Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression

  • Cara M. Lusby (a1), Sherryl H. Goodman (a1), Ellen W. Yeung (a2), Martha Ann Bell (a3) and Zachary N. Stowe (a1)...

Abstract

Associations between infants' frontal EEG asymmetry and temperamental negative affectivity (NA) across infants' first year of life and the potential moderating role of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms were examined prospectively in infants (n = 242) of mothers at elevated risk for perinatal depression. In predicting EEG, in the context of high prenatal depressive symptoms, infant NA and frontal EEG asymmetry were negatively associated at 3 months of age and positively associated by 12 months of age. By contrast, for low depression mothers, infant NA and EEG were not significantly associated at any age. Postnatal depressive symptoms did not add significantly to the models. Dose of infants' exposure to maternal depression mattered: infants exposed either pre- or postnatally shifted from a positive association at 3 months to a negative association at 12 months; those exposed both pre- and postnatally shifted from a negative association at 3 months to a positive association at 12 months. Prenatal relative to postnatal exposure did not matter for patterns of association between NA and EEG. The findings highlight the importance of exploring how vulnerabilities at two levels of analysis, behavioral and psychophysiological, co-occur over the course of infancy and in the context of mothers' depressive symptomatology.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Sherryl H. Goodman, Department of Psychology, Emory University, 36 Eagle Row, PAIS Building, Atlanta, GA 30306. E-mail: sherryl.goodman@emory.edu.

References

Hide All
Bates, J. E., Bayles, K., Bennett, D. S., Ridge, B., & Brown, M. M. (1991). Origins of externalizing behavior problems at eight years of age. Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, 17, 93120.
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Advance online publication.
Beauchaine, T. P., & McNulty, T. (2013). Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 15051528.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelsohn, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561571.
Bell, M. A., & Fox, N. A. (1994). Brain development over the first year of life: Relations between electroencephalographic frequency and coherence and cognitive and affective behaviors. In Dawson, G. & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain (pp. 314–45). New York: Guilford Press.
Bridgett, D. J., Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., McKay, T., Iddins, E., Robertson, C., et al. (2009). Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 103116.
Buss, K. A., Schumacher, J. R. M., Dolski, I., Kalin, N. H., Goldsmith, H. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2003a). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 1120.
Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 5372.
Calkins, S. D., Fox, N. A., & Marshall, T. R. (1996). Behavioral and physiological antecedents of inhibited and uninhibited behavior. Child Development, 67, 523540.
Caron, C., & Rutter, M. (1991). Comorbidity in child psychopathology: Concepts, issues, and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32, 10631080.
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in development and psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.
Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B. (2004). Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion. Biological Psychology, 67, 750.
Davidson, R. J., & Fox, N. A. (1989). Frontal brain asymmetry predicts infants’ response to maternal separation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 127131.
Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Human electroencephalography. In Cacioppo, J. T., Bernston, G. G., & Tassinary, L. G. (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology (pp. 2752). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., Hobel, C., Chicz-Demet, A., & Sandman, C. A. (2007). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 737746.
Davis, E. P., Snidman, N., Wadhwa, P. D., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., & Sandman, C. A. (2004). Prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predict negative behavioral reactivity in infancy. Infancy, 6, 319331.
Dawson, G. (1994). Frontal electroencephalographic correlates of individual differences in emotion expression in infants: A brain systems perspective on emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 135151.
Dawson, G., Klinger, L. G., Panagiotides, H., Spieker, S., & Frey, K. (1992). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms: Electroencephalographic and behavioral findings related to attachment status. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 6780.
Dawson, G., Panagiotides, H., Klinger, L. G., & Spieker, S. (1997). Infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers exhibit differences in frontal brain electrical activity during the expression of negative emotions. Developmental Psychology, 33, 650656.
Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (2001). Early temperament and emotional development. In Kalverboer, A. F. & Gramsbergen, A. (Eds.), Handbook of brain and behavior in human development (pp. 967–87). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., & Pressman, E. K. (2002). Fetal state concordance predicts infant state regulation. Early Human Development, 68, 113.
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., Shupe, A. K., Pressman, E. K., & Johnson, T. R. (1998). Fetal neurobehavioral development: Associations with socioeconomic class and fetal sex. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 7991.
Engert, V., Plessow, F., Miller, R., Kirschbaum, C., & Singer, T. (2014). Cortisol increase in empathic stress is modulated by emotional closeness and observation modality. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 45, 192201.
Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257260.
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Diego, M. (2006). Intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers and their infants. Developmental Review, 26, 1530.
Fox, N. A. (1991). If it's not left, it's right: Electroencephalograph asymmetry and the development of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 863.
Fox, N. A. (1994). The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 5369.
Fox, N. A., Bell, M. A., & Jones, N. A. (1992). Individual differences in response to stress and cerebral asymmetry. Developmental Neuropsychology, 8, 161184.
Fox, N. A., Calkins, S. D., & Bell, M. A. (1994). Neural plasticity and development in the first two years of life: Evidence from cognitive and socioemotional domains of research. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 677696.
Fox, N. A., & Davidson, R. J. (1984). Hemispheric substrates of affect: A developmental model. The psychobiology of affective development (pp. 353381). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 121.
Franklin, J. C., Jamieson, J. P., Glenn, C. R., & Nock, M. K. (2015). How developmental psychopathology theory and research can inform the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 280290.
Garmezy, N. (1971). Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101116.
Gartstein, M. A., & Marmion, J. (2008). Fear and positive affectivity in infancy: Convergence/discrepancy between parent-report and laboratory-based indicators. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 227238.
Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197211.
Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 26, 6486.
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458490.
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M., Connell, A., Broth, M., Hall, C., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127.
Goodman, S. H., & Tully, E. C. (2009). Recurrence of depression during pregnancy: Psychosocial and personal functioning correlates. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 555567.
Guerin, D. W., Gottfried, A. W., & Thomas, C. W. (1997). Difficult temperament and behaviour problems: A longitudinal study from 1.5 to 12 years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 7190.
Hagemann, D., Naumann, E., & Thayer, J. F. (2001). The quest for the EEG reference revisited: A glance from brain asymmetry research. Psychophysiology, 38, 847857.
Hammen, C. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 175202). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hayes, L. J., Goodman, S. H., & Carlson, E. (2013). Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months. Attachment and Human Development, 15, 133153.
Howarth, G. Z., Fettig, N. B., Curby, T. W., & Bell, M. A. (2015). Frontal EEG asymmetry and temperament across infancy and early childhood: An exploration of stability and bidirectional relations. Child Development. Avance online publication.
Huot, R. L., Brennan, P. A., Stowe, Z. N., Plotsky, P. M., & Walker, E. F. (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 234236.
Ingram, R. E., & Price, J. M. (2010). Understanding psychopathology: The role of vulnerability. In Ingram, R. E. & Price, J. M. (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the lifespan (2nd ed., pp. 317). New York: Guilford Press.
Ji, S., Long, Q., Newport, D. J., Na, H., Knight, B., Zach, E. B., et al. (2011). Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Impact of trimester and parity. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 213219.
Jones, N. A., Field, T., & Almeida, A. (2009). Right frontal EEG asymmetry and behavioral inhibition in infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 298304.
Jones, N. A., Field, T., Davalos, M., & Pickens, J. (1997). EEG stability in infants/children of depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 28, 5970.
Jones, N. A., Field, T., Fox, N. A., Davalos, M., & Gomez, C. (2001). EEG during different emotions in 10-month-old infants of depressed mothers. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 19, 295312.
Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. C. (2004). The long shadow of temperament. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343354.
Lancaster, C. A., Gold, K. J., Flynn, H. A., Yoo, H., Marcus, S. M., & Davis, M. M. (2010). Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1, 514.
Lenroot, R. K., & Giedd, J. N. (2011). Annual Research Review: Developmental considerations of gene by environment interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 429441.
Lewis, A., Austin, E., Knapp, R., Vaiano, T., & Galbally, M. (2015). Perinatal maternal mental health, fetal programming and child development. Healthcare, 3, 1212.
Luck, S. (2005). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Marsh, P., Beauchaine, T. P., & Williams, B. (2008). Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders. Psychophysiology, 45, 100110.
Marshall, P. J., Bar-Haim, Y., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Development of the EEG from 5 months to 4 years of age. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113, 11991208.
Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In Lahey, B. B. & Kazdin, A. E. (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 152). New York: Springer.
Murphy, L. B., & Moriarty, A. E. (1976). Vulnerability, coping and growth from infancy to adolescence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Myslobodsky, M., Coppola, R., Bar-Ziv, J., Karson, C., Daniel, D., van Praag, H., et al. (1989). EEG asymmetries may be affected by cranial and brain parenchymal asymmetries. Brain Topography, 1, 221228.
Nakagawa, S., & Schielzeth, H. (2013). A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 133142.
Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395422.
Obradović, J. (2016). Physiological responsivity and executive functioning: Implications for adaptation and resilience in early childhood. Child Development Perspectives. Advance online pubication.
O'Hara, M. W., & Swain, A. M. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 3754.
Putnam, S. P., Rothbart, M. K., & Gartstein, M. A. (2008). Homotypicl and heterotypic continuity of find-grained temperament during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 17, 387405.
Quaedflieg, C., Meyer, T., Smulders, F., & Smeets, T. (2015). The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding. Biological Psychology, 104, 7581.
Rotenberg, S., & McGrath, J. J. (2016). Inter-relation between autonomic and HPA axis activity in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology. Advance online pubication.
Rothbart, M. K. (1986). Longitudinal observation of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 22, 356365.
Rothbart, M. K., & Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. In Lamb, M. E. & Brown, A. L. (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (pp. 3786). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3, 207213.
Rouse, M. H., & Goodman, S. H. (2014). Perinatal depression influences on negative affectivity: Timing, severity, and co-morbid anxiety. Infant Behavior & Development, 37, 739751.
Sayal, K., Heron, J., Maughan, B., Rowe, R., & Ramchandani, P. (2014). Infant temperament and childhood psychiatric disorder: Longitudinal study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40, 292297.
Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Patterns of second-by-second resting frontal brain (EEG) asymmetry and their relation to heart rate and temperament in 9-month-old human infants. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 216225.
Teerikangas, O. M., Aronen, E. T., Martin, R. P., & Huttunen, M. O. (1998). Effects of infant temperament and early intervention on the psychiatric symptoms of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 10701076.
Thibodeau, R., Jorgensen, R. S., & Kim, S. (2006). Depression, anxiety, and resting frontal EEG asymmetry: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 715729.
Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1977). Kauai's children come of age. Honoloulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii.
Zautra, A. J., Davis, M. C., Reich, J. W., Nicassio, P., Tennen, H., Finan, P., et al. (2008). Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 408421.
Zijlmans, M. A., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., & de Weerth, C. (2015). Associations between maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations and child outcomes: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 53, 124.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed