Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Trajectories and Predictors of Children's Early-Starting Conduct Problems: Child, Family, Genetic, and Intervention Effects

  • Daniel S. Shaw (a1), Chardée A. Galán (a1), Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant (a2), Thomas J. Dishion (a2), Kit K. Elam (a2), Melvin N. Wilson (a3) and Frances Gardner (a4)...

Abstract

Several research teams have previously traced patterns of emerging conduct problems (CP) from early or middle childhood. The current study expands on this previous literature by using a genetically-informed, experimental, and long-term longitudinal design to examine trajectories of early-emerging conduct problems and early childhood discriminators of such patterns from the toddler period to adolescence. The sample represents a cohort of 731 toddlers and diverse families recruited based on socioeconomic, child, and family risk, varying in urbanicity and assessed on nine occasions between ages 2 and 14. In addition to examining child, family, and community level discriminators of patterns of emerging conduct problems, we were able to account for genetic susceptibility using polygenic scores and the study's experimental design to determine whether random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) discriminated trajectory groups. In addition, in accord with differential susceptibility theory, we tested whether the effects of the FCU were stronger for those children with higher genetic susceptibility. Results augmented previous findings documenting the influence of child (inhibitory control [IC], gender) and family (harsh parenting, parental depression, and educational attainment) risk. In addition, children in the FCU were overrepresented in the persistent low versus persistent high CP group, but such direct effects were qualified by an interaction between the intervention and genetic susceptibility that was consistent with differential susceptibility. Implications are discussed for early identification and specifically, prevention efforts addressing early child and family risk.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for Correspondence: Daniel Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 210 S. Bouquet Street, 4101 Sennott Square, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 15260-0001. E-mail: casey@pitt.edu

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: ASEBA.
Aguilar, B., Sroufe, L., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2000). Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior types: From birth to 16 years. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 109132.
Andruff, H., Carraro, N., Thompson, A., & Gaudreau, P. (2009). Latent class growth modelling: A tutorial. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 5(1), 1124.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885908.
Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F., McAdoo, H. P., & Garcia-Coll, C. (2001). The home environments of children in the United States part 1: Variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. Child Development, 72, 18441867.
Brame, B., Nagin, D.S., & Tremblay, R.E. (2001). Developmental trajectories of physical aggression from school entry to late adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 503512.
Brennan, L., & Shaw, D. S. (2013). Revisiting data related to the age of onset and developmental course of female conduct problems. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16, 3558, PMC3684009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-012-0125-8
Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, R., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222245.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G.J., & Aber, J.L. (1997). Lessons learned in future directions for research on the neighborhoods in which children live. In Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Aber, J. L. (Eds.), Neighborhood poverty: Vol 1.Context and consequences for children (pp. 279297). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Burt, S. A., & Mikolajewski, A. J. (2008). Preliminary evidence that specific candidate genes are associated with adolescent-onset antisocial behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 34(4), 437445.
Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., Moore, G., Marakovitz, S., and Newby, K. (1996). Boys’ externalizing problems at elementary school: Pathways from early behavior problems, maternal control, and family stress. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 701720.
Caruthers, A. S., Van Ryzin, M. J., & Dishion, T. J. (2014). Preventing high-risk sexual behavior in early adulthood with family interventions in adolescence: Outcomes and developmental processes. Prevention Science, 15, 5969.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W. et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Chang, H., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2014). Direct and indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on self-regulation from toddlerhood to early school-age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 11171128.
Connell, A., Bullock, B. M., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Wilson, M., & Gardner, F. (2008). Family intervention effects on co-occurring behavior and emotional problems in early childhood: A latent transition analysis approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 12111225.
Connell, A., Klostermann, S., & Dishion, T. J. (2011). Family Check Up effects on adolescent arrest trajectories: Variation by developmental subtype. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 367380.
Dishion, T. J., Brennan, L. M., McEachern, A., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., & Weaver, C. M. (2014). The prevention of early onset problem behavior through periodic family check ups in early childhood: A health maintenance model with indigent, high risk families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 343354.
Dishion, T. J, & Kavanagh, K. (2003). Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family-centered approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The family check-up with high-risk indigent families: Preventing problem behavior by increasing parents’ positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 79(5), 13951414.
Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. (2007). Intervening in children's lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Elam, K. K., Chassin, L., & Pandika, D. (2018). Polygenic risk, family cohesion, and adolescent aggression in Mexican-American and European-Am4erican families: Developmental pathways to alcohol use. Development and Psychopathology. Epub ahead of print.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Erickson, M.F., Sroufe, L.A., & Egeland, B. (1985). The relationship between quality of attachment and behavior problems in preschool in a high-risk sample. In Bretherton, I. & Waters, E. (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, Nos. 1–2, 147167.
Eusden, J., Lewis, C. M., & O'Reilly, P. F. (2015). PRSice: Polygenic risk score software. Bioinformatics, 31(9), 14661468.
Fergusson, D.M. & Woodward, L.J. (1999). Maternal age and educational and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 479489.
Forbes, E. E., Brown, S. M., Kimak, M., Ferrell, R. E., Manuck, S. B., & Hariri, A. R. (2009). Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(1), 6070.
Galán, C.A., Shaw, D.S., & Belsky, J. (in preparation). Taking stock of GxE Interaction involving dopaminergic Genes and alternative conceptual models: A meta-analytic investigation.
Gardner, F, Shaw, D. S, Dishion, T. J, Supplee, L. A, & Burton, J. (2007). Randomized prevention trial for early conduct problems: Effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 398406.
Gilliam, M., Forbes, E. E., Gianaros, P. J., Erickson, K. I., Brennan, L. M., & Shaw, D. S. (2015). Maternal depression in childhood and aggression in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by offspring amygdala–hippocampal volume ratio. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 10831091.
Goodman, S.H., Rouse, M.H., Connell, A., Broth, M.R., Hall, C.M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127.
Greenberg, M.T., & Speltz, M.L. (1988). Contributions of attachment theory to the understanding of conduct problems during the preschool years. In Belsky, J. & Nezworski, T. (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 177218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Gardner, F., Cheong, J., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2013). Dimensions of callousness in early childhood: Links to problem behavior and family intervention effectiveness. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 347363.
Jabson, J. M., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F. E. M., & Burton, J. (2004). Relationship Process Code v-2.0 Training Manual: A system for coding relationship interactions. Unpublished coding manual. Child and Family Center, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. A. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 302317.
Keers, R., Coleman, J. R., Lester, K. J., Roberts, S., Breen, G., Thastum, M., … & Nauta, M. (2016). A genome-wide test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis reveals a genetic predictor of differential response to psychological treatments for child anxiety disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85, 146158.
Kochanska, G. (1991). Patterns of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children of normal and affectively ill mothers. Child Development, 62, 250263.
Lemery-Chalfant, K., Clifford, S., Dishion, T., Shaw, D., & Wilson, M. (2018). Genetic moderation of the effects of the Family Check-Up intervention on children's internalizing symptoms: A longitudinal study with a racial/ethnically diverse sample. Development and Psychopathology.
Messer, L. C., Laraia, B. A., Kaufman, J. S., Eyster, J., Holzman, C., Culhane, J.,…O'Campo, P. (2006). The development of a standardized neighborhood deprivation index. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 83, 10411062. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-006-9094-x
Moffitt, T. E. (1990). Juvenile delinquency and Attention Deficit Disorder: Boys’ developmental trajectories from age 3 to age 15. Child Development, 61, 893910.
Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent and adolescent-limited antisocial behavior. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 570598). New York: Wiley.
Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355375.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179207.
Moilanen, K. L., & Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2009). Longitudinal growth and predictors of inhibitory control in early childhood. Social Development, 19, 326347.
Musci, R. J., Fairman, B., Masyn, K. E., Uhl, G., Maher, B., Sisto, D. Y., … & Ialongo, N. S. (2018). Polygenic score × intervention moderation: An application of discrete-time survival analysis to model the timing of first marijuana use among urban youth. Prevention Science, 19, 614.
Musci, R. J., Masyn, K. E., Uhl, G., Maher, B., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2015). Polygenic score × intervention moderation: An application of discrete-time survival analysis to modeling the timing of first tobacco use among urban youth. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 111122.
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 11811196.
Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Parental and early childhood predictors of persistent physical aggression in boys from kindergarten to high school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 389394.
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Are child developmental outcomes related to before-and after-school care arrangements? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development, 75, 280295.
Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H. et al. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 673716.
Olson, S., Choe, D., & Sameroff, A. (2017). Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: Contributions of children's early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 437453.
