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Gene–environment correlation in developmental psychopathology

  • Ariel Knafo (a1) and Sara R. Jaffee (a2) (a3)


Modern research acknowledges that psychopathology and individual differences in normal development are the joint products of both biological and social influences. Although there have been numerous publications on Gene × Environment interactions in the past decade, gene–environment correlation is another important form of gene–environment interplay that has received less attention. This Special Section demonstrates, using a range of methodological approaches, the importance of gene–environment correlation in developmental psychopathology. Several types of gene–environment correlation are described, including passive, evocative, and active. Other studies highlight the potential for gene–environment correlation to obscure associations between risk exposures and child psychopathology. Future directions for gene–environment correlation research are discussed.

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Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Ariel Knafo, Psychology Department, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel; E-mail:; or Sara Jaffee, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; E-mail:


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