Anda, R. F., Brown, D. W., Dube, S. R., Bremner, J. D., Felitti, V. J., & Giles, W. H. (2008). Adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 396–403.
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. (Eds.), Child abuse, child development, and social policy. Norwood, NJ. Ablex.
Batten, S. V., Aslan, M., Maciejewski, P. K., & Mazure, C. M. (2004). Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease and depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 249–254.
Bentley, T., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A 30-year follow-up of the effects of child abuse and neglect on obesity in adulthood. Obesity, 17, 1900–1905.
Bleich, S. N., Thorpe, R. J., Sharif-Harris, H., Fesahazion, R., & LaVeist, T. A. (2010). Social context explains race disparities in obesity among women. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64, 465–469.
Casey, P. H., Simpson, P. M., Gossett, J. M., Bogle, M. L., Champagne, C. M., Connell, C., … Weber, J. (2006). The association of child and household food insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics, 118, e1406–e1413.
Chew, D. P., Bhatt, D. L., Robbins, M. A., Penn, M. S., Schneider, J. P., Lauer, M. S., … Ellis, S. G. (2001). Incremental prognostic value of elevated baseline C-reactive protein among established markers of risk in percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation, 104, 992–997.
Chen, E., Turiano, N. A., Mroczek, D. K., & Miller, G. E. (2016). Association of reports of childhood abuse and all-cause mortality rates in women. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 920–927.
Cicchetti, C., & Toth, S. (2016). Child maltreatment and developmental psychopathology: A multi-level perspective. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Maladaptation and psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 457–512). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Czernichow, S., Kengne, A.-P., Stamatakis, E., Hamer, M., & Batty, G. D. (2011). Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82864 participants from nine cohort studies. Obesity Reviews, 12, 680–687.
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C. M., … Caspi, A. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: Depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 1135–1143.
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Pariante, C. M., Ambler, A., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2008). Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 409–415.
Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2007). Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1319–1324.
Danese, A., & Tan, M. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and obesity: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 19, 544–554.
DePanfilis, D., & Dubowitz, H. (2005). Family connections: A program for preventing child neglect. Child Maltreatment, 10, 108–123.
Dickinson, H., Mason, J., Nicolson, D., Campbell, F., Beyer, F., Cook, J. V., … Ford, G. (2006). Lifestyle interventions to reduce raised blood pressure: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Hypertension, 24, 215–223.
Dong, M., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williams, J. E., Chapman, D. P., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: Adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation, 110, 1761–1766.
Drake, B., Lee, S. M., & Jonson-Reid, M. (2009). Race and child maltreatment reporting: Are Blacks overrepresented?
Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 309–316.
Drake, B., & Pandey, S. (1996). Understanding the relationship between neighborhood poverty and specific types of child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 1003–1018.
Duncan, O. (1961). A socioeconomic index for all occupations. In Reiss, A. J. Jr. (Ed.), Occupations and social status (pp. 109–138). New York: Free Press.
Egeland, B. (1991). A longitudinal study of high-risk families: Issues and findings. In Starr, R. H. Jr., & Wolfe, D. A. (Eds.), The effects of child abuse and neglect: Issues and research (pp. 33–56). New York: Guilford Press.
Fang, X., Brown, D. S., Florence, C. S., & Mercy, J. A. (2012). The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 156–165.
Felitti, V. J. (1991). Long-term medical consequences of incest, rape, and molestation. Southern Medical Journal, 84, 328–331.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258.
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Hamby, S. L. (2015). Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 1–9.
Fluke, J. D., Yuan, Y. Y. T., Hedderson, J., & Curtis, P. A. (2003). Disproportionate representation of race and ethnicity in child maltreatment: Investigation and victimization. Children and Youth Services Review, 25, 359–373.
Fuemmeler, B. F., Dedert, E., McClernon, F. J., & Beckham, J. C. (2009). Adverse childhood events are associated with obesity and disordered eating: Results from a US population-based survey of young adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 329–333.
Fuller-Thomson, E., Brennenstuhl, S., & Frank, J. (2010). The association between childhood physical abuse and heart disease in adulthood: Findings from a representative community sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 689–698.
Garbarino, J., & Crouter, A. (1978). Defining the community context for parent-child relations: The correlates of child maltreatment. Child Development, 49, 604–616.
Garrow, J. S., & Summerbell, C. D. (1995). Meta-analysis: Effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on the body composition of overweight subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49, 1–10.
George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). Attachment Interview for Adults. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley.
Gundersen, C., Lohman, B. J., Garasky, S., Stewart, S., & Eisenmann, J. (2008). Food security, maternal stressors, and overweight among low-income US children: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002). Pediatrics, 122, 529–540.
Halbert, J., Silagy, C., Finucane, P., Withers, R., Hamdorf, P., & Andrews, G. (1997). The effectiveness of exercise training in lowering blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of 4 weeks or longer. Journal of Human Hypertension, 11, 641–649.
Hepgul, N., Pariante, C. M., Dipasquale, S., DiForti, M., Taylor, H., Marques, T. R., … Mondelli, V. (2012). Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1893–1901.
Jones, A. S., & Logan-Greene, P. (2016). Understanding and responding to chronic neglect: A mixed methods case record examination. Children and Youth Services Review, 67, 212–219.
Jones, E. D., & McCurdy, K. (1992). The links between types of maltreatment and demographic characteristics of children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 201–215.
Katz, E. D., & Ruoff, B. E. (2004). Commonly used formulas and calculations. In Hedges, J. R., Custalow, C., & Roberts, J. R. (Eds.), Clinical procedures in emergency medicine (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.
Kay, S. J., & Singh, M. A. (2006). The influence of physical activity on abdominal fat: A systematic review of the literature. Obesity Reviews, 7, 183–200.
Knutson, J. F., Taber, S. M., Murray, A. J., Valles, N. L., & Koeppl, G. (2010). The role of care neglect and supervisory neglect in childhood obesity in a disadvantaged sample. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 523–532.
Leeb, R. T., Paulozzi, L. J., Melanson, C., Simon, T. R., & Arias, I. (2008). Child maltreatment surveillance. Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lissau, I., & Sorensen, T. I. (1994). Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. Lancet, 343, 324–327.
Masters, R. K., Reither, E. N., Powers, D. A., Yang, Y. C., Burger, A. E., & Link, B. G. (2013). The impact of obesity on US mortality levels: The importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 1895–1901.
Matthews, K. A., Chang, Y. F., Thurston, R. C., & Bromberger, J. T. (2014). Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: Role of obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 36, 29–34.
McLaren, L. (2007). Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29, 29–48.
Mensah, G. A., Mokdad, A. H., Ford, E. S., Greenlund, K. J., & Croft, J. B. (2005). State of disparities in cardiovascular health in the United States. Circulation, 111, 1233–1241.
Miller, G. E., & Chen, E. (2013). The biological residue of childhood poverty. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 67–73.
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2012). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959–997.
Miller, G. E., & Cole, S. W. (2012). Clustering of depression and inflammation in adolescents previously exposed to childhood adversity. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 34–40.
Min, M., Minnes, S., Kim, H., & Singer, L. (2013). Pathways linking childhood maltreatment and adult physical health. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 361–373.
Minkovitz, C. S., O'Campo, P. J., Chen, Y. H., & Grason, H. A. (2002). Associations between maternal and child health status and patterns of medical care use. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2, 85–92.
Narayan, A. J., Englund, M. M., & Egeland, B. (2013). Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 973–990.
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2012). The science of neglect: The persistent absence of responsive care disrupts the developing brain (Working paper 12). Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu
Nicklas, B. J., Ambrosius, W., Messier, S. P., Miller, G. D., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Loeser, R. F., … Pahor, M. (2004). Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: A randomized controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 544–551.
Norman, R. E., Byambaa, M., De, R., Butchart, A., Scott, J., & Vos, T. (2012). The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine, 9, e1001349.
Pitsavos, C., Panagiotakos, D. B., Tzima, N., Lentzas, Y., Chrysohoou, C., Das, U. N., & Stefanadis, C. (2007). Diet, exercise, and C-reactive protein levels in people with abdominal obesity: The ATTICA epidemiological study. Angiology, 58, 225–233.
Raby, K. L., Labella, M. H., Martin, J., Carlson, E. A., & Roisman, G. I. (2017). Childhood abuse and neglect and insecure attachment states of mind in adulthood: Prospective, longitudinal evidence from a high-risk sample. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 347–363.
Raby, K. L., Roisman, G. I., Simpson, J. A., Collins, W. A., & Steele, R. D. (2015). Greater maternal insensitivity in childhood predicts greater electrodermal reactivity during conflict discussions with romantic partners in adulthood. Psychological Science, 26, 348–353.
Ridker, P., Glynn, R. J., & Hennekens, C. H. (1998). C-Reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation, 97, 973–979.
Ridker, P., Hennekens, C., Buring, J., & Rifai, N. (2000). C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 836–843.
Rohde, P., Ichikawa, L., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., & Operskalski, B. H. (2008). Associations of child sexual and physical abuse with obesity and depression in middle-aged women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 878–887.
RStudio Team. (2015).
RStudio: Integrated development [Computer software]
. Boston: R Studio. Retrieved from http://www.rstudio.com/
Sanchez, M. M. (2006). The impact of early adverse care on HPA axis development: Nonhuman primate models. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 623–631.
Scott, K. M., Von Korff, M., Angermeyer, M. C., Benjet, C., Bruffaerts, R., de Girolamo, G., … Kessler, R. C. (2011). Association of childhood adversities and early-onset mental disorders with adult-onset chronic physical conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 838–844.
Sesso, H. D., Stampfer, M. J., Rosner, B., Hennekens, C. H., Gaziano, J. M., Manson, J. E., & Glynn, R. J. (2000). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in men. Hypertension, 36, 801–807.
Shaffer, A., Huston, L., & Egeland, B. (2008). Identification of child maltreatment using prospective and self-report methodologies: A comparison of maltreatment incidence and relation to later psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 682–692.
Slack, K. S., Holl, J. L., McDaniel, M., Yoo, J., & Bolger, K. (2004). Understanding the risks of child neglect: An exploration of poverty and parenting characteristics. Child Maltreatment, 9, 395–408.
Sobal, J., & Stunkard, A. J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 260–275.
Solomon, C. G., & Manson, J. E. (1997). Obesity and mortality: A review of the epidemiologic data. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 1044–1050.
Springer, K. W. (2009). Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: Testing a multi-pathway life course model. Social Science and Medicine, 69, 138–146.
Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 517–530.
Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Collins, W. A. (2005). Placing early attachment experiences in developmental context. In Grossmann, K. E., Grossmann, K., & Waters, E. (Eds.), The power of longitudinal attachment research: From infancy and childhood to adulthood (pp. 48–70). New York: Guilford Press.
Stewart, L. K., Flynn, M. G., Campbell, W. W., Craig, B. A., Robinson, J. P., Timmerman, K. L., … Talbert, E. (2007). The influence of exercise training on inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1714–1719.
Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2013). The neglect of child neglect: A meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48, 345–355.
Strandberg, T. E., Salomaa, V. V, Vanhanen, H. T., Pitkälä, K., & Miettinen, T. A. (2002). Isolated diastolic hypertension, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure as predictors of mortality during a follow-up of up to 32 years. Journal of Hypertension, 20, 399–404.
Taylor, S. E., Lehman, B. J., Kiefe, C. I., & Seeman, T. E. (2006). Relationship of early life stress and psychological functioning to adult C-reactive protein in the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 819–824.
Teicher, M. H., Tomoda, A., & Andersen, S. L. (2006). Neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment: Are results from human and animal studies comparable?
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 313–323.
Thomas, C., Hypponen, E., & Power, C. (2008). Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: The role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics, 121, 1240–1249.
Trickett, P. K., Aber, J. L., Carlson, V., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and developmental sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 27, 148–158.
Trickett, P. K., & McBride-Chang, C. (1995). The developmental impact of different forms of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Review, 15, 311–337.
Tyler, S., Allison, K., & Winsler, A. (2006). Child neglect: Developmental consequences, intervention, and policy implications. Child and Youth Care Forum, 35, 1–20.
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., Bentley, T., & Johnson, M. S. (2012). A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: New findings from a 30-year follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 1135–1144.
Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 2. Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 34–46.
Widom, C. S., Raphael, K. G., & DuMont, K. A. (2004). The case for prospective longitudinal studies in child maltreatment research: Commentary on Dube, Williamson, Thompson, Felitti, and Anda (2004). Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 715–722.
Widom, C. S., & Shepard, R. L. (1996). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychological Assessment, 8, 412–421.
Williamson, D., Thompson, T., Anda, R., Dietz, W., & Felitti, V. (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity, 26, 1075–1082.
Wood, D. L., Valdez, R. B., Hayashi, T., & Shen, A. (1990). Health of homeless children and housed, poor children. Pediatrics, 86, 858–866.
World Health Organization. (2011). Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO expert consultation [Technical report]. Geneva: Author.
Yeh, E., & Willerson, J. (2003). Coming of age of C-reactive protein. Circulation, 107, 370–371.