Pappa, I., St Pourcain, B., Benke, K., Cavadino, A., Hakulinen, C., Nivard, M. G., & Tiemeier, H. (2016). A genome-wide approach to children's aggressive behavior: The EAGLE consortium. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 171(5), 562572.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia. Publishing Company.
Purcell, S., Neale, B., Todd-Brown, K., Thomas, L., Ferreira, M. A., & Bender, D. (2007). PLINK: tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. American Journal of Human Genetics, 81(3), 559575.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Reuben, J., Shaw, D. S., Brennan, L. M., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). A family-based intervention for improving children's emotional problems through effects on maternal depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 11421148.
Rhee, S. H., & Waldman, I. D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128(3), 490529.
Richman, M., Stevenson, J., & Graham, P. J. (1982). Preschool to school: A behavioral study. London: Academic Press.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 13941408. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00355
Sampson, R.J. (1997). Collective regulation of adolescent misbehavior: Validation results from eighty Chicago neighborhoods. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 227244.
Sanson, A., Oberklaid, F., Pedlow, R., & Prior, M. (1991). Risk indicators: Assessment of infancy predictors of pre-school behavioural maladjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 609626.
Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the Dimension of a Model. The Annals of Statistics, 6(2), 461464. Retrieved from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0090-5364%28197803%296%3A2%3C461%3AETDOAM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5
Shaw, D. S., & Bell, R. Q. (1993). Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 493518.
Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Connell, A., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early child problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417439.
Shaw, D.S., Dishion, T. J., Supplee, L. H., Gardner, F., & Arnds, K. (2006). A family-centered approach to the prevention of early-onset antisocial behavior: Two-year effects of the family check-up in early childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 19.
Shaw, D.S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E.M., & Nagin, D (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 189200.
Shaw, D. S., Hyde, L. W., & Brennan, L. M. Early predictors of boys’ antisocial trajectories (2012). Development and Psychopathology, 24, 871888.
Shaw, D.S., Owens, E.B., Vondra, J.I., Keenan, K. & Winslow, E.B. (1996). Early risk factors and pathways in the development of early disruptive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 679699.
Shaw, D. S., Sitnick, S., Brennan, L. M., Choe, D. E., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2016). The long-term effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on school-age conduct problems: Moderation by neighborhood deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 14711487.
Shaw, D.S., Winslow, E.B., Owens, E. B., Vondra, J.I., Cohn, J.F., & Bell, R.Q. (1998). The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 95107.
Stevenson, J., & Goodman, R. (2001). Association between behaviour at age 3 years and adult criminality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 197202.
Stormshak, E. A., Connell, A., & Dishion, T. J. (2009). An adaptive approach to family-centered interventions in schools: Linking intervention engagement to academic outcomes in middle and high school. Prevention Science, 10, 221235.
Supplee, L. H., Unikel, E., & Shaw, D. S. (2007). Physical environmental adversity and the protective role of maternal monitoring in relation to early child conduct problems. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 166-183.
Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Seguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., et al. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, E43E50.
Vermunt, J. K., Vermunt, & K., J. (2010). Latent Class Modeling with Covariates: Two Improved Three-Step Approaches. Political Analysis, 18(4), 450469. Retrieved from https://econpapers.repec.org/article/cuppolals/v_3a18_3ay_3a2010_3ai_3a04_3ap_3a450-469_5f01.htm
Wakschlag, L. S., & Hans, S. L. (1999). Relation of maternal responsiveness during infancy to the development of behavior problems in high-risk youths. Developmental Psychology, 35, 569579.
Waller, R., Shaw, D. S., & Hyde, L. W. (2017). Observed fearlessness and positive parenting interact to predict childhood callous-unemotional behaviors among low-income boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 282291.
Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Long-term follow-up of families with young conduct problem children: From preschool to grade school. Journal оf Clinical Child Psychology, 19(2), 144149.
Willoughby, M. T., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Gottfredson, N. C., & Wagner, N. J. (2014). Measuring callous unemotional behaviors in early childhood: Factor structure and the prediction of stable aggression in middle childhood. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 3042.
Wray, N. R., Lee, S. H., Mehta, D., Vinkhuyzen, A. A., Dudbridge, F., & Middeldorp, C. M. (2014). Research review: polygenic methods and their application to psychiatric traits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(10), 10681087.
Xue, Y., Leventhal, T., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Earls, F. J. (2005). Neighborhood residence and mental health problems of 5-11 year olds. Achives of General Psychiatry, 62, 554563.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed