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Establishing a Constitutional Practice of European Law: The History of the Legal Service of the European Executive, 1952–65

  • MORTEN RASMUSSEN (a1)

Abstract

The origins of the constitutional practice of European law clearly lie in the two famous rulings of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa v. E.N.E.L (1964). Despite this, very little is known for sure about the genesis of the ECJ's interpretation or the dynamics within the Court at the time. Most accounts focus on the role of the ECJ in revolutionising European law. Using recently disclosed archival material, this article traces the role of the Legal Service of the European executive in the development of the constitutional practice. It demonstrates that the Legal Service played a crucial role both in terms of devising the legal philosophy behind the two rulings and in the establishing of a professional and academic field of European law, which would underpin the constitutional practice. At the same time it shows that the ECJ – although it adopted the legal philosophy recommended by the Legal Service – did this in a cautious and restricted manner to minimise national resistance.

Les origines de la pratique constitutionnelle européenne sont nettement évidentes dans deux décisions de la Cour de justice européenne, Van Gend en Loos (1963) et Costa v. E.N.E.L (1964). Et pourtant, la genèse de l'interprétation de la cour et la dynamique qui la régissait à l'époque sont mal connues. On a jusqu'ici surtout examiné le rôle de la Cour de justice dans les changements révolutionnaires de la loi européenne. Cet article, par contre, mine des archives récemment ouvertes, et décèle le rôle joué par le service juridique de l'exécutif européen dans le développement de la pratique juridique. Il montre que le service juridique contribua de façon décisive à l'élaboration de la philosophie juridique informant ces deux décisions, ainsi qu'à l'établissement du champ professionnel et scientifique du droit européen qui sous-tendrait la pratique constitutionnelle. L'article indique aussi que la Cour de justice adopta bien la philosophie juridique prônée par le service juridique, mais qu'elle s'y prit avec doigté et retenue, de façon à minimiser la résistance des états membres.

Die Ursprünge der verfassungsrechtlichen Praxis des Europarechts finden sich in zwei berühmten Entscheidungen des Europäischen Gerichtshofs (EuGH), Van Gend en Loos (1963) und Costa v. E.N.E.L (1964). Dennoch wissen wir recht wenig auf sicherer Grundlage über die Genese der Interpretation des Gerichtshofs oder die Dynamik innerhalb des EuGH zu jener Zeit. Die meisten Berichte betonen die revolutionierende Rolle des EuGH im Fall des europäischen Rechts. Auf der Grundlage von neuem Archivmaterial beschreibt der Artikel die Rolle des Juristischen Dienst der Europäischen Kommission im Aufbau der Verfassungspraxis. Der Artikel zeigt, wie der Juristische Dienst eine entscheidende Rolle gespielt hat, nicht nur in der Entwicklung der juristischen Philosophie, die diese zwei Enscheidungen hinterlag, sondern auch im Aufbau der professionellen und wissenschaftlichen Fachgebiet des europäischen Rechts, das die Verfassungspraxis unterstützen würde. Der Artikel zeigt auch, dass der EuGH die vom Juristischen Dienst empfohlende juristische Philosophie adoptierte, aber ganz vorsichtig und beschränkt, um den Wiederstand der Mitgliedstaaten zu minimisieren.

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References

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1 For example Rasmussen, Hjalte, On Law and Policy in the European Court of Justice: A Comparative Study in Judicial Policy-Making (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986) and Weiler, Joseph H. H., ‘The Transformation of Europe’, Yale Law Journal, 100 (1991), 2403–83.

2 For example Dehousse, Renaud, The European Court of Justice: The Politics of Judicial Integration (London: Macmillan, 1998).

3 Stein, Eric, ‘Lawyers, Judges and the Making of a Transnational Constitution’, The American Journal of International law, 1 (1981), 127, 24.

4 Rasmussen, Morten, ‘The Origins of a Legal Revolution: The Early History of the European Court of Justice’, Journal of European Integration History, 2 (2008), 7798 and Cohen, Antonin, ‘Constitutionalism without Constitution: Transnational Elites Between Political Mobilization and Legal Expertise in the Making of a Constitution for Europe (1940s-1960s)’, Law & Social Inquiry, 32 (2007), 109–35.

