Skip to main content Accessibility help

Childhood maltreatment affects adolescent sensitivity to parenting and close friendships in predicting growth in externalizing behavior

  • Irene Tung (a1), Amanda N. Noroña (a1) and Steve S. Lee (a1)


Childhood maltreatment robustly predicts adolescent externalizing behaviors (EB; e.g., violence, delinquency, substance use) and may crystalize patterns of EB by influencing sensitivity to the social environment (e.g., parenting, friendships). In a nationally representative sample of 9,421 adolescents, we modeled latent growth curves of EB from age 13 to 32 years. Next, we explored whether maltreated youth differed from nonmaltreated youth in their sensitivity to parental closeness, friendship involvement, and polymorphisms from dopamine genes linked to EB (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, dopamine transporter). Overall, maltreated youth had significantly higher levels of EB across adolescence and adulthood; however, maltreated and nonmaltreated youth showed similar patterns of EB change over time: violent behavior decreased in adolescence before stabilizing in adulthood, whereas nonviolent delinquency and substance use increased in adolescence before decreasing in the transition to adulthood. Maltreatment reduced sensitivity to parental closeness and friendship involvement, although patterns varied based on type of EB outcome. Finally, none of the environmental effects on EB were significantly moderated by the dopamine polygenic risk score after accounting for multiple testing. These findings underline the enduring effects of early maltreatment and implicate that maltreatment may contribute to long-term risk for EB by influencing children's sensitivity to social relationship factors in adolescence.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Irene Tung, Department of Psychology, UCLA, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563; E-mail:


Hide All
Afifi, T. O., & Macmillan, H. L. (2011). Resilience following child maltreatment: A review of protective factors. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 266272.
Ayduk, Ö., Gyurak, A., & Luerssen, A. (2008). Individual differences in the rejection–aggression link in the hot sauce paradigm: The case of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 775782.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Gene-environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 406409.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: New evidence and a meta-analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 3952.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2015). The hidden efficacy of interventions: Gene x environment experiments from a differential susceptibility perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 381409.
Barnes, J. C., Beaver, K. M., & Miller, J. M. (2010). Estimating the effect of gang membership on nonviolent and violent delinquency: A counterfactual analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 437451.
Barnes, J. C., & Jacobs, B. A. (2013). Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: The case for gene-environment interaction. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 92120.
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300304.
Belsky, J., & Beaver, K. M. (2011). Cumulative-genetic plasticity, parenting and adolescent self-regulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 619626.
Bender, K. (2010). Why do some maltreated youth become juvenile offenders?: A call for further investigation and adaptation of youth services. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(3), 466473.
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 57(1), 289300.
Boardman, J. D., Menard, S., Roettger, M. E., Knight, K. E., Boutwell, B. B., & Smolen, A. (2014). Genes in the dopaminergic system and delinquent behaviors across the life course: The role of social controls and risks. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41, 713731.
Bollen, K. A., & Curran, P. J. (2006). Latent Curve Models: A Structural Equation Perspective. John Wiley & Sons.
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 75, 15231537.
Bosch, N. M., Riese, H., Reijneveld, S. A., Bakker, M. P., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2012). Timing matters: Long term effects of adversities from prenatal period up to adolescence on adolescents’ cortisol stress response. The TRAILS study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 14391447.
Boyce, W. T. (2007). A biology of misfortune: Stress reactivity, social context, and the ontogeny of psychopathology in early life. In Masten, M. A. (Ed.), Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future (Vol. 34, pp. 4582). Florence, KY: Psychology Press.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301.
Branstetter, S. A., Low, S., & Furman, W. (2011). The influence of parents and friends on adolescent substance use: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Substance Use, 16, 150160.
Brezina, T., & Piquero, A. R. (2007). Moral beliefs, isolation from peers, and abstention from delinquency. Deviant Behavior, 28, 433465.
Brody, G. H., Yu, T., & Beach, S. R. H. (2015). A differential susceptibility analysis reveals the “who and how” about adolescents’ responses to preventive interventions: Tests of first- and second-generation gene × intervention hypotheses. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 3749.
Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S., … Murphy, S. (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 Years of age. Pediatrics, 121, S290S310.
Brownstein, N., Kalsbeek, W. D., Tabor, J., Entzel, P., Daza, E., & Harris, K. M. (2011). Non-response in wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina. Retrieved from
Bynum, M. S., & Kotchick, B. A. (2006). Mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy as predictors of psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 528541.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., … Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Rose, J., Sherman, S. J., Davis, M. J., & Gonzalez, J. L. (2005). Parenting style and smoking-specific parenting practices as predictors of adolescent smoking onset. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 333344.
Chester, D. S., DeWall, C. N., Derefinko, K. J., Estus, S., Lynam, D. R., Peters, J. R., & Jiang, Y. (2015). Looking for reward in all the wrong places: Dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking. Social Neuroscience, 11, 18.
Chhangur, R. R., Overbeek, G., Verhagen, M., Weeland, J., Matthys, W., & E, C. M. (2015). DRD4 and DRD2 genes, parenting, and adolescent delinquency: Longitudinal evidence for a gene by environment interaction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 791802.
Cicchetti, D., & Banny, A. (2014). A developmental psychopathology perspective on child maltreatment. In Lewis, M. & Rudolph, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 723741). Boston, MA: Springer US.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2011). The effects of child maltreatment and polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and dopamine D4 receptor genes on infant attachment and intervention efficacy. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 357372.
Cornish, K. M., Manly, T., Savage, R., Swanson, J., Morisano, D., Butler, N., … Hollis, C. P. (2005). Association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10/10-repeat genotype with ADHD symptoms and response inhibition in a general population sample. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 686698.
Côté, S., Vaillancourt, T., LeBlanc, J. C., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 6882.
Cribbie, R. A. (2007). Multiplicity control in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(1), 98112.
Curtis, W. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Affective facial expression processing in young children who have experienced maltreatment during the first year of life: An event-related potential study. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 373395.
Curtis, W. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). Affective facial expression processing in 15-month-old infants who have experienced maltreatment: An event-related potential study. Child Maltreatment, 18, 140154.
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 15621592.
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Sorbring, E., Skinner, A. T., Tapanya, S., … Pastorelli, C. (2015). Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 93109315.
Duncan, L. E., & Keller, M. C. (2011). A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction research in psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 10411049.
Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Hops, H. (1996). Analysis of longitudinal data within accelerated longitudinal designs. Psychological Methods, 1(3), 236248.
Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2007). A cohort-sequential latent growth model of physical activity from ages 12 to 17 years. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 8089.
Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Strycker, L. A. (2013). An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling: Concepts, issues, and application (2nd ed.). Florence, KY: Routledge.10.4324/9780203879962
Egeland, B., Yates, T., Appleyard, K., & Dulmen, M. van. (2002). The long-term consequences of maltreatment in the early years: A developmental pathway model to antisocial behavior. Children's Services, 5, 249260.
Eisenberg, D. T. A., Mackillop, J., Modi, M., Beauchemin, J., Dang, D., Lisman, S. A., … Wilson, D. S. (2007). Examining impulsivity as an endophenotype using a behavioral approach: A DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48-bp VNTR association study. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 3, 2.
Ellis, B. J., & Boyce, W. T. (2008). Biological sensitivity to context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 183187.
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 728.
Englund, M. M., Siebenbruner, J., Oliva, E. M., Egeland, B., Chung, C.-T., & Long, J. D. (2013). The developmental significance of late adolescent substance use for early adult functioning. Developmental Psychology, 49, 15541564.
Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Cho, E., & Kalin, N. H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 776784.
Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2007). Childhood poverty and health: Cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation. Psychological Science, 18, 953957.
Evans, S. Z., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2016). Factors that influence trajectories of delinquency throughout adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 126171.
Fang, X., & Corso, P. S. (2007). Child maltreatment, youth violence, and intimate partner violence: Developmental relationships. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 281290.
Feder, A., Nestler, E. J., & Charney, D. S. (2009). Psychobiology and molecular genetics of resilience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 446457.
Foster, E. M., & Jones, D. E. (2005). The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 17671772.
Gustafsson, P. E., Anckarsäter, H., Lichtenstein, P., Nelson, N., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2010). Does quantity have a quality all its own? Cumulative adversity and up- and down-regulation of circadian salivary cortisol levels in healthy children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 14101415.
Haberstick, B. C., Lessem, J. M., Hopfer, C. J., Smolen, A., Ehringer, M. A., Timberlake, D., & Hewitt, J. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and antisocial behaviors in the presence of childhood and adolescent maltreatment. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 135B, 5964.
