Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples

  • Monica A. Marsee (a1), Paul J. Frick (a1), Christopher T. Barry (a2), Eva R. Kimonis (a3), Luna C. Muñoz Centifanti (a4) and Katherine J. Aucoin (a1)...

Abstract

In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11–19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous–unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous–unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Monica A. Marsee, Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148; E-mail: mmarsee@uno.edu.

References

Hide All
Atkins, M. S., Osborne, M. L., Bennett, D. S., Hess, L. E., & Halperin, J. M. (2001). Children's competitive peer aggression during reward and punishment. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 113. doi:10.1002/1098-2337(20010101/31)27:1<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-J
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: Academic Press.
Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117127. doi:10.1002/1098-2337(1992)18:2<117::AID-AB2480180205>3.0.CO;2-3
Brown, K., Atkins, M. S., Osborne, M. L., & Milnamow, M. (1996). A revised teacher rating scale for reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 473480. doi:10.1007/BF01441569
Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Is it time to pull the plug on hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychological Review, 108, 273279. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.273
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 11851229. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x
Chiu, T., Fang, D., Chen, J., Wang, Y., & Jeris, C. (2001). A robust and scalable clustering algorithm for mixed type attributes in large database environment. In Lee, D., Schkolnick, M., Provost, F., & Srikant, R. (Chairs), Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 2001 (pp. 263–268). New York: ACM.
Crapanzano, A. M., Frick, P. J., & Terranova, A. M. (2010). Patterns of physical and relational aggression in a school-based sample of boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 433445. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9376-3
Crick, N. R. (1996). The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children's future social adjustment. Child Development, 67, 23172327. doi:10.2307/1131625
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 9931002. doi:10.2307/1131875
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710722. doi:10.2307/1131945
Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., & Kawabata, Y. (2007). Relational aggression and gender: An overview. In Flannery, D. J. & Vazsonyi, A. T. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 245259). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cullerton-Sen, C., Cassidy, A. R., Murray-Close, D., Cicchetti, D., Crick, N. R., & Rogosch, F. A. (2008). Childhood maltreatment and the developmental of relational and physical aggression: The importance of a gender-informed approach. Child Development, 79, 17361751. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01222.x
Dodge, K. A. (1991). Emotion and social information processing. In Garber, J. & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 159181). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 11461158. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1146
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349371. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.349
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P. J. (2006). Callous–unemotional traits in a community sample of adolescents. Assessment, 13, 454469. doi:10.1177/1073191106287354
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. A. (2003). Callous–unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457470. doi:10.1023/A:1023899703866
Frick, P. J., & Nigg, J. T. (2012). Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 77107. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143150
Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589600. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.33.4.589
Gavazzi, S. M., Yarcheck, C. M., & Chesney-Lind, M. (2006). Global risk indicators and the role of gender in a juvenile detention sample. Criminal Justice and behavior, 33, 597612. doi:10.1177/0093854806288184
Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children's anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 11011118. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00460
Kaufman, L., & Rousseeuw, P. J. (1990). Finding groups in data: An introduction to cluster analysis. New York: Wiley.
Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Skeem, J. L., Marsee, M. A., Cruise, K., Muñoz, L. C., et al. (2008). Assessing callous–unemotional traits in adolescent offenders: Validation of the Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 241252. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.04.002
Krueger, R. F., Schmutte, P. S., Capsi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Campbell, K., & Silva, P. A. (1994). Personality traits are linked to crime among men and women: Evidence from a birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 328338. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.2.328
Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Björkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403414. doi:10.1002/1098-2337(1988)14:6<403::AID-AB2480140602>3.0.CO;2-D
Leff, S. S., & Crick, N. R. (2010). Interventions for relational aggression: Innovative programming and next steps in research and practice. School Psychology Review, 39, 504507.
Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122133. doi:10.1080/01650250244000128
Marsee, M. A. (2008). Reactive aggression and posttraumatic stress in adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 519529. doi:10.1080/15374410802148152
Marsee, M. A., Barry, C. T., Childs, K. K., Frick, P. J., Kimonis, E. R., Muñoz, L. C., et al. (2011). Assessing the forms and functions of aggression using self-report: Factor structure and invariance of the Peer Conflict Scale in youths. Psychological Assessment, 23, 792804. doi:10.1037/a0023369
Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 969981. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9147-y
Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2010). Callous–unemotional traits and aggression in youth. In Arsenio, W. & Lemerise, E. (Eds.), Emotions, aggression, and morality in children: Bridging development and psychopathology (pp. 137156). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Marsee, M. A., Lau, K. S. L., & Lapré, G. E. (2013). Parent and adolescent report of the forms and functions of aggression: Associations with delinquency, CU traits, and dysregulation. Child and Youth Care Forum. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10566-013-9223-0
Marsee, M. A., Weems, C. F., & Taylor, L. K. (2008). Exploring the association between aggression and anxiety in youth: A look at aggressive subtypes, gender, and social cognition. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 154168. doi:10.1007/s10826-007-9154-1
Mathieson, L. C., & Crick, N. R. (2010). Reactive and proactive subtypes of relational and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to concurrent and longitudinal adjustment. School Psychology Review, 39, 601611.
Mezzich, A. C., Tarter, R. E., Giancola, P. R., & Kirisci, L. (2001). The dysregulation inventory: A new scale to assess the risk for substance use disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 10, 3543. doi:10.1300/J029v10n04_04
Muñoz, L. C., Frick, P. J., Kimonis, E. R., & Aucoin, K. J. (2008). Types of aggression, responsiveness to provocation, and callous–unemotional traits in detained adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1528. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9137-0
Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36, 2243.
Ostrov, J. M., & Houston, R. J. (2008). The utility of forms and functions of aggression in emerging adulthood: Association with personality disorder symptomology. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 11471158. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9289-4
Phillips, N. C., & Lochman, J. E. (2003). Experimentally manipulated change in children's proactive and reactive aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 215227. doi:10.1002/ab.10028
Pitts, T. B. (1997). Reduced heart rate levels in aggressive children. In Raine, A., Brennan, P. A., Farrington, D. P., & Mednick, S. A. (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 317320). New York: Plenum Press.
Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12, 115122. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.12.2.115
Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 479491. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_05
Silverthorn, P., Frick, P. J., & Reynolds, R. (2001). Timing of onset and correlates of severe conduct problems in adjudicated girls and boys. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 171181. doi:10.1023/A:1010917304587
SPSS. (2004). TwoStep cluster analysis (Tech. Report). Retrieved from http://support.spss.com/tech/stat/Algorithms/12.0/twostep_cluster.pdf
Walters, G. D. (2005). Proactive and reactive aggression: A lifestyle view. In Morgan, J. P. (Ed.), Psychology of aggression (pp. 2943). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed