Adam, E. K., Heissel, J. A., Zeiders, K. H., Richeson, J. A., Ross, E. C., Ehrlich, K. B., … Peck, S. C. (2015). Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 279–291.
Aklin, W. M., Moolchan, E. T., Luckenbaugh, D. A., & Ernst, M. (2009). Early tobacco smoking in adolescents with externalizing disorders: Inferences for reward function. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 750–755.
Berger, M., & Sarnyai, Z. (2015). “More than skin deep”: Stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Stress, 18, 1–10.
Brody, G. H., Chen, Y. F., Kogan, S. M., Yu, T., Molgaard, V. K., DiClemente, R. J., & Wingood, G. M. (2012). Family-centered program deters substance use, conduct problems, and depressive symptoms in black adolescents. Pediatrics, 129, 108–115.
Brody, G. H., Chen, Y. F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., … Cutrona, C. E. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 1170–1189.
Brody, G. H., Kim, S., Murry, V. M., & Brown, A. C. (2004). Protective longitudinal paths linking child competence to behavioral problems among African American siblings. Child Development, 75, 455–467.
Brody, G. H., Miller, G. E., Yu, T., Beach, S. R., & Chen, E. (2016). Supportive family environments ameliorate the link between racial discrimination and epigenetic aging: A replication across two longitudinal cohorts. Psychological Science, 27, 530–541.
Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Molgaard, V., McNair, L., … Chen, Y. F. (2004). The strong African American families program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75, 900–917.
Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Kim, S., & Brown, A. C. (2002). Longitudinal pathways to competence and psychological adjustment among African American children living in rural single–parent households. Child Development, 73, 1505–1516.
Brody, G. H., & Stoneman, Z. (1992). Child competence and developmental goals among rural Black families: Investigating the links. In Sigel, I. E., McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V., & Goodnow, J. J. (Eds.), Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children (pp. 415–431). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Chen, Y. F., Kogan, S. M., Evans, G. W., Beach, S. R., … Philibert, R. A. (2013). Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: A prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors. Developmental Psychology, 49, 913–927.
Brondolo, E., Blair, I. V., & Kaur, A. (2018). Biospychosocial mechanisms linking discrimination to health: A focus on social cognition. In Major, B., Dovidio, J. F., & Link, B. G. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health (pp. 355–378). New York: Oxford University Press.
Brown, C., Matthews, K. A., Bromberger, J. T., & Chang, Y. (2006). The relation between perceived unfair treatment and blood pressure in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, 257–262.
Buchmann, A. F., Blomeyer, D., Jennen-Steinmetz, C., Schmidt, M. H., Esser, G., Banaschewski, T., & Laucht, M. (2013). Early smoking onset may promise initial pleasurable sensations and later addiction. Addiction Biology, 18, 947–954.
Burk, W. J., van Der Vorst, H., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2012). Alcohol use and friendship dynamics: Selection and socialization in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 89–98.
Causadias, J. M. (2013). A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1375–1398.
Causadias, J. M., Telzer, E. H., & Lee, R. M. (2017). Culture and biology interplay: An introduction. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23, 1–4.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Current cigarette smoking among adults— United States, 2005–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63, 29–34.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64, 381–385.
Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370–379.
Conrad, K. M., Flay, B. R., & Hill, D. (1992). Why children start smoking cigarettes: Predictors of onset. Addiction, 87, 1711–1724.
Cougle, J. R., Hawkins, K. A., Macatee, R. J., Zvolensky, M. J., & Sarawgi, S. (2014). Multiple facets of problematic anger among regular smokers: Exploring associations with smoking motives and cessation difficulties. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 16, 881–885.
Cougle, J. R., Zvolensky, M. J., & Hawkins, K. A. (2012). Delineating a relationship between problematic anger and cigarette smoking: A population-based study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15, 297–301.
Cuevas, A. G., Reitzel, L. R., Adams, C. E., Cao, Y., Nguyen, N., Wetter, D. W., … McNeill, L. H. (2014). Discrimination, affect, and cancer risk factors among African Americans. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38, 31–41.
Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Hessling, R. M., Brown, P. A., & Murry, V. (2000). Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1088–1101.
Dodge, K. A., Dishion, T. J., & Lansford, J. E. (2006). Deviant peer influences in intervention and public policy for youth. Social Policy Report, 20.
Dulin-Keita, A., Hannon, L., Fernandez, J. R., & Cockerham, W. C. (2011). The defining moment: Children's conceptualization of race and experiences with racial discrimination. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34, 662–682.