Harris, K. M. (2013). The add health study: Design and accomplishments. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from
Harris, K. M., Florey, F., Tabor, J., Bearman, P. S., Jones, J., & Udry, J. R. (2008). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Study design. Retrieved from
Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R. D., & Guo, J. (2005). Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 202210.
Hou, J., Chen, Z., Natsuaki, M. N., Li, X., Yang, X., Zhang, J., & Zhang, J. (2013). A longitudinal investigation of the associations among parenting, deviant peer affiliation, and externalizing behaviors: A monozygotic twin differences design. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 698706.
Hussey, J. M., Chang, J. J., & Kotch, J. B. (2006). Child maltreatment in the United States: Prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences. Pediatrics, 118, 933942.
Jackson, Y., Gabrielli, J., Fleming, K., Tunno, A. M., & Makanui, P. K. (2014). Untangling the relative contribution of maltreatment severity and frequency to type of behavioral outcome in foster youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 11471159.
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Taylor, A. (2004). Physical maltreatment victim to antisocial child: Evidence of an environmentally mediated process. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 113, 4455.
Janssens, A., Noortgate, W. V. D., Goossens, L., Verschueren, K., Colpin, H., Laet, S. D., … Leeuwen, K. V. (2015). Externalizing problem behavior in adolescence: Dopaminergic genes in interaction with peer acceptance and rejection. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 14411456.
Jonson-Reid, M., Kohl, P. L., & Drake, B. (2012). Child and adult outcomes of chronic child maltreatment. Pediatrics, peds.2011-2529.
Kay, C. L., & Green, J. M. (2016). Social cognitive deficits and biases in maltreated adolescents in U.K. out-of-home care: Relation to disinhibited attachment disorder and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 7383.
Keller, M. C. (2014). Gene × environment interaction studies have not properly controlled for potential confounders: The problem and the (simple) solution. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 1824.
Kerig, P. K., & Becker, S. P. (2015). Early abuse and neglect as risk factors for the development of criminal and antisocial behavior. In Morizot, J. & Kazemian, L. (Eds.), The development of criminal and antisocial behavior (pp. 181199). Springer International Publishing.
Laible, D. J., Carlo, G., & Raffaelli, M. (2000). The differential relations of parent and peer attachment to adolescent adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 4559.
Lansford, J. E., Miller-Johnson, S., Berlin, L. J., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2007). Early physical abuse and later violent delinquency: A prospective longitudinal study. Child Maltreatment, 12, 233245.
Lee, V., & Hoaken, P. N. S. (2007). Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: Mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression. Child Maltreatment, 12, 281298.
Leeb, R. T., Paulozzi, L. J., Melanson, C., Simon, T. R., & Arias, I. (2008). Child maltreatment surveillance: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved from
Li, J. J., Berk, M. S., & Lee, S. S. (2013). Differential susceptibility in longitudinal models of gene-environment interaction for adolescent depression. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 9911003.
Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. New York: John A. Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Liu, H. (2007). Growth curve models for zero-inflated count data: An application to smoking behavior. Structural Equation Modeling 14, 247279.
Lowell, A., Renk, K., & Adgate, A. H. (2014). The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 14361449.
Luterek, J. A., Harb, G. C., Heimberg, R. G., & Marx, B. P. (2004). Interpersonal rejection sensitivity in childhood sexual abuse survivors: Mediator of depressive symptoms and anger suppression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 90107.
Manly, J. T., Cicchetti, D., & Barnett, D. (1994). The impact of subtype, frequency, chronicity, and severity of child maltreatment on social competence and behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 121143.
Marcus, R. F., & Jamison, E. G. (2013). Substance use in adolescence and early adulthood: Which best predicts violence in early adulthood? Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 22, 3857.
Masi, G., Manfredi, A., Milone, A., Muratori, P., Polidori, L., Ruglioni, L., & Muratori, F. (2011). Predictors of nonresponse to psychosocial treatment in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 21, 5155.
Maughan, B., Rowe, R., Messer, J., Goodman, R., & Meltzer, H. (2004). Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: Developmental epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 609621.
McDonald, S. W., Kingston, D., Bayrampour, H., Dolan, S. M., & Tough, S. C. (2014). Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 17(6), 559568.
Menting, B., van Lier, P. A. C., & Koot, H. M. (2011). Language skills, peer rejection, and the development of externalizing behavior from kindergarten to fourth grade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 7279.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355375.
Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25(1), 5363.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Mplus User's Guide: Fifth Edition. Los Angeles, CA.
Nikitopoulos, J., Zohsel, K., Blomeyer, D., Buchmann, A. F., Schmid, B., Jennen-Steinmetz, C., … Laucht, M. (2014). Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 5359.
O'Connor, T. G., Deater-Deckard, K., Fulker, D., Rutter, M., & Plomin, R. (1998). Genotype–environment correlations in late childhood and early adolescence: Antisocial behavioral problems and coercive parenting. Developmental Psychology, 34, 970981.
Oshri, A., Rogosch, F. A., Burnette, M. L., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: Child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 634644.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 539569.
Poulin, F., Kiesner, J., Pedersen, S., & Dishion, T. J. (2011). A short-term longitudinal analysis of friendship selection on early adolescent substance use. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 249256.
Puetz, V. B., Viding, E., Palmer, A., Kelly, P. A., Lickley, R., Koutoufa, I., … McCrory, E. J. (2016). Altered neural response to rejection-related words in children exposed to maltreatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 57, 11651173.
Rogosch, F. A., Oshri, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model. Development and Psychopathology, 22(4), 883897.
Roisman, G. I., Monahan, K. C., Campbell, S. B., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2010). Is adolescence-onset antisocial behavior developmentally normative? Development and Psychopathology, 22, 295311.
Romero-Canyas, R., Downey, G., Berenson, K., Ayduk, O., & Kang, N. J. (2010). Rejection sensitivity and the rejection-hostility link in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality, 78, 119148.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66(4), 507514.
Sentse, M., & Laird, R. D. (2010). Parent–child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 873884.
Shaffer, A., Huston, L., & Egeland, B. (2008). Identification of child maltreatment using prospective and self-report methodologies: A comparison of maltreatment incidence and relation to later psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 682692.
Shaw, D. S., Hyde, L. W., & Brennan, L. M. (2012). Early predictors of boys’ antisocial trajectories. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 871888.
Smolen, A., Whitsel, E. A., Tabor, J., Killeya-Jones, L. A., Cuthbertson, C. C., Hussey, J. M., … Harris, K. M. (2013). Add health wave IV documentation: Candidate genes. Carolina Population Center: University of North Carlina at Chapel Hill.
Steinberg, L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 28, 78106.
Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. C. (2007). Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 15311543.
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632639.
Tilson, E. C., McBride, C. M., Lipkus, I. M., & Catalano, R. F. (2004). Testing the interaction between parent-child relationship factors and parent smoking to predict youth smoking. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 35, 182189.
Vaughn, M. G., Beaver, K. M., DeLisi, M., Perron, B. E., & Schelbe, L. (2009). Gene-environment interplay and the importance of self-control in predicting polydrug use and substance-related problems. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 112116.
Wang, M.-T., & Dishion, T. J. (2012). The trajectories of adolescents’ perceptions of school climate, deviant peer affiliation, and behavioral problems during the middle school years. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 4053.
Welsh, B. C., Loeber, R., Stevens, B. R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Cohen, M. A., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Costs of juvenile crime in urban areas: A longitudinal perspective. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 327.
Wise, R. A. (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(6), 483494.
You, J.-I., & Bellmore, A. (2012). Relational peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment: The mediating role of best friendship qualities. Personal Relationships, 19, 340353.
Yu, Q., Teixeira, C. M., Mahadevia, D., Huang, Y., Balsam, D., Mann, J. J., … Ansorge, M. S. (2014). Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice. Molecular Psychiatry, 19, 688698.
Zhang, W., Cao, Y., Wang, M., Ji, L., Chen, L., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2015). The dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) interacts with maternal parenting in predicting early adolescent depressive symptoms: Evidence of differential susceptibility and age differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 14281440.
Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2016). Peer rejection, victimization, and relational self-system processes in adolescence: Toward a transactional model of stress, coping, and developing sensitivities. Child Development Perspectives, 10, 122127.


Childhood maltreatment affects adolescent sensitivity to parenting and close friendships in predicting growth in externalizing behavior

  • Irene Tung (a1), Amanda N. Noroña (a1) and Steve S. Lee (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed