2012.12.008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Brem, H, Jacobs, T, Vileikyte, L, et al. Wound-healing protocols for diabetic foot and pressure ulcers. Surg Technol Int. 2003;11:85-92.Google ScholarPubMed
12. Perencevich, EN, Sands, KE, Cosgrove, SE, Guadagnoli, E, Meara, E, Platt, R. Health and economic impact of surgical site infections diagnosed after hospital discharge. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(2):196-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0902.020232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Whitehouse, JD, Friedman, ND, Kirkland, KB, et al. The impact of surgical-site infections following orthopedic surgery at a community hospital and a university hospital: adverse quality of life, excess length of stay, and extra cost. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:183-189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14. Kirkland, KB, Briggs, JP, Trivette, SL, et al. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20:725-730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Poulsen, KB, Bremmelgaard, A, Sorensen, AI, Raahave, D, Petersen, JV. Estimated costs of postoperative wound infections. A case-control study of marginal hospital and social security costs. Epidemiol Infect. 1994;113(02):283-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268800051712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Vegas, AA, Jodra, VM, Garcia, ML. Nosocomial infection in surgery wards: a controlled study of increased duration of hospital stays and direct cost of hospitalization. Eur J Epidemiol. 1993;9:504-510.Google Scholar
17. Ennis, WJ. Disaster management, triage-based wound care, and patient safety: reflections on practice following an earthquake. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56:61-69.Google ScholarPubMed
18. Liu, HQ, Yang, SM, Xu, H, et al. Investigation and management of wound on head and neck from the disaster area in Wenchuan earthquake. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:643-646.Google ScholarPubMed
19. Maegele, M, Gregor, S, Yuecel, N, et al. One year ago not business as usual: wound management, infection and psychoemotional control during tertiary medical care following the 2004 Tsunami disaster in southeast Asia. Crit Care. 2006;10(2):R50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc4868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Okumura, J, Kai, T, Hayati, Z, et al. Antimicrobial therapy for water-associated wound infections in a disaster setting: gram-negative bacilli in an aquatic environment and lessons from Banda Aceh. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24:189-196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Lim, PL. Wound infections in tsunami survivors: a commentary. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:582-585.Google ScholarPubMed
22. Levy, MJ, Tang, N. Use of tissue adhesive as a field expedient barrier dressing for hand wounds in disaster responders. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(1):107-109. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X13009205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Missair, A, Pretto, EA, Visan, A, et al. A matter of life or limb? A review of traumatic injury patterns and anesthesia techniques for disaster relief after major earthquakes. Anesth Analg. 2013;117(4):934-941. http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182a0d7a7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Afshar, M, Raju, M, Ansell, D, Bleck, TP. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(5):329-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-154-5-201103010-00007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Firth, PG, Solomon, JB, Roberts, LL, et al. Airway management of tetanus after the Haitian earthquake: new aspects of old observations. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:545-547.Google ScholarPubMed
26. Sutiono, AB, Qiantori, A, Suwa, H, Ohta, T. Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia. BMC Res Notes. 2010;3(1):8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-3-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 12
Total number of PDF views: 120 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-2rmft Total loading time: 0.373 Render date: 2021-01-20T12:07:57.099Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Disaster-Related Injury Management: High Prevalence of Wound Infection After Super Typhoon Haiyan
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Disaster-Related Injury Management: High Prevalence of Wound Infection After Super Typhoon Haiyan
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Disaster-Related Injury Management: High Prevalence of Wound Infection After Super Typhoon Haiyan
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *