Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contents:

Information:

  • Access
  • Cited by 19

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Longitudinal association between infant disorganized attachment and childhood posttraumatic stress symptoms
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Longitudinal association between infant disorganized attachment and childhood posttraumatic stress symptoms
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Longitudinal association between infant disorganized attachment and childhood posttraumatic stress symptoms
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether children with a history of disorganized attachment in infancy were more likely than children without a history of disorganized attachment to exhibit symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at school age following trauma exposure. The sample consisted of 78 8.5-year-old children from a larger, ongoing prospective study evaluating the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) on children's growth and development from birth to adolescence. At the 12-month visit, children's attachment status was scored from videotapes of infant–caregiver dyads in Ainsworth's strange situation. At the 8.5-year visit, children were administered the Violence Exposure Scale—Revised, a child-report trauma exposure inventory, and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents by an experienced clinical psychologist masked to children's attachment status and IUCE status. Sixteen of the 78 children (21%) were classified as insecure–disorganized/insecure–other at 12 months. Poisson regressions covarying IUCE, gender, and continuity of maternal care indicated that disorganized attachment status at 12 months, compared with nondisorganized attachment status, significantly predicted both higher avoidance cluster PTSD symptoms and higher reexperiencing cluster PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that the quality of early dyadic relationships may be linked to differences in children's later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic event.

Footnotes

The research presented in this paper was supported, in part, by a grant from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (R01DA6532) to Deborah A. Frank, Principal Investigator, and a grant from NIH/NCRR (M01RR00533). The authors are grateful to the families for their participation in this study. We also acknowledge the research staff in the developmental lab at Boston Medical Center for their valuable assistance with data collection and reduction in this project and Dr. Heidi Ellis who kindly edited earlier versions of this paper.

Epidemiological research indicates that approximately 60% of men and 50% of women experience at least one traumatic event over the course of their lives (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995). However, only 5% of men and 10% of women go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Kessler et al., 1995). Although there is scant epidemiological research examining these questions in children, preliminary research investigating the population prevalence of childhood exposure to trauma