5 New evidence has mainly been drawn from the recently opened Archives of Michel Gaudet at the Fondation Jean Monnet pour l'Europe, Lausanne (AJM).

6 The Legal Service is treated briefly in Grilli, Antonio, Le origine dell diritto dell'Unione europea (Milan: Il Mulino, 2009), 215–22 and Dumoulin, Michel, ed., The European Commission 1958–1972: History and Memories (Brussels: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007), 224–6.

7 See Anne Boerger-De Smedt's article in this special issue.

8 Europe Goes to Court, High Authority, Information Service, 16 Oct. 1954. Historical Archives of the Commission (HAC).CEAB.1026.

9 Bärenbrinker, Frank, ‘Hallstein's Conception of Europe before Assuming Office in the Commission’, in Loth, Wilfried, Wallace, William and Wessels, Wolfgang, eds, Walter Hallstein: The Forgotten European? (London: Macmillan, 1998), 8294, 85.

10 See Anne Boerger-De Smedt's article in this special issue.

11 Projet. Répartition des affaires. Service Juridique, 24 Jan. 1956, HAC.CEAB.1.000970 and Annuaire de la Commission de la Communauté Économique Européenne 1968.

12 Gaudet, Michel, ‘Un regard de Jean Monnet’, in Témoignages à la mémoire de Jean Monnet (Lausanne: Fondation Jean Monnet pour l'Europe, 1989), 233–41, 235–6.

13 Interview Gérard Olivier. INT714. The European Commission memories collection. Historical Archive of the European Union (HAEU).

14 Note sur l'organisation du Service Juridique, 15 May 1953. HAC.CEAB.1.000969.

15 Dumoulin, European Commission, 224. This influence allegedly diminished as a result of the Empty Chair crisis where Gaudet advised Hallstein to adopt a more cautious approach towards France. Interview Claus-Dieter Ehlermann, Feb. 2012.

16 See Article 20 and 37 of the Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice to the EEC.

17 We have two revealing sources that document this. Eisenberg to Stein 18 Apr. 1955, Eric Stein Papers, Bentley Historical Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan (ESP), Box 18. Here Eisenberg not only mentions that Gaudet was disappointed in the judgments of the Court of Justice in cases 1–4/54, but also that he wanted the new Court to assume a role similar to the US Supreme Court. The second source is: Gaudet to Swatland, 31 Dec. 1957, AJM.

18 See Monnet, Jean, Mémoires (Paris: Fayard, 1976), 450, for a reference to what Monnet describes as the constructivist approach of the Legal Service. See also Monnet's correspondence with leading legal personalities in the AJM C3/31/3 Cour de Justice, C3/22 Robert Lecourt, C16/11.Maurice Rolland and C30/3.Michel Gaudet.

19 Catalano became one of the leading proponents of a constitutional interpretation of European law in academic writing in the late 1950s and 1960s. See, for example, Catalano, Nicola, La Comunità Economica Europea e l'Euratom (Milan: Giuffrè, 1957).

20 Much, Walter, Die Amtshaftung im Recht der E.G.K.S. (Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1952), 9–30.

21 For a general analysis of the French legal system in relation to European integration, see Plotner, Jens, ‘Report on France’, in Slaughter, Anne-Marie, Sweet, Alec Stone and Weiler, J. H. H., eds, The European Court and National Courts – Doctrines and Jurisprudence: Legal Change in Its Social Context (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1998), 4176.

22 Anne Boerger-De Smedt's article in this special issue. With regard to Lagrange's promotion of a constitutional understanding, see, for example, Maurice Lagrange, ‘L'ordre juridique de la C.E.C.A. vu à travers la jurisprudence de sa Cour de Justice’, Revue du Droit et de la Science politique en France et à l'Étranger, Sep.–Oct. (1958), 841–65.

23 Gaudet to Swatland, 31 Dec. 1957, AJM, AMK 30/3.

24 Consider for example case 1–4/54 which dealt exactly with the question as to whether the HA in its understanding of Article 60 could chose a non-textual reading, rather than one that would promote the objectives of Article 66. Bebr, Gerhard, ‘The Development of a Community Law by the Court of the European Coal and Steel Community’, Minnesota Law Review, 42, 5 (1958), 845–78, 855.

25 Hanns Jürgen Kürsters, ‘Walter Hallstein and the Negotiations on the Treaties of Rome 1955–57’, in Loth et al., Walter Hallstein, 60–81.

26 Lagrange, ‘L'ordre juridique’, 862.

27 For example the position of Lagrange in case 8/55. Recueil de la Jurisprudence de la Cour (Luxembourg: Cour de Justice, 1955–1956) vol. II, 231–90.

28 Gaudet to Swatland, 31 Dec. 1957, AJM, AMK 30/3.

29 Pennera, Christian, ‘The Beginnings of the Court of Justice and its Role as a Driving Force in European Integration’, Journal of European Integration History, 1, 1 (1995), 111–27, and Pescatore, Pierre, ‘La Cour en tant que juridiction fédérale et constitutionnelle’, Zehn Jahre Rechtsprechung des Gerichtshofs der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (Cologne: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 1965), 520–54.

30 Unfortunately, the ECJ has not opened its historical archive to the public.

31 Gaudet to Swatland, 31 Dec. 1957, AJM, AMK 30/3.

32 The following is based on Feld, Werner, The Court of the European Communities: New Dimensions in International Adjudication (The Hague: Matinus Nijhoff, 1964); Braun, Nicole Condorelli, Commissaires et juges dans les Communautés européennes (Paris: Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, 1972); and interviews with Jean-Pierre Delahousse (Lagrangre's clerk) and Pierre Mathijsen (Ven Kleffens’ clerk) in Jan. 2009.

33 Rasmussen, On Law and Policy, 218.

34 Dutch judge Petrus Serrarens and Belgian judge Louis Delvaux were federal-minded but apparently exercised little influence.

35 Bebr, Gerhard, ‘The Relation of the European Coal and Steel Community Law to the Law of the Member States: A Peculiar Legal Symbiosis’, Columbia Law Review, 58, 6 (1958), 767–97.

36 For an analysis of the legal debates of the 1950s see Morten Rasmussen, ‘The First Advocate Generals and the Making of European law, 1950–1958’ (European University Institute, LAW Working Papers, forthcoming).

37 This was, for example, the case at the meeting of the Deutsche Staatsrechtslehrer congress in 1953. See Begriff und Wesen des sozialen Rechtsstaates: Die auswärtige Gewalt der Bundesrepublik Berichte und Aussprache zu den Berichten in den Verhandlungen der Tagung der Vereinigung der Deutschen Staatsrechtslehrer zu Bonn am 15. und 16. Oktober 1953, 129–75; and a major international conference on the ECSC in Naples in 1955: Eugenio Greppi, ‘A propos du caractère supranational de la C.E.C.A. – Récentes contributions scientifiques’, Les cahiers du Bruges: Recherches européennes, Quarterly 1 (1956), 25–39.

38 Bailleux, Julie, ‘Comment l'Europe vint au droit: Le premier congrès international d'études de la CECA (Milan-Stresa 1957)’, Revue française de science politique, 60, 2 (2010), 295318.

39 Rapport de Visscher. With handwritten commentary by Michel Gaudet. HAC.CEAB.1031.

40 Paul de Visscher, ‘Rapport: La Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier et les états membres’, in Actes officiels du congrès international d'études sur la communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier. Milan-Stresa – 31. mai– 9 juin (Milan: Giuffrè, 1957), 9–85.

41 See Jean-Michel Guieu's article in this special issue.

42 Gaudet to Stein, 18 Mar. 1958, ESP, Box 6.

43 Note à Messieurs les membres de la Haute Autorité. Objet: Débat juridique au Congrès de Stresa. 3 juillet 1957. HAC.CEAB.1030.

44 Gemeinsamer Markt/institutionen, 8 August 1956. Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes, Abt.2, 225–30–04, 929. The Dutch delegation wanting to maintain a supranational structure for the new two Communities could not understand what had happened to usual constitutional discourse of German delegation leader, Ophüls. Harryvan, Anjo G., In Pursuit of Influence: The Netherlands’ European Policy During the Formative Years of the European Union, 1952–1973 (Brussels: P. I. E. Peter Lang, 2009), 133.

45 Mechionni, Maria Grazia and Ducci, Roberto, eds, La genèse des traités de Rome: Entretiens inédits avec 18 acteurs et témoins de la négociation (Paris: Economica, 2007), 80.

46 Groupe de rédaction. Projet de rédaction d'articles relatifs aux institutions de la Communauté pour le Marché Commun (suite), Bruxelles le 13 décembre 1956. Archive of the Council of Ministers, NEGO.CM.3.258.

47 Gaudet to Monnet, 25 Mar. 1957, AJM.AMK C 30/3.

48 Gaudet to Monnet, 18 Dec. 1958, AJM.AMK C 30/3.

49 The Legal Service had occasionally participated in academic conferences and had by 1958 an extensive list of academic and professional jurists with whom it was in contact. Liste des juristes avec lesquels la Division CECA du Service juridique commun est en relation (Professeurs, Avocats, Experts), état 21–11–1958. HAC.CEAB.1023.

50 Gaudet to Rey, 21 Jan. 1962, Archive of Michel Gaudet, Fondation Jean Monnet pour l'Europe, Lausanne (AMG), Chronos 1961.

51 See Alexandre Bernier in this special issue for more details.

52 For details Rasmussen, Morten, ‘Constructing and Deconstructing “Constitutional” European Law: Some reflections on how to study the history of European law’, in Koch, Henning, Hagel-Sørensen, Karsten, Haltern, Ulrich and Weiler, Joseph H. H., eds, Europe: The New Legal Realism (Århus: DJØF Publishing, 2010), 639–60, 645.

53 Rapport au Colloque international de droit européen organisé par l'Association belge pour le droit européen, Bruxelles 12–14 Octobre (Brussels: Bruylant, 1962).

54 Note à l'attention de Monsieur Rey, 14 Jan.1961, AMG, Chronos 1961.

55 Compte-rendu de la réunion du bureau de la Fédération internationale pour le droit européen, 13 Jan. 1962 in Paris, ESP, Box 12.

56 See Alexandre Bernier in this special issue with regard to France and Davies, Bill, Resisting the ECJ: West Germany's Confrontation with European Law, 1949–1979 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012) on the German case.

57 Alter, Karen, The European Court's Political Power: Selected Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6392 and Vauchez, Antoine, ‘The Making of the European Union's Constitutional Foundations: The Brokering Role of Legal Entrepreneurs and Networks’, in Kaiser, Wolfram, Leucht, Brigitte and Gehler, Michael, eds, Transnational Networks in Regional Integration: Governing Europe 1945–1983 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 108–28, offer various examples of the activities of FIDE and the national European law associations.

58 For example Robert Lecourt and Roger-Michel Chevallier, ‘Chances et malchances de l'harmonisation des législations européennes’, Recueil Dalloz (1963), 273–81.

59 ‘Les problèmes juridiques. Conférence tenue par M. le Dr. Michel Gaudet. Directeur Général du Service Juridique des Communautés Européennes, 13 juillet 1959’, in La Comunita Economica Europea, Centro internazionale di studi e documentazione sulle Comunità europee, Universitá degli studi di Ferrara. Library of the Court of Justice, Luxembourg.

60 von der Groeben, Hans, The European Community: The Formative Years: The Struggle to Establish the Common Market and the Political Union, 1958–1966 (Brussels: European Communities, 1987), 65 and Gaudet to Lecourt 23 and 25 Nov. 1963, AMG, Chronos 1963.

61 Gaudet, Les problèmes juridiques.

62 Open disagreement broke out between Lagrange and Catalano over the nature of Article 177 in a meeting with Dutch Ministry of Justice officials in June 1959. While Lagrange did not find any need for national courts to use the mechanism much, Catalano recommended the opposite. ‘Procès-verbal de la réunion tenue à La Haye le 11 juin 1959, à 15h30, entre la Cour de Justice des Communautés Européennes et les représentants du Gouvernement Néerlandais’. Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken 1955–64. 913.1.Europa.913.10.Algemeen.19970.

63 Gaudet to Rey, 21 Jan. 1962, AMG, Chronos 1961.

64 Antoine Vauchez was the first to discover these networks. Vauchez, Antoine, ‘The Transnational Politics of Judicialization: Van Gend en Loos and the Making of EU polity’, European Law Journal, 16, 1 (2010), 128, 10–11.

65 Panhuys, Jonkheer H. F., ‘The Netherlands Constitution and International Law: A decade of experience’, The American Journal of International Law, 58, 1 (1964), 88108, 101–6.

66 Hoge Raad 18 May 1962, Robert Bosch GmbH et al. V. De Geus and Uitdenbogerd. Nederlandse Jurisprudentie 1965, no. 114–15, 437–45.

67 National Archive of The Hague, Hoge Raad Archive.2.09.65.Inventory no. 180.

68 Ter Keuile was legal advisor of the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart in Rotterdam.

69 Stibbe was former president of the Amsterdam Bar. He had also been loosely involved in 1959 with the efforts to organise a European umbrella organisation for the European law associations. See ‘Réunion de juristes européens’, undated, HAC.BAC.371/1991.589. He was not a founding member of the NVER. See the list of founding members in Notulen oprichtingsvergardering, Archive of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Europees Recht.

70 ‘Domanda di pronuncia pregiudiziale’, Amsterdam 12 Aug.1962. HAC.BAC.371/1991. The question was not phrased entirely in Dutch constitutional language even if it did touch upon the core issue. Monica Claes and Bruno de Witte, ‘Report on the Netherlands’, in Slaughter et al., The European Courts, 171–94, 178–9.

71 Note à M. Jean Rey, Président du Groupe Juridique et à M. Caron, Président du Groupe du Marché Intérieur. Objet: Observations de la Commission devant la Cour de Justice au sujet des demandes préjudicielles de la ‘Tariefcommissie’ néerlandaise, HAC.BAC.371/1991.620, Affaire 26/62, Mémoire de la Commission de la Communauté Économique Européenne, Bruxelles 7 novembre 1962, HAC.BAC 371/1991, and Questions préjudicielles posées à la Cour de Justice par la ‘Tariefcommissie’ néerlandaise en vertu de l'article 177. Projet de P. V. 204ème réunion Commission. HAC.BAC.371/1991.620.

72 This implied that although not all European legal norms could necessarily be invoked by litigants before national courts (some were too vague, for example, and required further implementation or decision), the norms they expressed could still be used by the courts to interpret a national statute or administrative act or hold them unlawful. Francesca Bignami, ‘Comparative Law and the Rise of the European Court of Justice’, paper presented at the biennial meeting of the European Union Studies Association, Boston, MA, 3–6 Mar. 2011, 27.

73 Gaudet and the Legal Service were not particular clear with regard to which European legal norms should be directly applicable. Gaudet came close to suggesting a full federal model in a preliminary memo on the question of enforcement in April 1962, which would grant all European legal norms direct applicability. The argument that all European legal norms were part of national law on an equal footing from the moment of ratification, which was used in all the memos, potentially implied that they all had direct applicability. Application du droit communautaire dans les états membres, Apr. 1962, AMG, Chronos 1962, and Mémoire de la Commission de la Communauté Économique Européenne, Bruxelles, 7 novembre 1962. HAC.BAC 371/1991.620.

74 Mémoire de la Commission de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Bruxelles, 7 novembre 1962. HAC.BAC.371/1991.620.

75 The Belgian government found that the case concerned the constitutional law of the Netherlands while the Dutch government argued that Article 169 should be used instead of the mechanism of preliminary reference under Article 177 to deal with a potential violation of the EEC Treaty.

76 Stellungnahme der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Mémoire du Gouvernement du Royaume des Pays-Bas and Mémoire de l'Etat Belge. HAC.BAC.371/1991.621.

77 He would later become ECJ judge from 1980 to 1988.

78 Davies, ‘Resisting the ECJ’.

79 Schlussanträge des Generalanwalts Karl Roemer in der Rechtsache 26/62: N. V. Algemene Transport- en Expeditie Onderneming van Gend en Loos, Amsterdam gegen Niederländische Finanzverwaltung. HAC.BAC 371/1991.621.

80 It was in particular the replacement of Rueff with the federalist-inclined Lecourt that shifted the balance inside the ECJ. However, according to oral testimony, Catalano, who certainly would have supported direct effect of Article 12 in the case, and the other Italian judge Rossi were mutually hostile. As a consequence, Rossi would most probably have voted the opposite of Catalano. As we shall see below, Trabucchi managed to secure Rossi's vote in favour of direct effect. Interview Paolo Gori (April 2008, together with Antoine Vauchez).