Edwards, V., Anda, R., Gu, D., Dube, S., & Felitti, V. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and smoking persistence in adults with smoking-related symptoms and illness. Permanente Journal, 11, 5–19.
Eiden, R. D., Leonard, K. E., Colder, C. R., Homish, G. G., Schuetze, P., Gray, T. R., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Anger, hostility, and aggression as predictors of persistent smoking during pregnancy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 926–932.
Elliott, D. S. (1966). Delinquency, school attendance and dropout. Social Problems, 13, 307–314.
Ferguson, C. J., & Meehan, D. C. (2011). With friends like these …: Peer delinquency influences across age cohorts on smoking, alcohol and illegal substance use. European Psychiatry, 26, 6–12.
Finlay, A. K., White, H. R., Mun, E. Y., Cronley, C. C., & Lee, C. (2012). Racial differences in trajectories of heavy drinking and regular marijuana use from ages 13 to 24 among African-American and White males. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 121, 118–123.
Forgays, D. G., Forgays, D. K., & Spielberger, C. D. (1997). Factor structure of the state-trait anger expression inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 69, 497–507.
Gee, G. C., Ryan, A., Laflamme, D. J., & Holt, J. (2006). Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: The added dimension of immigration. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1821–1828.
Gee, G. C., Walsemann, K. M., & Brondolo, E. (2012). A life course perspective on how racism may be related to health inequities. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 967–974.
Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., Waidmann, T. A., Hillemeier, M. M., & Burns, P. B. (1996). Excess mortality among blacks and whites in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1552–1558.
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Cleveland, M. J., & Wills, T. A. (2006). A theory-based dual-focus alcohol intervention for preadolescents: The Strong African American Families Program. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 185–195.
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Fleischli, M., Cutrona, C. E., & Stock, M. L. (2018). Moderation of the effect of stress-induced affective responses to discrimination on health outcomes. Psychology and Health, 32, 193–212.
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Reis-Bergan, M., Trudeau, L., VandeLune, L., & Buunk, B. (2002). Inhibitory effects of drinker and non-drinker prototypes on adolescent alcohol consumption. Health Psychology, 21, 601–609.
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Stock, M. L., Lune, L. S. V., & Cleveland, M. J. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 305–318.
Gibbons, F. X., Etcheverry, P. E., Stock, M. L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C. Y., Kiviniemi, M., & O'hara, R. E. (2010). Exploring the link between racial discrimination and substance use: What mediates? What buffers? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 785–801.
Gibbons, F. X., Fleischli, M. E., Simons, R. L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C-Y., & Gibson, L. P. (2018). Do not pass go: The impact of perceived racial discrimination on illegal behavior, arrest and incarceration among Black adolescents. Unpublished manuscript.
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M. J., Wills, T. A., & Brody, G. (2004). Perceived discrimination and substance use in African American parents and their children: A panel study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 517–529.
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Lane, D. J. (2003). A social-reaction model of adolescent health risk. In Suls, J. M. & Wallston, K. A. (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of health and illness (pp. 107–136). Oxford: Blackwell.
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., VandeLune, L. S., Wills, T. A., Brody, G., & Conger, R. D. (2004). Context and cognitions: Environmental risk, social influence, and adolescent substance use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1048–1061.
Gibbons, F. X., Kingsbury, J. H., Weng, C. Y., Gerrard, M., Cutrona, C., Wills, T. A., & Stock, M. (2014). Effects of perceived racial discrimination on health status and health behavior: A differential mediation hypothesis. Health Psychology, 33, 11–19.
Gibbons, F. X., O'Hara, R. E., Stock, M. L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C. Y., & Wills, T. A. (2012). The erosive effects of racism: Reduced self-control mediates the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use in African American adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1089–1104.
Gibbons, F. X., Pomery, E. A., Gerrard, M., Sargent, J. D., Weng, C. Y., Wills, T. A., … Tanski, S. E. (2010). Media as social influence: Racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 649–659.
Gibbons, F. X., & Stock, M. (2018). Perceived racial discrimination and health behavior: Mediation and moderation. In Major, B., Dovidio, J. F., & Link, B. G. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health (pp. 355–378). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gibbons, F. X., Yeh, H. C., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M. J., Cutrona, C., Simons, R. L., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Early experience with racial discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: A critical period hypothesis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 88, S27–S37.
Gilman, S. E., Rende, R., Boergers, J., Abrams, D. B., Buka, S. L., Clark, M. A., … Lloyd-Richardson, E. E. (2009). Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: An intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics, 123, e274–e281.
Goodman, E., & Capitman, J. (2000). Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among teens. Pediatrics, 106, 748–755.
Greene, M. L., Way, N., & Pahl, K. (2006). Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: Patterns and psychological correlates. Developmental Psychology, 42, 218–236.
Guyll, M., Matthews, K. A., & Bromberger, J. T. (2001). Discrimination and unfair treatment: Relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women. Health Psychology, 20, 315–325.
Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 260–273.
Heim, C., & Binder, E. B. (2012). Current research trends in early life stress and depression: Review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene–environment interactions, and epigenetics. Experimental Neurology, 233, 102–111.
Holahan, C. J., Pahl, S. A., Cronkite, R. C., Holahan, C. K., North, R. J., & Moos, R. H. (2010). Depression and vulnerability to incident physical illness across 10 years. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123, 222–229.
Hughes, D., & Johnson, D. (2001). Correlates in children's experiences of parents’ racial socialization behaviors. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 981–995.
Hurd, N. M., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Neighborhoods, social support, and African American adolescents’ mental health outcomes: A multilevel path analysis. Child Development, 84, 858–874.
Kandel, D., Schaffran, C., Hu, M. C., & Thomas, Y. (2011). Age-related differences in cigarette smoking among whites and African-Americans: Evidence for the crossover hypothesis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 118, 280–287.
Kandel, E. R., & Kandel, D. B. (2014). A molecular basis for nicotine as a gateway drug. New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 932–943.
Kassel, J. D., Stroud, L. R., & Paronis, C. A. (2003). Smoking, stress, and negative affect: Correlation, causation, and context across stages of smoking. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 270–304.
Kendall, P. C., & Wilcox, L. E. (1979). Self-control in children: Development of a rating scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 1020–1029.
Kendler, K. S., Myers, J., Damaj, M. I., & Chen, X. (2013). Early smoking onset and risk for subsequent nicotine dependence: A monozygotic co-twin control study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 408–413.
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., … Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.
Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 208–230.
Knudsen, E. I. (2004). Sensitive periods in the development of the brain and behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1412–1425.
Kong, G., Camenga, D., & Krishnan-Sarin, S. (2012). Parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation: Is there a gender difference? Addictive Behaviors, 37, 211–216.
Kumkale, G. T., & Albarracín, D. (2004). The sleeper effect in persuasion: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 143–172.
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). The schedule of racist events: A measure of racial discrimination and a study of its negative physical and mental health consequences. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 144–168.
Larson, R. W., Moneta, G., Richards, M., & Wilson, S. (2002). Continuity, stability, and change in daily emotional experience across adolescence. Child Development, 73, 1151–1165.
Lee, D. L., & Ahn, S. (2013). The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination–distress: A meta-analysis of Black Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 1–14.
Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 438–443.
Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225.
McEwen, B. S. (2004). Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: Allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 1–7.
Murry, V. M., Berkel, C., Brody, G. H., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). The Strong African American Families Program: Longitudinal pathways to sexual risk reduction. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 333–342.
Muscatello, M. R. A., Scimeca, G., Lorusso, S., Battaglia, F., Pandolfo, G., Zoccali, R. A., & Bruno, A. (2017). Anger, smoking behavior, and the mediator effects of gender: An investigation of heavy and moderate smokers. Substance Use and Misuse, 52, 587–593.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user's guide. Version 7. Los Angeles: Author.
Ogbu, J. U. (2004). Collective identity and the burden of “acting White” in Black history, community, and education. Urban Review, 36, 1–35.
Oyserman, D., & Fisher, O. (2018). Social stigma and health: An identity-based motivation perspective.. In Major, B., Dovidio, J. F., & Link, B. G. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health (pp. 317–334). New York: Oxford University Press.
Oyserman, D., Fryberg, S. A., & Yoder, N. (2007). Identity-based motivation and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1011–1027.
Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 531–554.
Patterson, F., Kerrin, K., Wileyto, E. P., & Lerman, C. (2008). Increase in anger symptoms after smoking cessation predicts relapse. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 95, 173–176.
Pechtel, P., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: An integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology, 214, 55–70.
Penner, L. A., Phelan, S. M., Earnshaw, V., Albrecht, T. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2018). Patient stigma, medical interactions, and health care disparities: A selective review. In Major, B., Dovidio, J. F., & Link, B. G. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health (pp. 355–378). New York: Oxford University Press.
Phinney, J. S., Madden, T., & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority and immigrant adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 937–953.
Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 271–281.
Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 243–256.
Priest, N., Paradies, Y., Trenerry, B., Truong, M., Karlsen, S., & Kelly, Y. (2013). A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people. Social Science & Medicine, 95, 115–127.
Pugh, L. A., & Bry, B. H. (2007). The protective effects of ethnic identity for alcohol and marijuana use among Black young adults. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 187–193.
Reuben, A., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Belsky, D. W., Harrington, H., Schroeder, F., … Danese, A. (2016). Lest we forget: Comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 1103–1112.
Richman, L. S., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116, 365–383.
Richman, L. S., Pascoe, E. A., & Lattanner, M. (2018). Interpersonal discrimination and physical health. In Major, B., Dovido, J. F., & Link, B. G. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Roberts, M. E., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Weng, C. Y., Murry, V. M., Simons, L. G., … Lorenz, F. O. (2012). From racial discrimination to risky sex: Prospective relations involving peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 48, 89–102.
Robinson, L. A., Murray, D. M., Alfano, C. M., Zbikowski, S. M., Blitstein, J. L., & Klesges, R. C. (2006). Ethnic differences in predictors of adolescent smoking onset and escalation: A longitudinal study from 7th to 12th grade. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8, 297–307.
Rydell, R. J., Mackie, D. M., Maitner, A. T., Claypool, H. M., Ryan, M. J., & Smith, E. R. (2008). Arousal, processing, and risk taking: Consequences of intergroup anger. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1141–1152.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.
Sanders-Phillips, K., Settles-Reaves, B., Walker, D., & Brownlow, J. (2009). Social inequality and racial discrimination: Risk factors for health disparities in children of color. Pediatrics, 124(Supp. 3), S176–S186.
Schmitt, M. T., & Branscombe, N. R. (2002). The meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups. European Review of Social Psychology, 12(1), 167–199.
Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., Postmes, T., & Garcia, A. (2014). The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 921–948.
Sellers, R. M., Copeland-Linder, N., Martin, P. P., & Lewis, R. H. (2006). Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 187–216.
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C., & Comer, J. (2000). Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (CDISC-IV). New York: Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., … Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129, e232–e246.
Simons, R. L., & Burt, C. H. (2011). Learning to be bad: Adverse social conditions, social schemas, and crime. Criminology, 49, 553–598.
Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Drummund, H., Stewart, E., Brody, G. H., … Cutrona, C. (2006). Supportive parenting moderates the effect of discrimination upon anger, hostile view of relationships, and violence among African American boys. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 373–389.
Smith, E. P., & Brookins, C. C. (1997). Toward the development of an ethnic identity measure for African American youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 23, 358–377.
Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Psychopathology as an outcome of development. Development and Psychopathology, 9(2), 251–268.
Stock, M. L., Gibbons, F. X., Peterson, L., & Gerrard, M. (2013). The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 543–550.
Stock, M. L., Gibbons, F. X., Walsh, L. A., & Gerrard, M. (2011). Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1349–1361.
Thompson, V. L. S. (1999). Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(6), 748–761.
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Quintana, S. M., Lee, R. M., Cross, W. E. Jr, Rivas-Drake, D., Schwartz, S. J., … & Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: An integrated conceptualization. Child Development, 85(1), 21–39.
Unger, J. B. (2003). Peers, family, media, and adolescent smoking: Ethnic variation in risk factors in a national sample. Adolescent & Family Health, 3, 65–70.
Unnever, J. D. (2016). The impact of immigration on indicators of the well-being of the Black population in the United States. Western Journal of Black Studies, 40, 42–60.
US Surgeon General. (2014). The health consequences of smoking: 50 years of progress. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 17.
Wallace, S., Nazroo, J., & Becares, L. (2016). Cumulative effects of racial discrimination on the mental health of ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom. American Journal of Public Health, 106, 1294–1300.
Watt, T. T., & Rogers, J. M. (2007). Factors contributing to differences in substance use among Black and White adolescents. Youth & Society, 39(1), 54–74.
Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R., McMorris, B., Chen, X., & Stubben, J. D. (2001). Perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among American Indian children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42, 405–424.
Zlotnick, C., Johnson, J., Kohn, R., Vicente, B., Rioseco, P., & Saldivia, S. (2008). Childhood trauma, trauma in adulthood, and psychiatric diagnoses: Results from a community sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 163–169.