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The Southern Italian family in the early modern period: a discussion of co-residential patterns

  • Francesco Benigno

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1 Hajnal, J., ‘European marriage patterns in perspective’, Glass, D. V. and Eversley, D. E. C. eds., Population in history: essays in historical demography (London, 1965) 101–43.

2 Wrigley, E. A., ‘Population history in the 1980s’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 13 (1981) 218.

3 Peter Laslett elaborated on Hajnal's hypothesis by suggesting a correlation between nuclear household structure, late marriage and the institution of service: the latter enabled young men and women to accumulate the savings necessary to marry; Laslett, P., ‘Introduction; the history of the family’, Laslett, P. and Wall, R. eds., Household and family in past time (Cambridge, 1972); Laslett, P. and Hammel, E. A., ‘Comparing household structure over time and between cultures’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 16 (1974) 73103; Laslett, P., ‘Characteristics of the western family considered over time’, Family life and illicit love in earlier generations (Cambridge, 1977) 1249.

4 Hajnal, J., ‘Two kinds of pre-industrial household formation system’, Population and Development Review 8 (1982) 450.

5 For a further discussion of this concept, see Burguière, A., ‘De Malthus à Max Weber: le mariage tardif et l'esprit d'enterprise’, Annales E.S.C. 27 (1972) 1128–38.

6 Hajnal, , ‘Two kinds of pre-industrial household formation system’, 476.

7 Herlihy, D. and Klapisch-Zuber, C., Les Toscans et leurs families: une étude du catasto florentin de 1427 (Paris, 1978).

8 Kertzer, D. I. and Brettell, C. B., ‘Recenti sviluppi nella storia della famiglia italiana ed iberica’, Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia 28 (1987) 249–50.

9 Pitt-Rivers, J. ed., Mediterranean countrymen (Paris, 1963); Peristiany, J. G. ed., Honour and shame. The values of Mediterranean society (London, 1965); Peristiany, J. G. ed., Mediterranean family structures (Cambridge, 1977). These perspectives have been synthesised by P. Burke, who has postulated three great cultural European areas: north-western, eastern and southern. The last, also indicated as Mediterranean, would be so characterised: ‘Romance speaking … with an outdoor culture … low literacy … and a value-system laying great stress on honour and shame’: Burke, P., Popular culture in early modern Europe (London, 1978) 56–7. See also, for a different point of view, Davis, J., People of the Mediterranean (London, 1977).

10 Smith, R. M., ‘The people of Tuscany and their families in the fifteenth century: medieval or mediterranean?Journal of Family History 6 (1981) 125.

11 Smith, , ‘The people of Tuscany’, 113. As R. Rowland has recently pointed out, ‘visto deste el Norte, el sur de la Francia, Toscana y Castilla son todas zonas “Mediterráneas”’. ‘Matrimonio y familia en el Mediterráneo occidental: algunas interrogaciones’, Jiménez, F. Chacón ed., Familia y sociedad en el Mediterráneo occidental (University of Murcia, 1987) 251.

12 Laslett, P., ‘Family and household as a work group and kin group’, Wall, R., Robin, J. and Laslett, P. eds., Family forms in historic Europe (Cambridge, 1984).

13 Viazzo, P., ‘Il Cambridge Group e la ricerca storica sulla famiglia’, Introduction to the Italian edition of Wall, R. et al. eds., Family forms in historic Europe [Forme di famiglia nella storia europea] (Bologna, 1984) 22.

14 Kertzer, D. I. and Brettell, C. B., ‘Recenti sviluppi’, 279. For a critique of the concept of the mediterranean family see Jiménez, F. Chacón, ‘La familia en España: una historia por hacer’, Chacon, F. et al. eds., La familia en la España Mediterránea (siglos XV–XIX) (Barcelona, 1987) 30–5.

15 Barcelona, , 22–25 04 1987. The proceedings of this congress are not yet published. I will quote from the provisional collection of papers assembled under the title Congrés Hispano Luso Italià de demografia histories.

16 Of special importance was the debate on the role of the southern-Italian family opened by the book of Banfield, E. C., The moral basis of a backward society (Glencoe Ill., 1958). See Moss, W. L., American Sociological Review 23 (1958) 759–61; McCorkle, T., American Anthropologist 61 (1959) 133–4; Sanders, T., American Journal of Sociology 64 (1959) 522; Cancian, F., ‘The south-Italian peasant: world view and political behaviour’, Anthropological Quarterly 34 (1961) 18; Silverman, S., ‘Agricultural organization, social structure and values in Italy: amoral familism reconsidered’, American Anthropologist 70 (1968); Davis, J., ‘Morals and backwardness’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 12 (1970) 340–53. For a general reflection on the south Italian peasant world see Giarrizzo, G., ‘Mezzogiorno e civiltà contadina’, Campagne e movimento contadino del mezzogiorno d'Italia dal Dopoguerra ad oggi, vol. II, (Bari, 1980) 293348. On Sicily see the studies of Blok, A., The Mafia of a Sicilian village 1859–1860 (New York, 1975) and , J. and Schneider, P., Culture and political economy in western Sicily (New York, 1976). For a critique, from an historical point of view, of the anthropological approach to the south Italian reality: Lupo, S., ‘Storia e società nel mezzogiorno d'Italia: a proposito di alcuni studi recenti’, Italia contemporanea 154 (1984) 7192.

17 A good example is Tamassia, N., La famiglia Italiana nei secoli decimoquinto edecimosesto (Milano, 1911).

18 Barbagli, M., Sotto le stesso tetto. Mutamenti della famiglia in Italia dal XV at XX secolo (Bologna, 1984).

19 Rowland, R., ‘Sistemas matrimoniales en la península ibérica (siglos XVI–XX): una perspectiva regional’, Moreda, V. Pérez and Reher, D. S. eds., Demografía histórica de España (Madrid, 1987).

20 Galasso, G., ‘Gli studi di storia della famiglia e il Mezzogiorno d'Italia’. Mélanges de l'École française de Rome 95 (1983) 150–9.

21 Barbagli, , Sotto lo stesso tetto, 108–21; De Sarno Prignano, A., ‘La struttura delle famiglia “nucleari” e “non nucleari” in Italia in base ai censimenti del 1951, 1961, e 1971’, Genus 34 (1978) 5381.

22 Nunes, J. A., ‘Nupcialidade e familia em Portugal (séculos XVI–XX). Balanço critico e perspectivas’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 484.

23 In Murcia, for example, they represented 89% of the total in 1850. Carrión, J. M. Martínez and Soriano, C. Fenollós, ‘Familia y nupcialidad en el sureste de la Península ibérica: la Nora (Murcia) 1850–1929’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 561.

24 Benigno, F., Una casa, una terra. Ricerche su Paceco, paese nuovo nella Sicilia del sei e settecento (Catania, 1985) 166–78.

25 Davies, T., Aspects of the economy and society of 16th-17th-century Sicily: noble families and the foundation of new feudal villages (Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, 1976); Davies, T., ‘La colonizzazione feudale della Sicilia’, Annali della storia d'Italia 3 (Torino 1985) 419–75.

26 Raffaele, S., Dinamiche demografiche e struttura della famiglia nella Sicilia del seisettecento (Catania, 1984); Grillo, M. and Raffaele, S., ‘Butera nel 1700: dinamica demografica e struttura della famiglia’, in Le forme e la storia 1 (1980) 121–30; Grillo, M., ‘Demografia e società ad Acicastello fra '700 e '800: evoluzione e permanenze’, Istituto di studi umanistici, La Sicilia nel settecento (Messina, 1984) 111–17.

27 On the Riveli see Ercole, F., I Riveli di beni e di anime nel Regno di Sicilia (Roma, 1931); Aymard, M., ‘Sicilia: sviluppo demografico e sue differenziazioni geografiche’, Sori, E. ed., Demografia storica (Bologna, 1975) 195219.

28 Archivio di Stato di Noto, Università di Noto, Rivelo di frumenti, 1647.

29 On the Sicilian historical background, see Giarrizzo, G., ‘La Sicilia dal viceregno al regno’, Romeo, R. ed., Storia delta Sicilia vol. VI (Napoli, 1978) 115–21.

30 Parish of Santa Maria, Militello, , Libri status animarum, 1746–49; Archivio di Stato di Catania, Censimento del 1831, Acireale. In both cases the percentage of complex households is negligible.

31 Bresc, H., ‘La famille dans la société sicilienne médiévale’, Ministero per i beni culturali, La famiglia e la vita quotidiana in Europa dal '400 al '600 (Rome, 1986) 187206; Di Pasquale, A., Palermo nel 1480. La popolazione del quartiere della Kalsa (Palermo, 1975).

32 The mean household size of the Sicilian household appears to have ranged throughout this period between 4 and 5. The incidence of adult members other than parents is invariably low.

33 Barbagli, M., ‘Sistemi di formazione della famiglia in Italia’, Boletín de la Asociación de Demografia Histórica 5 (1987) 80127.

34 Da Molin, G., ‘Strutture familiari nell'Italia meridionale (sec. XVII–XIX)’, Congrès Hispano Luso Italià, 713–30.

35 Giacomini, M., Sposi a Belmonte nel Settecento (Milano, 1981).

36 The nuclear household appears to have also prevailed in the Latium region since the Middle Ages. See Toubert, P., Les structures du Latium médiéval (Rome, 1973).

37 Bresc, H., ‘La famile’, 193.

38 Martínez, J. Hurtado, ‘Análisis del hogar en una comunidad murciana durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, Lorca (1761–1771)’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 520.

39 Laslett, , ‘Family and household as a work group’, 526–35. For a critique of the Laslett typology based on material from the Balearic Islands, see Blanes, I. Moll, ‘La estructura familiar del campesinado de Mallorca 1824–1827’, Chacón, F. et al. eds., La familia en la España mediterránea 254–57.

40 Smith, , ‘The people of Tuscany’, 107–28.

41 Pitré, G., ‘Proverbi Siciliani’, Biblioteca delle tradizioni popolari siciliane (Palermo, 18701913), 9 112–13.

42 Cancila, O., Baroni e popolo nella Sicilia del grano (Palermo, 1983) 55; Longhitano, G., ‘Bronte: una crescita’, Longhitano, C. ed., Studi di demografia storica siciliana (sec. XVIII) (Catania, 1979) 81–2.

43 Rettaroli, R., ‘Età al matrimonio e celibato nell’ Italia del XIX secolo: un ‘analisi regionale’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 642.

44 Ibid, 642–3.

45 Delille, G., Famille et propriété dans le Royaume de Naples (XV–XIX siècle) (Rome, 1985) 192.

46 Barbagli, , ‘Sistemi di formazione’, 111–16.

47 The effects of age at marriage on fertility are obviously very complex, as Louis Henry remarked long ago; Henry, L., ‘Fécondité des mariages dans le quart sudouest de la France de 1720 à 1829’, Annales E.S.C. 27 (1972) 985.

48 See Bacci, M. Livi, A history of Italian fertility during the last two centuries (Princeton, 1977); and more recently, Rettaroli, , ‘Età al matrimonio’, 642–3.

49 Sánchez, B. Cachinero and Serratosa, J. Soler, ‘Nuptiality and celibacy in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century’, Smith, R. M. ed., Regional and spatial demographic patterns in the past, forthcoming.

50 Weir, D., ‘Rather never than late: celibacy and age at marriage in English cohort fertilìty 1541–1871’, Journal of Family History 9 (1984) 341–55.

51 Schofield, R., ‘English marriage patterns revisited’, Journal of Family History 10 (1985) 16.

51 a See Pitrè, G., Usi e costumi, credenze e pregiudizi del popolo siciliano, in Biblioteca delle tradizioni popolari siciliane, Palermo, 1870–1913, 15 106–9. This is the most important Sicilian collection of folklore and popular traditions. Pitrè quotes many traditional popular sayings and provides a large bibliography on Italian customs.

52 Raffaele, , Dinamiche demografiche, 48–9.

53 Bacci, M. Livi, ‘On the frequence of remarriage in nineteenth-century Italy: methods and results’, Dupâquier, J. et al. eds., Marriage and remarriage in the populations of the past (London, 1981) 347–60.

54 See ibid, the articles of Akerman, S., ‘The importance of remarriage in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’, 169–74; and Schofield, R. and Wrigley, E. A., ‘Remarriage intervals and the effects of marriage order on fertility’, 211–17.

55 Raffaele, , Dinamiche demografiche, 50.

56 Barbagli, , ‘Sistemi di formazione della famiglia’, 2830.

57 Pina, M. Della, ‘Gli insediamenti e la popolazione’, Guarini, E. Fasano ed., Prato, storia di una cilià, vol. II, (Prato, 1985) 43121.

58 Barbagli, , ‘Sistemi di formazione della famiglia’, 40–4.

59 Day, J., ‘La condizione femminile nella Sardegna medievale, La famiglia e la vita quotidiana, 241–49.

60 Rowland, , ‘Sistemas matrimoniales’, 51, and ‘Matrimonio y familia en el Mediterráneo occidental’, 255.

61 M. Livi Bacci has, for example, pointed out that female nuptiality is more intense in southern regions of Portugal as compared to the north because the labourers without land ‘do not have problems of inheritance to solve’. Bacci, M. Livi, A century of Portuguese fertility (Princeton, 1971) 52–3.

62 Macfarlane, A., ‘Demographic structures and cultural regions in Europe’, Cambridge Anthropology 6 (1980) 117.

63 The very concept of ‘late marriage’ should be discussed. E. A. Wrigley, elaborating on Hajnal, has recently contrasted a West-European pattern of late marriage ‘more likely to be determined by economic circumstances’ to a pattern which is ‘biologically controlled’. The delay, he has argued, should be measured with reference to the age at menarche. This, however, leads to new complications because of the possibility of regional variability in the age at menarche. Wrigley, E. A., ‘The means to marry: population and economy in pre-industrial England’, The Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs 1 (1985) 275. For some data on variability in age at menarche, see Shorter, E., ‘L'âge des premières règies en France 1750–1950’, Annales E.S.C. 38 (1983) 1040–57.

64 For a general discussion, see Bideau, A., ‘Les mécanismes autorégulateurs des populations traditionelles’, in Annales E.S.C. 38 (1983) 1040–57.

65 ‘C'est de la mort qu'il faut partir, car c'est autour d'elle que tout s'ordonne. Elle frappe et emporte les hommes avec plus ou moins de force suivant les régions et les classes sociales.… Mais c'est elle aussi qui donne le signal des manages, de la nouvelle vie’. Delille, G., Famille et propriété, 214. Also Ohlin, G., ‘Mortality, marriage and growth in pre-industrial populations’, Population Studies 149 (1960) 190–7.

66 For a general perspective, see Schofield, R., ‘The relationship between demographic structure and environment in pre-industrial western Europe’, Conze, W. ed., Sozialgeschiche der Familie in der Neuzeit Europas (Stuttgart, 1976) 147–60.

67 The view that a marriage pattern can be shaped more effectively by environmental constraints than by the formal properties of inheritance systems is supported by evidence recently analysed by P. Viazzo. See Viazzo, P. and Albera, D., ‘Population, resources and homeostatic regulation in the Alps. The role of nuptiality’, Itinera 5/6 (1986), 103–54. See also Viazzo, , ‘Illegitimacy and the European marriage pattern: comparative evidence from the Alpine area’, Bonfield, L., Smith, R. M., Wrightson, K. eds., The world we have gained (Oxford, 1986) 100–21; and Viazzo, and Albera, , ‘Nupcialidad, fecundidad y estructura familial: el caso de los Alpes occidentales’, in Boletín de la Asociación de Demografia Histórica 5:3 (1987) 536.

68 See particularly Delille, G., Agricoltura e demografia nel Regno di Napoli (Napoli, 1977).

69 On the role of grain and other mediterranean cultivations see the classic book of de la Blache, P. Vidal, Principles de geographie humaine (Paris, 1955) 8195, 134–5.

70 Delille, , Agricultura e demografia, 512.

71 Historically there are many examples of a differential death-rate by sex in some age groups. Moreover, ‘there are a number of factors which it has been claimed, give women a stronger resistance to the majority of diseases. These include the possession of two X chromosomes, the presence of estrogen prior to menopause, a greater ability than men to adjust to changes in environmental temperature, and a higher index of cephalization (relative brain weight)’. Wall, R., ‘Inferring differential neglect of females from mortality data’, Annales de Démographie Historique (1981) 120. See also Lopez, A. D., Ruzicka, L. T. eds., Sex differentials in mortality (Canberra, 1983) 147–9.

72 In the Sicilian town of Pietraperzia, for example, in the course of the seventeenth century, the sex ratio at death for the age group 30–49 was 174.8 compared to a sex ratio at birth of 105.4 and a general sex ratio at death of 109.6. Raffaele, , Dinamiche demografiche, 57. For more conclusive results longitudinal evidence is desirable. See Prinking, G., ‘L'incidence de la surmortalité masculine sur le cycle de la vie familiale’, Cuisenier, J. ed., The family life cycle in European societies (Paris, 1977).

73 ‘In the south, high levels of permanent celibacy are associated with low age at marriage, especially for women, this suggesting an early deadline for the marriageable pool: either early marriage takes place or there are high probabilities of remaining unmarried’: Cachinero Sánchez and Soler Serratosa, ‘Nuptiality and celibacy’.

74 G. Delille tends to attribute the major role in explaining the death ratio unfavourable to men in the adult classes of Puglia's population to the immigration of labourers. Delille, , Famille et propriété, 170–97 and 387407; Delille, , Agricultura e demografia, 5965. Also, Da Molin, G., ‘Mobilità dei contadini pugliesi fra fine '600 e primo '800’, Storica, Societò-Italiano di Demografia, ed., La popolazione Italians nel Settecento (Bologna, 1980) 435–67.

75 Burguière, A., ‘Pour une typologie des formes d'organisation domestique de l'Europe moderne (XVIe–XIXe siècles)’, Annales E.S.C. 41 (1986).

76 Bloch, M., French rural history: an essay on its basic characteristics (London, 1966).

77 This correlation has been postulated by Silverman, , ‘Agricultural organization’, 913.

78 In the so-called ‘new serfdom’ areas the influence of the socio-productive structure on the forms of the household appears to be much more direct and effective, as shown by Czap's research on Russia and Kula's on Poland: Czap, P., ‘The perennial multiple family household, Mishino, Russia, 1782–1858’, Journal of Family History 7 (1982) 526; Kula, W., ‘La seigneurie et la famille paysanne dans la Pologne du XVIIIe siècle’, Annales E.S.C. 27 (1972) 949–58. Also in general, Plakans, A., ‘Seigneurial authority and peasant family life’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6 (1976) 629–54.

79 Rowland, R., ‘Nupcialidade, familia, Mediterraneo’, Boletín de la Asociación de Demografia Histórica 5:2 (1987) 128–43.

80 Cf. Viazzo, and Albera, , ‘Population, resources and homeostatic regulation’, and especially Viazzo, Upland communities: environment, population and social structure in the Alps since the sixteenth century (Cambridge, 1989), 246–57.

81 Benigno, , Una casa, una terra, 178–84.

82 Delille, G., ‘Dots de filles et circulation des biens dans les Pouilles aux XVIe–XVIIe siècles’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome 95 (1983) 195224; Pappalardo, A., ‘Scelte testamentarie e politica matrimoniale a Bitonto tra XVI e XVII secolo’, ibid. 161–94.

83 Day, , ‘La condizione femminile’, 242.

84 Day, , ‘La condizione femminile, 241; Mattone, A. and Tangheroni, M. eds., Gli statuti sassaresi (Sassari, 1986).

85 See, however, the articles collected in a special issue of the Mélanges de l'École française de Rome 95 (1983); Luise, F., ‘Solofra fra il 1640 e il 1676 nei capitoli matrimoniali e nei testamenti’, 299338; Villone, A., ‘Contratti matrimoniali e testamenti in una zona di latifondo: Eboli a metà '600’, 225–98; Belli, C., ‘Famiglia, proprietà e classi sociali a Montefusco nella prima metà del XVII secolo’, 339–92.

86 Goody, J., The development of family and marriage in Europe (Cambridge, 1983).

87 Berkner, L., ‘Inheritance, land tenure and peasant family structure: a German comparison’, Goody, J., Thirsk, J. and Thompson, E. P. eds., Family and inheritance. Rural society in western Europe 1200–1800 (Cambridge, 1976) 76. But see also Collomp, A., ‘Ménage et famille. Études comparatives sur la dimension et la structure du groupe domestique’, Annales E.S.C. 29 (1974) 785.

88 Demangeon, A., ‘De l'influence des régimes agraires sur le mode d'habitat dans l'Europe occidental’, Problèmes de géographie humaine (Paris, 1952) 153–62.

89 Da Molin, G., ‘Strutture familiari’, 724–5.

90 A similar situation is found in Lanheses, north-west Portugal, Brettell, C. B., ‘Nupcialidad en un pueblo de la provincia del Miño 1700–1970: una nota de investigatión’, Boletin de la Asociación de Demografia Histórica 2 (1984) 219.

91 Burguière, , ‘Pour une typologie’, 645; Woolf, S. J., ‘The domestic economy of the poor of Florence in the early nineteenth century’, EUI working paper no. II (Firenze, 1986).

92 Nunes, , ‘Nupcialidade e familia’, 488.

93 Pina, M. Delia, ‘Famiglia mezzadrile e celibate: le campagne di Prato nei secoli XVII e XVIII’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 670–1.

94 Da Molin, , ‘Strutture familiari’, 719–23. In 1754, in Mpntegrassano, a Calabrian village. 80% of the poor lived in nuclear households. On the other hand, 80% of those with more than 40 ducati of rent lived in complex households, while 12.5% lived in nuclear households. Moretti, P., ‘L'economia del matrimonio. L'aggregazione domestica in una comunità calabrese nei '700’, Miscellanea di studi storici del Dipartimento di Storia dell'Università della Calabria 3 (Cosenza, 1983) 139.

95 For a different point of view, see Douglass, W. A., ‘The south Italian family: a critique’, Journal of Family History 5 (1980) 338–59; Douglass, W. A., ‘Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses of extended family households in an eighteenth-century south Italian hill town’, paper presented to the congress, Strutture e rapporti familiari in età moderna: esperienze italiane e riferimenti europei (Trieste, 1983).

96 As Agnes Fine and Jean Claude Sangsi point out, the labourers of south-west France ‘ne peuvent nourrir une famille trop nombreuse’: ‘Accès aux biens et mariage dans le sud-ouest de la France (XVIII–XIX siècles)’, in Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 570. On the relation between producers and consumers see Levi, G., Centro e periferia di uno stato assoluto: tre saggi su Piemonte e Liguria in età moderna (Torino, 1985) 101–40.

97 The results of a recent research seem to substantiate this position. Briggs, J. W., ‘Fertility and cultural change among families in Italy and America’, American Historical Review 91 (1986) 1129–45.

98 Pina, Delia, Famiglia mezzadrile, 671.Menzione, A., ‘Composizione delle famiglie e matrimonio in diversi gruppi contadini nella Toscana del secolo XVII’, Congrés Hispano Luso Italià, 743–53. For a comparison with English data, see Wall, R., ‘Real property, marriage and children, the evidence from pre-industrial communities’, Smith, R. M., ed., Land, kinship and life cycle (Cambridge, 1984) 443–79.

99 Mendels, F., ‘La composition du ménage paysan en France au XIXe siècle: une analyse économique du mode de production domestique’, Annales E.S.C. 33 (1978) 780802; Berkner, L. K., ‘The stem family and the developmental cycle of the peasant household’, American Historical Review 77 (1972) 398418; and his; ‘The use and misuse of census data for the historical analyses of family structure’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 5 (1975) 721–38.

100 Rochefort, R., Le travail en Sidle. Étude de géographie sociale (Paris, 1961) 80–3. The presence of servants, generally speaking, seems to fit with this scheme: only the richest families can employ servants.

101 On these aspects see, in general, Boulant, M., ‘La famille en miettes: sur un aspect de la démographie du XVIIe siècle’, Annales E.S.C. 27 (1972) 958–68.

102 Bresc, , ‘La famille’, 193–4.

103 Raffaele, , Dinamiche demografiche, 109.

104 Of course even solidarity had its limits. In his study on the city of Lorca, in Murcia, Hurtado Martinez has shown that between a census in 1761 and one in 1771 the proportion of extended households grew from 4.2 to 5.2%. During those ten years, however, a period characterised by sharp economic crises, the number of the coresidential relatives decreased among the daily labourers while the number increased among the group of the labradores (farmers). Martínez, Hurtado, ‘An´lisis del hogar’, 523.

105 Da Molin, , ‘Strutture familiari’, 718; Agmard, M., ‘Un bourg de Sicile entre XVIe et XVIIe siècle; Gangi, Braadel, F. et al. eds., Conjoncture économique, structures sociales. Hommage à Ernest Labrousse (Paris, 1974) 356680.

106 Burguière, A., ‘Pour une typologie’, 640.

107 Delille, G., ‘Le strutture familiari nella società meridionale’, Di Bella, S. ed., Economia e storia (Sicilia-Calabria XV–XIV sec.) (Cosenza, 1976) 370.

108 ‘Le système des quartiers lignagers n'est done pas present partout… si nous quittons la Vallée de l'Irno et les collines situées en arrière de Salerne pour la plaine du Sele, si nous quittons les régions de culture arbustive et d'artisanat rural pour les régions d'élevage et d'agriculture extensive, si nous quittons les zones oü la petite propriété paysanne est fortement enracinée pour les zones de latifondo’ we do not find lineage quarters anymore: Delille, , Famille et propriété, 107. For the Longobard influence see Marongiu, A., La famiglia nell 'Italia meridionale, secc. VIII–XIII (Milano, 1944).

109 Much research, in this field, has been influenced by the work of P. Lamaison on the French region of Gévaudan. See Claverie, E., Lamaison, P., L'impossible marriage. Violence et parenté en Gévaudan 17e, 18e, et 19e siècles(Paris, 1982) 301.

110 See the interesting case-study of a village of Latium: Ago, R., Un feudo esemplare (Fasano, 1988).

111 Bresc, , ‘Le famille’, 194.

112 This theme should not, in any case, be separated from a more general discussion of social mobility. See for example Giarrizzo, G., ‘Del ratto consensuale in Sicilia: una proposta di ricerca’, Archivio Storico per la Sicilia Orientale 69 (1973) 527–32.

* University of Catania

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