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Examining effects of mother and father warmth and control on child externalizing and internalizing problems from age 8 to 13 in nine countries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 December 2019

W. Andrew Rothenberg
Affiliation:
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Mailman Center for Child Development, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
Jennifer E. Lansford
Affiliation:
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
Liane Peña Alampay
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines
Suha M. Al-Hassan
Affiliation:
Department of Special Education, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan, and Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Dario Bacchini
Affiliation:
Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II,” Naples, Italy
Marc H. Bornstein
Affiliation:
Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA
Lei Chang
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macau, China
Kirby Deater-Deckard
Affiliation:
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Laura Di Giunta
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Rome, Italy
Kenneth A. Dodge
Affiliation:
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
Patrick S. Malone
Affiliation:
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
Paul Oburu
Affiliation:
Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
Concetta Pastorelli
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Rome, Italy
Ann T. Skinner
Affiliation:
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
Emma Sorbring
Affiliation:
Division of Psychology, Pedagogy, and Sociology, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden
Laurence Steinberg
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Department of Psychology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Sombat Tapanya
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, San Buenaventura University, Medellín, Colombia
Saengduean Yotanyamaneewong
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This study used data from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States; N = 1,315) to investigate bidirectional associations between parental warmth and control, and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, the extent to which these associations held across mothers and fathers and across cultures with differing normative levels of parent warmth and control were examined. Mothers, fathers, and children completed measures when children were ages 8 to 13. Multiple-group autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that evocative child-driven effects of externalizing and internalizing behavior on warmth and control are ubiquitous across development, cultures, mothers, and fathers. Results also reveal that parenting effects on child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, though rarer than child effects, extend into adolescence when examined separately in mothers and fathers. Father-based parent effects were more frequent than mother effects. Most parent- and child-driven effects appear to emerge consistently across cultures. The rare culture-specific parenting effects suggested that occasionally the effects of parenting behaviors that run counter to cultural norms may be delayed in rendering their protective effect against deleterious child outcomes.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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