81 The former attaché of both Catalano and Trabucchi, Paolo Gori did not want to deny or confirm this rumour. Interview Paolo Gori with Antoine Vauchez and this author, April 2008.

82 AJM. C3/22 Robert Lecourt.

83 Debré to de Gaulle, 1 Dec. 1961, and Debré to Lecourt, 1 Mar. 1962, Archives du Centre historique de Sciences Po, Archives of Michel Debré, 2 DE 11. Dossiers de personnes: Lecourt 1961–2.

84 This narrow vote is documented by two independent oral testimonies given to the author by Gori (April 2008) and Pierre Pescatore (Jan. 2007). They agreed that the ruling was favoured by four judges – Alberto Trabucchi (I), Robert Lecourt (F), Rino Rossi (I) and Louis Delvaux (B), while three judges – André Donner, Otto Riese (G) and Charles-Léon Hammers (L) – opposed it. See also Gori, Paolo, ‘Quindici anni insieme ad Alberto Trabucchi alla Corte de Guistizia delle CE’, in La formazione del diritto europeo: Giornata di studio per Alberto Trabucchi nel centenario della nascita (Padua: Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani, 2008), 7183.

85 It is often assumed that Donner supported the Van Gend en Loos ruling. (See, for example, Claes and de Witte, ‘Report’, 171–94). Circumstantial evidence seems to suggest, however, that he might indeed have been opposed to the ruling as the two oral testimonies in the footnote above claim. In the 1950s, Donner had participated in both the Dutch constitutional committees concerned with the introduction of primacy of international law into the Dutch constitution. In both cases he had joined the minority view against the primacy of international law, defending the prerogatives of parliament. (See Karin van Leeuven's article in this special issue with regard to the Van Schaik committee and the Report of the Kranenburg committee: Tweede Kammer, 1955–1956, 4133 (R19) ondernummer 4). See also his critique of a federal approach to European law in Donner, André, The Role of the Lawyer in the European Communities, The Rosenthal Lectures 1966 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1968), 127.

86 The analysis of the reasoning of the majority inside the ECJ below builds on this document. It is reproduced in La formazione, 213–23.

87 Verdross, Alfred, Völkerrecht, 4th edition (Vienna: Springer, 1959), 280.

88 Gaudet to Pescatore, 16 May 1963. AMG, Chronos 1963.

89 In this sense the ruling was not a modern version of the Danzig ruling by the Permanent Court of International Justice from 1926 (Vauchez, ‘Transnational Politics’, 12) nor was it merely a rhetorical change of style as recently suggested by Joseph Weiler (Joseph H. H. Weiler, ‘Rewriting Van Gend and Loos: Towards a Normative Theory of ECJ Hermeneutics’, in Ola Wiklund, ed., Judicial Discretion in European Perspective, The Hague: Kluver Law International, 2003, 150–1.) Instead, the ruling represented a fundamental shift in interpretative strategy by the ECJ.

90 Vauchez, ‘Transnational Politics’ argues that the doctrinal importance of Van Gend en Loos was ‘manufactured’ as revolutionary after the ruling by the investments of various legal actors from the ECJ, the Legal Service and FIDE. The ruling itself, he argues, remained ambiguous and unclear. This article argues on the contrary that Van Gend en Loos constituted a breakthrough for a new teleological methodology and overall interpretation of the nature of European law. If the ruling appeared open-ended this was mainly due to the political restraint of the majority behind the ruling and the evidence suggests that at least with regard to the question of primacy this was considered temporary.

91 Affaire 26/62, Service juridique des exécutifs européens, Bruxelles, le 25 février 1963, Note à l'attention de MM. les membres de la Commission, HAC.BAC 371/1991.

92 Trabucchi, Alberto, ‘Un nuovo diritto’, Rivista di diritto civile, IX (1963), 259–72.

93 Neri, Sergio, ‘Sulla natura giuridica della Comunità europee’, Rivista di diritto internazionale, 47 (1964), 231–65, 235.

94 Donner, André M., ‘National Law and the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities’, Common Market Law Review, 1, 1 (1963), 816, 14.

95 Note à l'attention de M. Jean Rey, Président du Groupe Juridique. Objet: Arrêt de la Cour d'Appel d'Amiens, 18 jul. 1963. AMG, Chronos 1963.

96 Vauchez, ‘Transnational Politics’, 17–18.

97 P. Ruggeri Laderchi, ‘Report on Italy’, in Slaughter et al., The European Courts, 147–70, 157–60.

98 Aufzeichnung für den Herrn Präsidenten. Betr.: Urteil Nr. 14/1964 des Italienischen Verfassungsgerichtshofs; Durchsetzung des Gemeinschaftsrechts in Italien. HAC.BAC 371/1991.759.

99 Walter Hallstein, ‘La Communauté européenne, nouvel ordre juridique’, 1964, Les documents de la Communauté européenne, HAC.CEAB.2.7284, 11.

100 Davanti alla Corte di Giustizia delle Comunità Europee. Memoria dalla Commissione nella causa Avv. Flaminio Costa contro E.N.E.L, già Edisonvolta. HAC.BAC 371/1991. Affaire 6/64.

101 Four days before the ruling at the Bernsheim-Auerbach seminar of the Gesellschaft für Europarecht, Hans Peter Ipsen had criticised Lagrange and favoured exactly the same argument as that adopted by the ECJ. Donner and German judge Walter Strauss were present at the meeting. See Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Europarecht. Teilnehmer am Kolloquium der Wissenchaftlichen Gessellschaft für Europarecht am 10. und 11. Juli 1964 and Das Verhältnis des Rechts der Europäischen Gemeinschaften zum nationalen Recht, 10 Jul. 1964, Archive of Walter Strauss, Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Munich (AWS). Nachlasse ED94, no. 328. Karen Alter seems to imply that a link to the ruling does exist on basis of an interview with Hans Jörg Rabe. See Karen Alter, ‘The European Court's Political Power’, 78.

102 Ole Spiermann, ‘On Law and Policy in the European Court of Justice: Van Gend en Loos and Costa v. ENEL’, in Koch et al., Europe: The New Legal Realism, 715–28, 726.

103 Bignami, ‘Comparative Law’, 13–14.

104 Aff. 6/64 Flaminio Costa v. E.n.e.l (1964), Recueil 1964, p. 1194.

105 Vauchez, ‘Transnational Politics’, 20–1.

106 Cited in Bignami, ‘Comparative Law’, 20–1.

107 Stendardi, Gian Galeazzo, Il soggeto privato nell'orniamento comunitario europeo (Milan: Giuffre, 1967) 109 and 113–16. Cited in Bignami, ‘Comparative Law’, 15.

108 Le juge conciliateur adjoint Fabri Vittorio Emanuele du tribunal de Milan, Nicolino Flaminio Costa contre L'Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica, 1 May 1966. HAC.BAC 371/1991.

109 Europe agence internationale d'information pour la presse. Bulletin quotidiens et suppléments édités. Europe. Documents, no. 269, 1er juillet 1964. HAC.CEAB.2.7284.

110 Hallstein, ‘La Communauté européenne’, 11.

111 Exposé de M. Gaudet devant la Commission juridique, 18 Feb.1965. HAEU, Archive of Fernand Dehousse, 494.

112 Vauchez, ‘Transnational Politics’, 26–7.

113 Ibid., 20–1.

114 On the Costa case, for example, see Ivo Samkalden in Sociaal-economische wetgeving (1964), 489–96, and Nicola Catalano, Il Foro Italiano IV Col. (1964), 152–9.

115 Bulletin de l'Association des juristes européens (1963), 13–14, and AWS. Nachlasse ED94, 328.

116 Deuxième colloque international de droit européen organisé par l'Association Néerlandaise pour le Droit Européen (Zwolle: N. V. Uitgeversmaatsschappij W. E. J. Tjeenk Willink, 1966) and ‘Colloque de la Fédération Internationale pour le Droit européen’, Revue trimestrielle de droit européen, 1 (1965), 618–20.

I would like to thank the two anonymous peer reviewers, Bill Davies, Francesca Bignami, Peter Lindseth, Wolfram Kaiser, Anne Boerger-De Smedt and Piers Ludlow, the CEH editor, for comments that greatly helped improve this article.

Establishing a Constitutional Practice of European Law: The History of the Legal Service of the European Executive, 1952–65

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