Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Genetic moderation of the effects of the Family Check-Up intervention on children's internalizing symptoms: A longitudinal study with a racially/ethnically diverse sample

  • Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant (a1), Sierra Clifford (a1), Thomas J. Dishion (a1), Daniel S. Shaw (a2) and Melvin N. Wilson (a3)...

Abstract

Development involves synergistic interplay among genotypes and the physical and cultural environments, and integrating genetics into experimental designs that manipulate the environment can improve understanding of developmental psychopathology and intervention efficacy. Consistent with differential susceptibility theory, individuals can vary in their sensitivity to environmental conditions including intervention for reasons including their genotype. As a consequence, understanding genetic influences on intervention response is critical. Empirically, we tested an interaction between a genetic index representing sensitivity to the environment and the Family Check-Up intervention. Participants were drawn from the Early Steps Multisite randomized prevention trial that included a low-income and racially/ethnically diverse sample of children and their families followed longitudinally (n = 515). As hypothesized, polygenic sensitivity to the environment moderated the effects of the intervention on 10-year-old children's symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, such that children who were genetically sensitive and were randomly assigned to the intervention had fewer symptoms of child psychopathology than genetically sensitive children assigned to the control condition. A significant difference in internalizing symptoms assessed with a clinical interview emerged between the intervention and control groups for those 0.493 SD above the mean on polygenic sensitivity, or 25% of the sample. Similar to personalized medicine, it is time to understand individual and sociocultural differences in treatment response and individualize psychosocial interventions to reduce the burden of child psychopathology and maximize well-being for children growing up in a wide range of physical environments and cultures.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, Department of Psychology, P.O. Box 871104, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287; E-mail: klemery@asu.edu.

Footnotes

Hide All

This research was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse Grants DA022773, DA023245, and DA036832. Special thanks to the staff and students for their dedication to the Early Steps Multisite Study, and the participating families who generously shared their experiences.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: New evidence and a meta-analysis. Developmental Psychopathology, 23, 3952. doi:10.1017/ S0954579410000635
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2015). The hidden efficacy of interventions: Gene-environment experiments from a differential susceptibility perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 381409. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015407
Beauchaine, T. P., & Cicchetti, D. (2016). A new generation of comorbidity research in the era of neuroscience and research domain criteria. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 891894. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000602
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908. doi:10.1037/a0017376
Brody, G. H., Beach, S. R., Chen, Y. F., Obasi, E., Philibert, R. A., Kogan, S. M., & Simons, R. L. (2011). Perceived discrimination, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region status, and the development of conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 617627. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000046
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568586. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.101.4.568
Burt, S. A. (2009). Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: A meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 608637. doi:10.1037/a0015702
Causadias, J. M. (2013). A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 13751398. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000679
Causadias, J. M., Telzer, E. H., & Gonzales, N. A. (2018). Introduction to culture and biology interplay. In Causadias, J. M., Telzer, E. H., & Gonzales, N. A. (Eds.), The handbook of culture and biology (pp. 329). New York: Wiley.
Chabris, C. F., Lee, J. J., Cesarini, D., Benjamin, D. J., & Laibson, D. I. (2015). The fourth law of behavior genetics. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 304312. doi:10.1177/0963721415580430
Clifford, S., & Lemery-Chalfant, K. (2015). Molecular genetics of resilience. In Pluess, M. (Ed.), Genetics of psychological well-being: The role of heritability and genetics in positive psychology (pp. 177192). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, A. B. (2009). Many forms of culture. American Psychologist, 64, 194204. doi:10.1037/a0015308
Connell, A. M., & Dishion, T. J. (2017). Long-term effects of the Family Check-Up in public secondary school on diagnosed major depressive disorder in adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 570581. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0482-6
Crnic, K. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61, 16281637. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02889.x
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 1629. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.1.1.16
Dick, D. M., Barr, P. B., Cho, S. B., Cooke, M. E., Kuo, S. I., Lewis, T. J., … Su, J. (2017). Post-GWAS in psychiatric genetics: A developmental perspective on the “other” next steps. Genes, Brain and Behavior. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/gbb.12447
Dishion, T. J., Brennan, L. M., Shaw, D. S., McEachern, A. D., Wilson, M. N., & Jo, B. (2014). Prevention of problem behavior through annual family check-ups in early childhood: Intervention effects from home to early elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 343354. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9768-2
Dishion, T. J., Kavanagh, K., Schneiger, A., Nelson, S., & Kaufman, N. K. (2002). Preventing early adolescent substance use: A family-centered strategy for the public middle school. Prevention Science, 3, 191201. doi:10.1023/A:1019994500301
Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The Family Check-Up with high-risk indigent families: Preventing problem behavior by increasing parents’ positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 79, 13951414. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01195.x
Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. (2007). Intervening in children's lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65, 649665. doi:10.2307/1131407
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 728. doi:10.2307/1131407
Emmelkamp, P. M., & Wittchen, H. U. (2009). Specific phobias. In Andrews, G., Charney, D. S., Sirovatka, P. J., & Regier, D. A. (Eds.), Stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders. Refining the research Agenda for DSM-V (pp. 77101). Arlington, VA: American Psychological Association.
Harold, G. T., Rice, F., Hay, D. F., Boivin, J., van Den Bree, M., & Thapar, A. (2011). Familial transmission of depression and antisocial behavior symptoms: Disentangling the contribution of inherited and environmental factors and testing the mediating role of parenting. Psychological Medicine, 41, 11751185. doi:10.1017/S0033291710001753
Haworth, C. M., Davis, O. S., & Plomin, R. (2013). Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A genetically sensitive investigation of cognitive and behavioral development from childhood to young adulthood. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 117125. doi:10.1017/thg.2012.91
Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 6183. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0999152X
Holden, M., Deng, S., Wojnowski, L., & Kulle, B. (2008). GSEA-SNP: Applying gene set enrichment analysis to SNP data from genome-wide association studies. Bioinformatics, 24, 27842785. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.04.006
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. (2004). Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature, 431, 931. doi:10.1038/nature03001
Ioannidis, J. P. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLOS Medicine, 2, e124. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124
Keers, R., Coleman, J. R., Lester, K. J., Roberts, S., Breen, G., Thastum, M., … Nauta, M. (2016). A genome-wide test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis reveals a genetic predictor of differential response to psychological treatments for child anxiety disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85, 146158. doi:10.1159/000444023
Keller, M. C. (2014). Gene × Environment interaction studies have not properly controlled for potential confounders: The problem and the (simple) solution. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 1824. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.09.006
Kendler, K. S., Thornton, L. M., & Pedersen, N. L. (2000). Tobacco consumption in Swedish twins reared apart and reared together. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 886892. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.9.886
Lemery, K. S., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1999). Genetically informative designs for the study of behavioural development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 293317. doi:10.1080/016502599383838
Lemery-Chalfant, K., Kao, K., Swann, G., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). Childhood temperament: Passive gene–environment correlation, gene–environment interaction, and the hidden importance of the family environment. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 5163. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000892
Lunkenheimer, E. S., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Connell, A. M., Gardner, F., Wilson, M. N., & Skuban, E. M. (2008). Collateral benefits of the family check-up on early childhood school readiness: Indirect effects of parents' positive behavior support. Developmental Psychology, 44, 17371752. doi:10.1037/a0013858
McDonough-Caplan, H., Klein, D. N., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2018). Comorbidity and continuity of depression and conduct problems from elementary school to adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127, 326337. doi:10.1037/abn0000339
McGoldrick, M., & Hardy, K. V. (Eds.) (2008). Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Middeldorp, C. M., Cath, D. C., Van Dyck, R., & Boomsma, D. I. (2005). The co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in the perspective of genetic epidemiology. A review of twin and family studies. Psychological Medicine, 35, 611624. doi:10.1017/S003329170400412X
Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., & Maxwell, K. L. (2010). Developmental cascades: Externalizing, internalizing, and academic competence from middle childhood to early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 635653. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000337.
Musci, R. J., Fairman, B., Masyn, K. E., Uhl, G., Maher, B., Sisto, D. Y., … Ialongo, N. S. (2018). Polygenic Score × Intervention Moderation: An application of discrete-time survival analysis to model the timing of first marijuana use among urban youth. Prevention Science, 19, 614. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0729-1
Musci, R. J., Masyn, K. E., Uhl, G., Maher, B., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2015). Polygenic Score × Intervention Moderation: An application of discrete-time survival analysis to modeling the timing of first tobacco use among urban youth. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 111122. doi:10.1017/S0954579414001333
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user's guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables (Version 7.4). Los Angeles: Author.
Oliver, B. R., Trzaskowski, M., & Plomin, R. (2014). Genetics of parenting: The power of the dark side. Developmental Psychology, 50, 12331240. doi:10.1037/a0035388
Oquendo, M. A., Canino, G., Lehner, T., & Licinio, J. (2010). Genetic repositories for the study of major psychiatric conditions: What do we know about ethnic minorities' genetic vulnerability? Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 970975. doi:10.1038/mp.2010.11
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys (Vol. 4). Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. (1995). The first two years of school: Teacher child relationships and deflections in children's classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 295312. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006519
Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 53, 873932. doi:10.1037/dev0000295
Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 160. doi:10.1093/ije/dyq148
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309322. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.2.309
Polderman, T. J., Benyamin, B., De Leeuw, C. A., Sullivan, P. F., Van Bochoven, A., Visscher, P. M., & Posthuma, D. (2015). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47, 702709. doi:10.1038/ng.3285
Popejoy, A. B., & Fullerton, S. M. (2016). Genomics is failing on diversity. Nature News, 538, 161164. doi:10.1038/538161a
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437448. doi:10.3102/10769986031004437
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
Rende, R., & Plomin, R. (1992). Diathesis–stress models of psychopathology: A quantitative genetic perspective. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 1, 177182. doi:10.1016/S0962-1849(05)80123-4
Reuben, J. D., Shaw, D. S., Brennan, L. M., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). A family-based intervention for improving children's emotional problems through effects on maternal depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 11421148. doi:10.1037/ccp0000049
Roalf, D. R., & Gur, R. C. (2017). Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Neuropsychology, 31, 954971. doi:10.1037/neu0000426
Robinson, E. A., Eyberg, S. M., & Ross, A. W. (1980). The standardization of an inventory of child conduct problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 9, 2228. doi:10.1080/15374418009532938
Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63, 119. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb03591.x
Schwartz, J. A., & Beaver, K. M. (2011). Evidence of a gene × environment interaction between perceived prejudice and MAOA genotype in the prediction of criminal arrests. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 378384. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2011.05.003
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 28Y38. doi:10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P. I., Lucas, C., & NIMH DISC Editorial Board. (1998). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV. New York: Columbia University, Division of Psychiatry.
Shanahan, M. J., & Hofer, S. M. (2005). Social context in gene -environment interactions: Retrospect and prospect. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, 6576. doi:10.1093/geronb/60.Special_Issue_1.65
Shaw, D. S., Connell, A., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417439. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000236
Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Supplee, L., Gardner, F., & Arnds, K. (2006). Randomized trial of a family-centered approach to the prevention of early conduct problems: 2-year effects of the Family Check-Up in early childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 19. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.1
Shaw, D. S., Sitnick, S. L., Brennan, L. M., Choe, D. E., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2017). The long-term effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on school-age conduct problems: Moderation by neighborhood deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 14711486. doi:10.1017/S0954579415001212
Smith, J. D., Berkel, C., Hails, K. A., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2017). Predictors of participation in the Family Check-Up program: A randomized trial of yearly services from age 2 to 10 years. Prevention Science, 88, 427435. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0679-7
Smith, J. D., Knoble, N. B., Zerr, A. A., Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2014). Family Check-Up effects across diverse ethnic groups: Reducing early-adolescence antisocial behavior by reducing family conflict. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 400414. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.888670
Stormshak, E. A., Connell, A. M., Véronneau, M. H., Myers, M. W., Dishion, T. J., Kavanagh, K., & Caruthers, A. S. (2011). An ecological approach to promoting early adolescent mental health and social adaptation: Family-centered intervention in public middle schools. Child Development, 82, 209225. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01551.x
Stormshak, E. A., Fosco, G. M., & Dishion, T. J. (2010). Implementing interventions with families in schools to increase youth school engagement: The Family Check-Up model. School Mental Health, 2, 8292. doi:10.1007/s12310-009-9025-6
Turkheimer, E. (2000). Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 160164. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00084
Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., Waldron, M., D'Onofrio, B., & Gottesman, I. I. (2003). Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Psychological Science, 14, 623628. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00084
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Belsky, J., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). Serotonin transporter genotype 5HTTLPR as a marker of differential susceptibility? A meta-analysis of child and adolescent gene-by-environment studies. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e147. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.73
Van Ryzin, M. J., Stormshak, E. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2012). Engaging parents in the Family Check-Up in middle schools: Longitudinal effects through the transition to high school. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 627633. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.10.255
Zheng, Y., Rijsdijk, F., Pingault, J. B., McMahon, R. J., & Unger, J. B. (2016). Developmental changes in genetic and environmental influences on Chinese child and adolescent anxiety and depression. Psychological Medicine, 46, 18291838. doi:10.1017/S0033291716000313
Zvara, B. J., Sheppard, K. W., & Cox, M. (2018). Bidirectional effects between parenting sensitivity and child behavior: A cross-lagged analysis across middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 484495. doi:10.1037/fam0000372

Genetic moderation of the effects of the Family Check-Up intervention on children's internalizing symptoms: A longitudinal study with a racially/ethnically diverse sample

  • Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant (a1), Sierra Clifford (a1), Thomas J. Dishion (a1), Daniel S. Shaw (a2) and Melvin N. Wilson (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed