Skip to main content Accessibility help

Active coping moderates associations among race-related stress, rumination, and depressive symptoms in emerging adult African American women

  • Labarron K. Hill (a1) and Lori S. Hoggard (a2)


Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that race-related stress is associated with increased depressive symptoms among racial/ethnic minorities. Rumination has long been considered a maladaptive self-regulatory response to race-related stress, and growing evidence suggests that it may be an important link in the relation between race-related stress and depression. More adaptive forms of self-regulation, such as active coping, may counteract the negative impact of rumination. We examined the influence of rumination on the relation between race-related stress and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 69) of young adult (mean age = 20 ± 1.5 years) African American women. We also considered the possible moderating effects of John Henryism, a form of persistent and determined goal striving, and vagally mediated heart rate variability, a purported biomarker of coping. Anticipatory race-related stress was indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through rumination: estimate = 0.07, 95% confidence interval [0.01, 0.16]. Both John Henryism and vagally mediated heart rate variability moderated the relationship between race-related stress and rumination; however, only John Henryism reliably influenced the indirect association between race-related stress and depression through rumination. We discuss these findings in the context of growing research examining the interplay between cultural and biological factors in the risk for poorer mental health.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: LaBarron K. Hill, Box 3119, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710; E-mail:


Hide All

This work was supported by National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute Grant HL121708 (to L.K.H.) and National Science Foundation Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Division Grant 537597 (to L.S.H.).



Hide All
Adkins, D. E., Wang, V., & Elder, G. H. Jr. (2009). Structure and stress: Trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood. Social Forces, 88, 31. doi:10.1353/sof.0.0238
Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 493501. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.04.004
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004
Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M., & Myers, H. (1992). Toward understanding race difference in autonomic reactivity. In Turner, J. R., Sherwood, A., & Light, K. C. (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 125145). New York: Springer.
Appelhans, B. M., & Luecken, L. J. (2006). Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding. Review of General Psychology, 10, 229240. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.10.3.229
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469480. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469
Banks, K. H., Singleton, J. L., & Kohn-Wood, L. P. (2008). The influence of hope on the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 36, 231244. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2008.tb00085.x
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: A transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 4347. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.017
Beauchaine, T. P., & Constantino, J. N. (2017). Redefining the endophenotype concept to accommodate transdiagnostic vulnerabilities and etiological complexity. Biomarkers in Medicine. Advance online publication. doi:10.2217/bmm-2017-0002
Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2, Pt. 2), 338350. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.08.004
Bennett, G. G., Merritt, M. M., Edwards, C. L., & Sollers, J. J. (2004). Perceived racism and affective responses to ambiguous interpersonal interactions among African American men. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 963976. doi:10.1177/0002764203261070
Bliuc, A.-M., Faulkner, N., Jakubowicz, A., & McGarty, C. (2018). Online networks of racial hate: A systematic review of 10 years of research on cyber-racism. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 7586. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2018.05.026
Bonham, V. L., Sellers, S. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (2004). John Henryism and self-reported physical health among high–socioeconomic status African American men. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 737738. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.5.737
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2001). White supremacy and racism in the post-civil rights era. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Borders, A., & Liang, C. T. H. (2011). Rumination partially mediates the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination, emotional distress, and aggression. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 125133. doi:10.1037/a0023357
Boylan, J. M., Jennings, J. R., & Matthews, K. A. (2016). Childhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery among Black and White men: Mitigating effects of psychological resources. Health Psychology, 35, 957966. doi:10.1037/hea0000355
Brenner, A. B., Diez-Roux, A. V., Gebreab, S. Y., Schulz, A. J., & Sims, M. (2017). The epidemiology of coping in African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s40615-017-0445-y
Brody, G. H., Yu, T., & Beach, S. R. (2016). Resilience to adversity and the early origins of disease. Development and Psychopathology, 28(4, Pt. 2), 13471365. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000894
Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Chen, E., Miller, G. E., Kogan, S. M., & Beach, S. R. (2013). Is resilience only skin deep? Rural African Americans' socioeconomic status-related risk and competence in preadolescence and psychological adjustment and allostatic load at age 19. Psychological Science, 24, 12851293. doi:10.1177/0956797612471954
Bronder, E. C., Speight, S. L., Witherspoon, K. M., & Thomas, A. J. (2014). John Henryism, depression, and perceived social support in Black women. Journal of Black Psychology, 40, 115137. doi:10.1177/0095798412474466
Brosschot, J. F. (2010). Markers of chronic stress: Prolonged physiological activation and (un)conscious perseverative cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 4650. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.01.004
Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 113124. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074
Brosschot, J. F., Pieper, S., & Thayer, J. F. (2005). Expanding stress theory: Prolonged activation and perseverative cognition. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 10431049. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.04.008
Brosschot, J. F., Verkuil, B., & Thayer, J. F. (2010). Conscious and unconscious perseverative cognition: Is a large part of prolonged physiological activity due to unconscious stress? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 407416. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.02.002
Brown, T. N., Williams, D. R., Jackson, J. S., Neighbors, H. W., Torres, M., Sellers, S. L., & Brown, K. T. (2000). “Being black and feeling blue”: The mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Race and Society, 2, 117131. doi:10.1016/S1090-9524(00)00010-3
Causadias, J. M. (2013). A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4, Pt. 2), 13751398. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000679
Chou, T., Asnaani, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 7481. doi:10.1037/a0025432
Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans—A biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54, 805816. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805
Clark, R., Benkert, R. A., & Flack, J. M. (2006). Large arterial elasticity varies as a function of gender and racism-related vigilance in black youth. Journal of Adolescend Health, 39, 562569. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.02.012
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Conerly, R. C., Baker, F., Dye, J., Douglas, C. Y., & Zabora, J. (2002). Measuring depression in African American cancer survivors: The reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Study—Depression (CES-D) scale. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 107114. doi:10.1177/1359105302007001658
Demakakos, P., Nazroo, J., Breeze, E., & Marmot, M. (2008). Socioeconomic status and health: The role of subjective social status. Socisl Science and Medicine, 67, 330340. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.038
Duijkers, T. J., Drijver, M., Kromhout, D., & James, S. A. (1988). “John Henryism” and blood pressure in a Dutch population. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 353359. doi:10.1097/00006842-198807000-00004
Essed, P. (1991). Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory (Vol. 2). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Feagin, J. (2013). Systemic racism: A theory of oppression. London: Routledge.
Fernander, A. F., Duran, R. E., Saab, P. G., Llabre, M. M., & Schneiderman, N. (2003). Assessing the reliability and validity of the John Henry Active Coping Scale in an urban sample of African Americans and White Americans. Ethnicity and Health, 8, 147161. doi:10.1080/13557850303563
Flaskerud, J. H. (2012). Coping and health status: John Henryism. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33, 712715. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.673695
Fuller-Rowell, T. E., Williams, D. R., Love, G. D., McKinley, P. S., Sloan, R. P., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning. Journal of Aging and Health, 25, 839862. doi:10.1177/0898264313491427
Gaylord-Harden, N. K., & Cunningham, J. A. (2009). The impact of racial discrimination and coping strategies on internalizing symptoms in African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 532543. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9377-5
Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among Blacks and Whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 826833. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.060749
Grant, K. E., Lyons, A. L., Finkelstein, J.-A. S., Conway, K. M., Reynolds, L. K., O'koon, J. H., … Hicks, K. J. (2004). Gender differences in rates of depressive symptoms among low-income, urban, African American youth: A test of two mediational hypotheses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 523533. doi:10.1023/
Harrell, S. P. (2000). A multidimensional conceptualization of racism-related stress: Implications for the well-being of people of color. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 4257. doi:10.1037/h0087722
Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Dovidio, J. (2009). How does stigma “get under the skin”? The mediating role of emotion regulation. Psychological Science, 20, 12821289. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02441.x
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from
Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 122. doi:10.1080/00273171.2014.962683
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F., & Rockwood, N. J. (2017). Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation. Behaviour Research Therpy, 98, 3957. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.001
Hedden, S. L. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Washington, DC: US Department of Heath & Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Hicken, M. T., Lee, H., Ailshire, J., Burgard, S. A., & Williams, D. R. (2013). “Every shut eye, ain't sleep”: The role of racism-related vigilance in racial/ethnic disparities in sleep difficulty. Race and Social Problems, 5, 100112. doi:10.1007/s12552-013-9095-9
Hill, L. K., & Hoggard, L. S. (2017). Cultural Influences on Parasympathetic Activity. In J. M. Causadias, E. H. Telzer, & N. A. Gonzalez (Eds.), The Handbook of Culture and Biology (pp. 345367). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Hill, L. K., Hoggard, L. S., Richmond, A. S., Gray, D. L., Williams, D. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2017). Examining the association between perceived discrimination and heart rate variability in African Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23, 514. doi:10.1037/cdp0000076
Hill, L. K., Hu, D. D., Koenig, J., Sollers, J. J. III, Kapuku, G., Wang, X., … Thayer, J. F. (2015). Ethnic differences in resting heart rate variability: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77, 1625. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000133
Hill, L. K., Sherwood, A., McNeilly, M., Anderson, N. B., Blumenthal, J. A., & Hinderliter, A. L. (2018). Impact of racial discrimination and hostility on adrenergic receptor responsiveness in African American adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 208215. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000547
Hill, L. K., Siebenbrock, A., Sollers, J. J. III, & Thayer, J. F. (2009). Are all measures created equal? Heart rate variability and respiration. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 45, 7176.
Himmelstein, M. S., Young, D. M., Sanchez, D. T., & Jackson, J. S. (2015). Vigilance in the discrimination-stress model for Black Americans. Psychology and Health, 30, 253267. doi:10.1080/08870446.2014.966104
Hoggard, L. S., Byrd, C. M., & Sellers, R. M. (2012). Comparison of African American college students' coping with racially and nonracially stressful events. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18, 329339. doi:10.1037/a0029437
Hoggard, L. S., & Hill, L. K. (2018). Examining how racial discrimination impacts sleep quality in African Americans: Is perseveration the answer? Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 16, 471481. doi:10.1080/15402002.2016.1228648
Hoggard, L. S., Hill, L. K., Gray, D. L., & Sellers, R. M. (2015). Capturing the cardiac effects of racial discrimination: Do the effects “keep going”? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97, 163170. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.04.015
Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1987). Personal and contextual determinants of coping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 946955.
Holzman, J. B., & Bridgett, D. J. (2017). Heart rate variability indices as bio-markers of top-down self-regulatory mechanisms: A meta-analytic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 74(Pt. A), 233255. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.12.032
Hope, E. C., Hoggard, L. S., & Thomas, A. (2015). Emerging into adulthood in the face of racial discrimination: Physiological, psychological, and sociopolitical consequences for African American youth. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1, 342. doi:10.1037/tps0000041
Hudson, D. L., Neighbors, H. W., Geronimus, A. T., & Jackson, J. S. (2016). Racial discrimination, John Henryism, and depression among African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 42, 221243. doi:10.1177/0095798414567757
James, S. A., Hartnett, S. A., & Kalsbeek, W. D. (1983). John Henryism and blood pressure differences among black men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 259278. doi:10.1007/BF01315113
Keen, L. II, Turner, A. D., Mwendwa, D., Callender, C., & Campbell, A. Jr. (2015). Depressive symptomatology and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in a non-clinical sample of middle-aged African Americans. Biological Psychology, 108, 5661. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.03.008
Kemp, A. H., Koenig, J., Thayer, J. F., Bittencourt, M. S., Pereira, A. C., Santos, I. S., … Lotufo, P. A. (2016). Race and resting-state heart rate variability in Brazilian civil servants and the mediating effects of iscrimination: An ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 950958. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000359
Kemp, A. H., & Quintana, D. S. (2013). The relationship between mental and physical health: Insights from the study of heart rate variability. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89, 288296. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.06.018
Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 208230. doi:10.2307/2676349
Kiecolt, K. J., Hughes, M., & Keith, V. M. (2016). Can a high sense of control and John Henryism be bad for mental health? Sociological Quarterly, 50, 693714. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2009.01152.x
Klonoff, E. A., Landrine, H., & Ullman, J. B. (1999). Racial discrimination and psychiatric symptoms among Blacks. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5, 329. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.5.4.329
Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C., & Barbeau, E. M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 15761596. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.03.006
Kwate, N. O. A. (2014). “Racism Still Exists”: A public health intervention using racism “countermarketing” outdoor advertising in a Black neighborhood. Journal of Urban Health, 91 (5), 851872.
Lampert, R., Ickovics, J., Horwitz, R., & Lee, F. (2005). Depressed autonomic nervous system function in African Americans and individuals of lower social class: A potential mechanism of race- and class-related disparities in health outcomes. American Heart Journal, 150, 153160. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2004.08.008
LaVeist, T. A., Thorpe, R. J. Jr., Pierre, G., Mance, G. A., & Williams, D. R. (2014). The relationships among vigilant coping style, race, and depression. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 241255. doi:10.1111/josi.12058
Lewis, T. T., Everson-Rose, S. A., Powell, L. H., Matthews, K. A., Brown, C., Karavolos, K., … Wesley, D. (2006). Chronic exposure to everyday discrimination and coronary artery calcification in African-American women: The SWAN Heart Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 362368. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000221360.94700.16
Logan, J. G., Barksdale, D. J., James, S. A., & Chien, L. C. (2017). John Henryism active coping, acculturation, and psychological health in Korean immigrants. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 28, 168178. doi:10.1177/1043659615615402
Markovic, N., Bunker, C. H., Ukoli, F. A., & Kuller, L. H. (1998). John Henryism and blood pressure among Nigerian civil servants. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 52, 186190. doi:10.1136/jech.52.3.186
Matthews, D. D., Hammond, W. P., Nuru-Jeter, A., Cole-Lewis, Y., & Melvin, T. (2013). Racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African-American men: The mediating and moderating roles of masculine self-reliance and John Henryism. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14, 3546. doi:10.1037/a0028436
Miller, G. E., Yu, T., Chen, E., & Brody, G. H. (2015). Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 1032510330. doi:10.1073/pnas.1505063112
Miranda, R., Polanco-Roman, L., Tsypes, A., & Valderrama, J. (2013). Perceived discrimination, ruminative subtypes, and risk for depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychol, 19, 395403. doi:10.1037/a0033504
Moos, R. H., & Holahan, C. J. (2003). Dispositional and contextual perspectives on coping: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 13871403. doi:10.1002/jclp.10229
Nguyen, H. T., Kitner-Triolo, M., Evans, M. K., & Zonderman, A. B. (2004). Factorial invariance of the CES-D in low socioeconomic status African Americans compared with a nationally representative sample. Psychiatry Research, 126, 177187. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.02.004
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). The response styles theory. In Papageorgiou, C. & Wells, A. (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory and treatment (pp. 105123). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Aldao, A. (2011). Gender and age differences in emotion regulation strategies and their relationship to depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 704708. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.012
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115121. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400424. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). Ruminating on rumination: Are rumination on anger and sadness differentially related to aggression and depressed mood? Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 108117. doi:10.1007/s10862-009-9136-2
Penttilä, J., Helminen, A., Jartti, T., Kuusela, T., Huikuri, H. V., Tulppo, M. P., … Scheinin, H. (2001). Time domain, geometrical and frequency domain analysis of cardiac vagal outflow: Effects of various respiratory patterns. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 21, 365376. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2281.2001.00337.x
Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: Mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A polyvagal theory. Psychophysiology, 32, 301318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1995.tb01213.x
Porges, S. W. (2009). The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 76(Suppl. 2), S86S90. doi:10.3949/ccjm.76.s2.17
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
Ruggiero, K. M., Taylor, D. M., & Lydon, J. E. (1997). How disadvantaged group members cope with discrimination when they perceive that social support is available. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 15811600. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01614.x
Rumbaut, R. G. (2005). Turning points in the transition to adulthood: Determinants of educational attainment, incarceration, and early childbearing among children of immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 10411086. doi:10.1080/01419870500224349
Salk, R. H., Hyde, J. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (2017). Gender differences in depression in representative national samples: Meta-analyses of diagnoses and symptoms. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 783822. doi:10.1037/bul0000102
Schmeer, K. K., & Tarrence, J. (2018). Racial-ethnic disparities in inflammation: Evidence of weathering in childhood? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22146518784592. doi:10.1177/0022146518784592
Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006). Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among African American women in Detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 12651270. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.064543
Segerstrom, S. C., & Nes, L. S. (2007). Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue. Psychological Science, 18, 275281. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01888.x
Singh-Manoux, A., Marmot, M. G., & Adler, N. E. (2005). Does subjective social status predict health and change in health status better than objective status? Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 855861. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000188434.52941.a0
Smith, J. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 116128. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.10.003
Spencer, M. B. (1995). Old issues and new theorizing about African American youth: A phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory. In R. L. Taylor (Ed.), Black youth: Perspectives on their status in the United States, (pp. 3770), Westport, CT: Praeger.
Spencer, M. B. (2006). Phenomenology and ecological systems theory: Development of diverse groups. In Lerner, R. M. & Damon, W. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 820893). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Syed, M., & Mitchell, L. L. (2013). Race, ethnicity, and emerging adulthood: Retrospect and prospects. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 8395. doi:10.1177/2167696813480503
Tarvainen, M. P., Niskanen, J. P., Lipponen, J. A., Ranta-Aho, P. O., & Karjalainen, P. A. (2014). Kubios HRV—Heart rate variability analysis software. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 113, 210220. doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.07.024
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart rate variability, standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 10431065.
Thayer, J. F., & Lane, R. D. (2000). A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 201216. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00338-4
Thayer, J. F., & Lane, R. D. (2007). The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Biological Psychology, 74, 224242. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.11.013
Thayer, J. F., & Lane, R. D. (2009). Claude Bernard and the heart-brain connection: Further elaboration of a model of neurovisceral integration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 8188. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.08.004
Tsuno, N., Besset, A., & Ritchie, K. (2005). Sleep and depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, 12541269. doi:10.4088/JCP.v66n1008
Utsey, S. O., & Hook, J. N. (2007). Heart rate variability as a physiological moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and psychological distress in African Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 250253. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.13.3.250
Waldstein, S. R., Bachen, E. A., & Manuck, S. B. (1997). Active coping and cardiovascular reactivity: A multiplicity of influences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 620625. doi:10.1097/00006842-199711000-00011
Wang, X., Trivedi, R., Treiber, F., & Snieder, H. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on anger expression, John Henryism, and stressful life events: The Georgia Cardiovascular Twin Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 1623. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000146331.10104.d4
Whitfield, K. E., Brandon, D. T., Robinson, E., Bennett, G., Merritt, M., & Edwards, C. (2006). Sources of variability in John Henryism. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98, 641647.
Williams, D. P., Feeling, N. R., Hill, L. K., Spangler, D. P., Koenig, J., & Thayer, J. F. (2017). Resting heart rate variability, facets of rumination and trait anxiety: Implications for the perseverative cognition hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 520. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00520
Williams, D. P., Jarczok, M. N., Ellis, R. J., Hillecke, T. K., Thayer, J. F., & Koenig, J. (2017). Two-week test-retest reliability of the Polar((R)) RS800CX() to record heart rate variability. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 37, 776781. doi:10.1111/cpf.12321
Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 2047. doi:10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0
Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200208. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200
Williams, D. R., Yan, Y., Jackson, J. S., & Anderson, N. B. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 335351. doi:10.1177/135910539700200305
Woods-Giscombe, C. L., & Lobel, M. (2008). Race and gender matter: A multidimensional approach to conceptualizing and measuring stress in African American women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 173182. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.14.3.173
Zahn, D., Adams, J., Krohn, J., Wenzel, M., Mann, C. G., Gomille, L. K., … Kubiak, T. (2016). Heart rate variability and self-control—A meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 115, 926. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.12.007
Zawadzki, M. J., Sliwinski, M. J., & Smyth, J. M. (2018). Perseverative cognitions and stress exposure: Comparing relationships with psychological health across a diverse adult sample. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/abm/kay009

Active coping moderates associations among race-related stress, rumination, and depressive symptoms in emerging adult African American women

  • Labarron K. Hill (a1) and Lori S. Hoggard (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed