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Provincialising European union: Co-operation and Integration in Europe in a Historical Perspective

  • KIRAN KLAUS PATEL (a1)

Abstract

This article argues for a less EU-centric form of writing European integration history. More specifically, it scrutinises the ways in which the interconnections with other international organisations have energised, complemented or rivalled the efforts of the European Communities/EU. This approach also allows for a reassessment of the alleged sui generis character of European integration. It demonstrates that it was not the precise competences, its effects or its institutional uniqueness that made the EC stand out, but rather the way in which it self-fashioned and surrounded itself with a great sense of expectancy.

Cet article plaide pour une histoire de l’intégration européenne moins centrée sur l’Union européenne. Plus précisément, il examine en détail la manière dont les connections avec d’autres organisations internationales ont dynamisé, complémenté ou rivalisé avec les efforts de la CE/UE. Cette approche permet en outre de réévaluer le caractère soi-disant sui generis de l’intégration européenne. Elle montre que ce ne sont pas ses compétences précises, ses effets ni son unicité institutionnelle qui ont distingué la CE, mais plutôt la manière dont elle a su se créer une image de marque et créer autour d’elle une très forte attente.

Der Beitrag kritisiert, dass die bisherige Integrationshistoriographie zu EU-zentrisch angelegt ist und so den häufig unterstellten sui generis-Charakter der EU zu wenig kritisch hinterfragt. Als Alternative stellt der Artikel ein zweistufiges Forschungsprogramm vor, laut dem es erstens die zahlreichen Verbindungen zwischen der EU und ihren Vorläuferorganisationen einerseits und anderen Internationalen Organisationen andererseits zu untersuchen gilt. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die EG/EU oft nur ein Nachzügler im Feld der Internationalen Beziehungen war; unterstützt, ergänzt oder durch Konkurrenz herausgefordert durch andere internationale Organisationen und transnationale Akteure. Zweitens vertritt der Beitrag die These, dass weniger die präzisen Kompetenzen, die ökonomischen Effekte oder ihr institutioneller Aufbau die EU von anderen internationalen Organisationen unterschiedet, sondern vielmehr ihr selbst erklärter Anspruch, für einen neuen Ansatz in Europa zu stehen.

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1 Comité intergouvernemental créé par la conference de Messine, ed., Rapport des chefs de délégation aux ministres des affaires étrangères (Brussels, 1956), 7, 134–5 (my translation).

2 Laborie, Léonard, ‘A Missing Link? Telecommunications Networks and European Integration, 1945–1970’, in van der Vleuten, Erik and Kaijser, Arne, eds, Networking Europe: Transnational Infrastructures and the Shaping of Europe, 1850–2000 (Sagamore Beach: Science History Publications, 2006), 187215; Labarrère, Claude, L’Europe des postes et des télécommunications (Paris: Masson, 1985); http://www.cept.org/cept/ (accessed 22 July 2013).

3 Göldner, Markus, Politische Symbole der europäischen Integration: Fahne, Hymne, Hauptstadt, Paß, Briefmarke, Auszeichnungen (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1988), 90127.

4 Among the few but notable exceptions: Thiemeyer, Guido, Europäische Integration: Motive – Prozesse – Strukturen (Cologne: Böhlau, 2010); Palmer, Michael and Lambert, John, eds, European Unity: A Survey of the European Organisations (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1968); on the difference between delegation and pooling see, e.g., Lake, David A., ‘“Delegating Divisible Sovereignty: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield’, in Review of International Organization 2 (2007), 219–37.

5 See, e.g., Misa, Thomas J. and Schot, Johan, ‘Inventing Europe: Technology and the Hidden Integration of Europe’, History and Technology 2 (2005), 120; the many publications of the ‘Inventing Europe’ and ‘Tensions of Europe’ projects; Conway, Martin and Patel, Kiran Klaus, eds, Europeanization in the Twentieth Century: Historical Approaches (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) and the book project by Schot, Johan, Kaiser, Wolfram and Jajeśniak-Quast, Dagmara, Making Rules for Europe: International Organizations, Experts and Cartels (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming).

6 This expression draws its inspiration from Chakrabarty, Dipesh, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

7 Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe, 4, 28.

8 Yearbook of International Organizations 1986/87, 23 (1986), Vol. 2, Tables 2 and 3; figures for 1945–8: my calculation based on Yearbook of International Organizations, 1 (1948), 182–394; Iriye, Akira, Global Community: The Role of International Organization in the Making of the Contemporary World (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2002), 3759.

9 Ludlow, N. Piers, ‘The End of Symbiosis: The Nixon Era and the Collapse of Comfortable Co-existence between European and Atlantic Integration’, in Scott-Smith, Giles and Aubourg, Valerie, eds, Atlantic, Euratlantic, or Europe-America? (Paris: Soleb, 2011), 6081.

10 Patel, Kiran Klaus and Schot, Johan, ‘Twisted Paths to European Integration: Comparing Agriculture and Transport Policies in a Transnational Perspective’, Contemporary European History, 20 (2011), 383403; Henrich-Franke, Christian, ‘Mobility and European Integration: Politicians, Professionals and the Foundation of the ECMT’, Journal of Transport History, 29 (2008), 6482.

11 On electricity, see Lagendijk, Vincent, ‘“An Experience Forgotten Today”: Examining Two Rounds of European Electricity Liberalization’, History and Technology, 27 (2011), 291310; on nuclear safety, see Heidbreder, Eva G., The Impact of Expansion on European Union Institutions (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 121–38; more generally on this form of rivalry, also with other examples, see de Witte, Bruno and Thies, Anne, ‘Why Choose Europe? The Place of the European Union in the Architecture of International Legal Cooperation’, in van Vooren, Bart, Blockmans, Steven and Wouters, Jan, The EU's Role in Global Governance: The Legal Dimension (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

12 Kaiser, Wolfram, ‘The Successes and Limits of Industrial Market Integration: The European Free Trade Association, 1963–1969’, in Loth, Wilfried, ed., Crises and Compromises: The European Project 1963–1969 (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2001), 371–90.

13 On the EEC's development co-operation, see, e.g., Rempe, Martin, Entwicklung im Konflikt: Die EWG und der Senegal, 1957–1975 (Cologne: Böhlau, 2012).

14 Patel and Schot, ‘Twisted Paths to European Integration’.

15 Göldner, Politische Symbole der europäischen Integration, 33–127; Kaelble, Hartmut, ‘European Symbols, 1945–2000: Concept, Meaning and Historical Change’, in Passerini, Luisa, ed., Figures d’Europe: Images and Myths of Europe (Brussels: Lang, 2003), 4761.

17 Calligaro, Oriane, Negotiating Europe: EU Promotion of Europeanness and Non-Institutional Actors since the 1950s, PhD thesis, European University Institute, Florence, 2011; Littoz-Monnet, Annabelle, The European Union and Culture: Between Economic Regulation and European Cultural Policy (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007); Sassatelli, Monica, Becoming Europeans: Cultural Identity and Cultural Policies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009). Human rights is another example in which the CoE preceeded EU action; see, e.g., Joris, Tony and Vandenberghe, Jan, ‘The Council of Europe and the European Union: Natural Partners or Uneasy Bedfellows?’ in Columbia Journal of European Law 15 (2008/2009), 141.

18 Vos, Claske, ‘The Ideals and Pragmatics of European Heritage: The Policy and Practice of the Regional Heritage Program in Serbia’, in Patel, Kiran Klaus, ed., The Cultural Politics of Europe: Capitals of Culture and the Integration of Europe since the 1980s (London: Routledge, 2013), 179–97.

19 See Official Journal, C 112/1, 20.12.1973; Jan-Henrik Meyer, ‘Appropriating the Environment: How the European Institutions Received the Novel Idea of the Environment and Made It Their Own’, in KFG (Kolleg-Forschergruppe) Working Paper Series, 31 Sept. 2011; Hünemörder, Kai F., Die Frühgeschichte der globalen Umweltkrise und die Formierung der deutschen Umweltpolitik (1950–1973) (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004); now also Schulz-Walden, Thorsten, Anfänge globaler Umweltpolitik: Umweltsicherung in der Internationalen Politik, 1969–1975 (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2013).

20 Mitzner, Veera, Research for Growth? The Contested Origins of European Union Research Policy (1963–1974), PhD thesis, European University Institute, Florence, 2013.

21 Guigner, Sébastien, ‘The EU's Role(s) in European Public Health: The Interdependence of Roles within a Saturated Space of International Organizations: The Interdependence of Roles’, in Elgström, Ole and Smith, Michael, eds, The European Union's Role in International Politics: Concepts and Analysis (London: Routledge, 2006), 225–44; see also, e.g., Montford, Lyndsay, European Union Health Policy on the Eve of the Millenium (EP Working Document SACO 102 EN) (Luxembourg: European Parliament, 1998), particularly 43.

22 On peer reviewing, see Tanaka, Kensuke, Shaping Policy Reform and Peer Review in Southeast Asia: Integration Economies amid Diversity (Paris: OECD Publications, 2008), particularly 3, 54. I would like to thank Thomas Conzelmann for this information.

23 On GATT, see Coppolaro, Lucia, The Making of a World Trading Power: The European Community (EEC) in the GATT Kennedy Round Negotiations (1962–1967) (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013); on the CSCE, see Romano, Angela, From Détente in Europe to European Détente: How the West Shaped the Helsinki CSCE (Brussels: Lang, 2009); Möckli, Daniel, European Foreign Policy during the Cold War: Heath, Brandt, Pompidou and the Dream of Political Unity (London: Tauris, 2009); Wenger, Andreas, Mastny, Vojtech and Nuenlist, Christian, eds, Origins of the European Security System: The Helsinki Process Revisited, 1965–74 (London: Routledge, 2008); Nuti, Leopoldo, ed., The Crisis of Détente in Europe: From Helsinki to Gorbachev (London: Routledge, 2009); Bange, Oliver and Niedhart, Gottfried, eds, Helsinki 1975 and the Transformation of Europe (New York: Berghahn, 2008).

24 Chenard, Marie Julie, ‘Seeking Détente and Driving Integration: The European Community's Opening Towards the People's Republic of China, 1975–1978’, Journal of European Integration History, 18 (2012), 2538.

25 Kansikas, Suvi, Trade Blocs and the Cold War: The CMEA and the EC Challenge, 1969–1976, PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, 2012; Yamamoto, Takeshi, ‘Détente or Integration? EC Response to Soviet Policy Change towards the Common Market, 1970–75’, Cold War History, 7 (2007), 7594.

26 See, e.g., Villaume, Poul and Westad, Odd Arne, eds, Perforating the Iron Curtain: European Détente, Transatlantic Relations, and the Cold War, 1965–1985 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2010).

27 See, e.g., Zaiotti, Ruben, Cultures of Border Control: Schengen and the Evolution of European Frontiers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011).

28 Heidbreder, The Impact of Expansion on European Union Institutions.

29 Witte and Thies, ‘Why Choose Europe?’, 36.

30 See, e.g., Joris and Vandenberghe, ‘The Council of Europe and the European Union’.

31 Witte and Thies, ‘Why Choose Europe?’

32 In this article, I use the distinction between inter- and transnational actors in the way political scientists or lawyers use it; for a critical assessment, see Patel, Kiran Klaus, ‘Überlegungen zu einer transnationalen Geschichte’, Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, 52 (2004), 626–45. On these organisations, see, e.g., Kolb, Robert, ‘History of International Organizations or Institutions’, in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 111; Wolfrum, Rüdiger, ‘International Administrative Unions’, in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 335–44.

33 Sport offers one of the rather few examples in which transnational actors have tried to block exchanges and integration, see García, Borja and Weatherill, Stephen, ‘Engaging with the EU in Order to Minimize its Impact: Sport and the Negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon’, Journal of European Public Policy, 19 (2012), 238–56.

34 See Spaak, Paul-Henri, Combats inachevés, 2 vols. (Paris: Fayard, 1969). Interestingly, Spaak dedicates three full chapters to the CoE; hence, his account is less EC-centred than many others.

35 Kaiser, Wolfram, ‘Transnational Networks in European Governance: The Informal Politics of Integration’, in Kaiser, Wolfram, Leucht, Brigitte and Rasmussen, Morten, eds, The History of the European Union: Origins of a Trans- and Supranational Polity, 1950–72 (New York: Routledge, 2009), 1233; also see Gehler, Michael, Kaiser, Wolfram and Leucht, Brigitte, eds, Networks in European Multi-Level Governance: From 1945 to the Present (Vienna: Böhlau, 2009).

36 Patel, Kiran Klaus, ‘Interests and Ideas: Alan Milward, The Europeanization of Agricultural Protection, and the Cultural Dimensions of European Integration’, in Guirao, Fernando, Lynch, Frances M. B. and Ramirez, Sigfrido, eds, Alan S. Milward and a Century of European Change (London: Routledge, 2012), 405–21; von Graevenitz, Fritz Georg, Internationalismus in der Zwischenkriegszeit. Deutschland und Frankreich in der globalen Agrarkrise, PhD thesis, European University Institute, Florence, 2011. Again, other examples are legion; for the example of women's rights, see, e.g., Mazey, Sonia, ‘The Development of EU Equality Policies: Bureaucratic Expansion on Behalf of Women?’, Public Administration, 73 (1995), 591609; and, more generally, Kott, Sandrine, ‘International Organizations: A Field of Research for a Global History’, in Studies in Contemporary History 8 (2011), 446–50.

37 See, particularly, Vauchez, Antoine, ‘The Transnational Politics of Judicialization: Van Gend en Loos and the Making of EU Polity’, European Law Journal, 1 (2010), 1128; Rasmussen, Morten, ‘Establishing a Constitutional Practice of European Law: The History of the Legal Service of the European Executive, 1952–65’, Contemporary European History, 21 (2012), 375–97; Davies, Bill and Rasmussen, Morten, ‘Introduction: Towards a New History of European Law’, Contemporary European History, 21 (2012), 305–18; Cohen, Antonin, ‘Constitutionalism without Constitution: Transnational Elites Between Political Mobilization and Legal Expertise in the Making of a Constitution for Europe (1940s–1960s)’, Law & Social Enquiry, 32 (2007), 109–35.

38 See on this approach Robert, Cécile and Vauchez, Antoine, ‘L’Académie européenne’, Politix, 89 (2010), 9144 (Special Issue); Georgakakis, Didier, ‘The Historical and Political Sociology of the European Union: A Uniquely French Methodological Approach?’, French Politics, 7 (2009), 437–55; Bourdieu, Pierre, ‘La force du droit: Elément pour une sociologie du champ juridique’, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 64 (1986), 319, and, from a different methodological starting point, Walters, William and Haahr, Jens Henrik, Governing Europe: Discourse, Governmentality and European Integration (London: Routledge, 2005).

39 This includes even unlikely groups like historians, see Varsori, Antonio, ‘From Normative Impetus to Professionalization: Origins and Operations of Research Networks’, in Kaiser, Wolfram and Varsori, Antonio, eds, European Union History: Themes and Debates (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 625; Calligaro, Negotiating Europe.

40 See, e.g., Patricia Clavin and Kiran Klaus Patel, ‘The Role of International Organizations in Europeanization: The Case of the League of Nations and the European Economic Community’, Conway and Patel, Europeanization in the Twentieth Century, as an example on agriculture as a specific policy domain and, for a specific set of actors, Kaiser, Wolfram, Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

41 See, e.g., Gillingham, John, Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945–1955: The Germans and the French from Ruhr Conflict to European Community (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Alter, Karen J. and Steinberg, David, ‘The Theory and Reality of the European Coal and Steel Community’, in Meunier, Sophie and McNamara, Kathleen R., eds, Making History: European Integration and Institutional Change at Fifty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 89104; Dumoulin, Michel, Guillen, Pierre and Vaïsse, Maurice, eds, L’énergie nucléaire en Europe: Des origins à Euratom (Berne: Lang, 1994); Barry, Andrew and Walters, William, ‘From EURATOM to “Complex Systems”: Technology and European Government’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 28 (2003), 305–29.

42 Historical Archives of the European Union, Florence (HAEU), CEAB 5/17, ‘Note sur les relations extérieures’, 7 Oct. 1952.

43 Spierenburg, Dirk and Poidevin, Raymond, Histoire de la haute autorité de la Communauté Européenne du charbon et de l’acier: Une éxperience supranationale (Brussels: Bruylant, 1993).

44 Salter, J. Arthur, Allied Shipping Control: An Experiment in International Administration (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), XIII; also see Fransen, Frederic J., The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet: Ideas and Origins of the European Community (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001), 2331.

45 Monnet, Jean, Memoirs (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1978), 7898.

46 As an excellent summary of the legal literature, see Bruno de Witte, ‘The European Union as an International Legal Experiment’, in Gráinne de Búrca and J.H.H. Weiler, eds, The Worlds of European Constitutionalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 19—56; also see Wolfrum, ‘International Administrative Unions’; on legal thinking in this context during the inter-war years, see von Bernstorff, Jochen, The Public International Law Theory of Hans Kelsen: Believing in Universal Law (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010), particularly 126—145.

47 There is no single commonly accepted definition of supranationality; Thiemeyer and Tölle use three criteria: 1. binding majority decision-making; 2. direct effect of law; 3. creation of common policies. For definitions of supranationality, see, e.g., Ipsen, Hans-Peter, Europäisches Gemeinschaftsrecht (Tübingen: Mohr, 1972), 6770; Kirchhof, Paul, ‘The European Union of States’, in von Bogdandy, Armin and Bast, Jürgen, eds, Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Oxford: Hart, 2010), 735–61, here 755–56.

48 Thiemeyer, Guido and Tölle, Isabel, ‘Supranationalität im 19. Jahrhundert? Die Beispiele der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt und des Octroivertrages 1804–1832’, Journal of European Integration History, 17 (2012), 177–96; Thiemeyer thus revises his older argument: Thiemeyer, Guido, ‘Supranationalität als Novum in der Geschichte der internationalen Beziehungen der fünfziger Jahre’, Journal of European Integration History, 4 (1998), 522.

49 HAEU, Fonds Pierre Uri, PU 43, ‘Note sur l’organisation de la Haute Autorité’, n.d.

50 Hallstein, Walter, United Europe: Challenge and Opportunity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962), 28.

51 Joint Declaration of the Ministers signatory to the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Pool (18 Apr. 1951), easily available on http://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/1997/10/13/a5bee6ca-6506–48bb-9bd5-c1aa8487bdfd/publishable_en.pdf (accessed 1 Aug. 2013).

52 See, e.g., Vauchez, Antoine, L’Union par le droit: L’Invention d’un programme institutionnel pour l’Europe (Paris: Les Presses de Sciences Po, 2013); on German EU lawyers and their role: Stolleis, Michael, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts in Deutschland, Vol. 4 (Munich: Beck, 2012), 609–29.

53 For this part of the article, also see Krumrey, Jacob, Staging Europe: The Symbolic Politics of European Integration during the 1950s and 1960s, PhD thesis, European University Institute, Florence, 2013.

54 HAEU, AC 563, Communauté européenne du charbon de de l’acier, Assemblée Commune, Session d’ouverture, Discours de M. le Président d’âge, 10 Septembre 1952, 2.

55 Cover of Time Magazine, 6 Oct. 1961.

56 Raymond Aron, ‘La victoire de l’idée européenne’, Le Figaro, 27 Dec. 1963.

57 Quoted in Döşemeci, Mehmet, Associating Turkey with Europe: Civilization, Nationalism, and the EEC, 1959–1980, PhD thesis, Columbia University, 2009, 65.

58 de Gaulle, Charles, Discours et messages (Paris: Plon 1970), Vol. VI, 66–79, here 69.

59 Of course, interest in the integration project loomed largest in the EC member states and their allies; as a first foray into the Eastern bloc, see Faraldo, José M., Gulinska-Jurgiel, Paulina and Domnitz, Christian, eds, Europe in the Eastern Bloc: Imaginations and Discourses (1945–1991) (Cologne: Böhlau, 2008).

60 Obviously, official views in the Eastern bloc and interpretation in post-colonial countries were quite different.

61 For details of the Debate, see Kiran Klaus Patel, ‘Europäische Integration’, in Jost Dülffer and Wilfried Loth, eds, Dimensionen internationaler Geschichte (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2012), 353–72.

62 See, e.g., Thiemeyer, Europäische Integration, 61–9; Schulz, Matthias and Schwartz, Thomas A., eds, The Strained Alliance: U.S.–European Relations from Nixon to Carter (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

63 See, e.g., Keohane, Robert O. and Hoffmann, Stanley, ‘Institutional Change in Europe in the 1980s’, in Keohane, Robert O. and Hoffmann, Stanley, eds, The New European Community: Decisionmaking and Institutional Change (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1991), 139; for a recent and much more positive reassessment of the period, see, e.g., Varsori, Antonio and Migani, Guia, eds, Europe in the International Arena during the 1970s: Entering a Different World (Brussels: Lang, 2011); as one of first studies to stress this point: Weiler, Joseph H. H., The Constitution of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 3963.

64 Hallstein quoted in: ‘Western Europe: Pulling Apart’, Time, 14 Feb. 1969.

65 Thorn, Gaston, European Union or Decline: To Be or Not To Be (Florence: European University Institute, 1984).

66 As a classical interpretation with this point of view, see Milward, Alan S., The European Rescue of the Nation-State, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2000); also many theories and concepts by political scientists focus on the interplay between the EU and member states, disregarding the role of other international organis ations, see, e.g., Moravscik, Andrew, The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).

67 For the League of Nations as an interesting parallel case, see Kennedy, David, ‘The Move to Institutions’, Cardozo Law Review, 8 (1987), 841988.

68 For an English version of the Schuman declaration, see http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration/index_en.htm (accessed 5 Sept. 2013).

69 Krumrey, The Staging of a Federal Europe.

70 See, e.g., the Statute of the CoE: ‘a closer unity between all like-minded countries of Europe’ (1949); NATO Treaty: ‘promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area’.

71 Bast, Jürgen, ‘The Constitutional Treaty as a Reflexive Constitution’, German Law Journal, 6 (2005), 1433–52.

72 ‘Hallstein soll gehen’, Neues Deutschland, 20 Jan. 1966; ‘E.C.M. Council Meeting Ends’, Times of India, 22 Jan. 1966.

73 Ludlow, N. Piers, ed., European Integration and the Cold War: Ostpolitik–Westpolitik, 1965–1973 (London, Routledge, 2007).

74 See, e.g., Clavin and Patel, ‘The Role of International Organizations in Europeanization’; Kott, Sandrine, ‘Une “communauté épistémique” du social? Experts de l’OIT et internationalisation des politiques sociales dans l’entre-deux-guerres’, Genèses, 71 (2008), 2646.

75 On this point, see, e.g., already Diez, Thomas, ‘Speaking “Europe”: The Politics of Integration Discourse’, Journal of European Public Policy, 6 (1999), 598613.

76 Börzel, Tanja, ‘European Governance: Negotiation and Competition in the Shadow of Hierarchy’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 48 (2010), 191219; see, e.g., also Bauer, Michael W. and Knill, Christoph, eds, Management Reforms in International Organizations (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2007); Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, Mette, Debates on European Integration (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 113; Walters and Haahr, Governing Europe; Börzel, Tanja A. and Risse, Thomas, ‘From Europeanisation to Diffusion’, West European Politics, 25 (2012), 119.

77 See, e.g., Kauppi, Niilo, ‘The Political Ontology of European Integration’, Comparative European Politics, 8 (2010), 1936; McNamara, Kathleen R., ‘Constructing Europe: Insights from Historical Sociology’, Comparative European Politics, 8 (2010), 127–42, though the macro-historical comparisons McNamara (herself a political scientist), pleads for are quite different from the approach proposed here.

78 See, e.g., Featherstone, Kevin and Dyson, Kenneth, The Road to Maastricht: Negotiating Economic and Monetary Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 256451; Scharpf, Fritz W., ‘Monetary Union, Fiscal Crisis and the Pre-emption of Democracy’, Journal for Comparative Government and European Policy, 9 (2011), 193–8; Paterson, William E., ‘Does Germany still Have a European Vocation?’, German Politics, 19 (2010), 4152.

79 ‘Operation Selbstbetrug’, Der Spiegel, 7 July 2012; Hans Peter Schwarz, Helmut Kohl: Eine politische Biographie (Munich: DVA, 2012), 802–12.

80 Kratochvíl, Petr, Cibulková, Petra and Beník, Michal, ‘The EU as a “Framing Actor”: Reflections on Media Debates about EU Foreign Policy’, in Journal of Common Market Studies, 49 (2011), 391412.

This article is the revised and expanded version of my inaugural lecture as Professor of European and Global History at Maastricht University and the 2013 Special Annual MEHRC lecture at Oxford University. Many thanks to my Maastricht colleagues, particularly to Nico Randeraad, Sophie Vanhoonacker and Rein de Wilde, and in addition to Jochen von Bernstorff, Tom Buchanan, Patricia Clavin, Martin Conway, Philipp Dann, Wolfram Kaiser, Jacob Krumrey, Vincent Lagendijk, Wilfried Loth, N. Piers Ludlow, Jean-Marie Palayret, Martin Rempe, Heinrich August Winkler and Bruno de Witte for their advice and for helpful remarks on earlier versions of this article. The usual disclaimer applies.

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