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Between the Round Table and the Waiting Room: Scholarship on War and Peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo after the ‘Post-Cold War’

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1 Glaurdić, Josip, The Hour of Europe: Western Powers and the Breakup of Yugoslavia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011), 1 . This review refers to ‘Bosnia-Herzegovina’ as ‘Bosnia’ for ease of reading, though specialist literature would usually still refer to ‘Bosnia-Herzegovina’ or the abbreviation ‘BiH’. Contemporary European History’s dictionary, Chambers, spells ‘peace building’ as two words, although in the context of post-conflict reconciliation and international intervention, ‘peacebuilding’ is now written as one word as standard.

2 Power, Samantha, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide (London: Harper Perennial, 2003), 314 .

3 Daddow, Oliver, ‘“Tony’s War”: Blair, Kosovo and the Interventionist Impulse in British Foreign Policy’, International Affairs 85, 3 (2009), 547560 .

4 For broader studies of the history of humanitarian intervention, see, for example, Bass, Gary, Freedom’s Battle: the Origins of Humanitarian Intervention (New York: Knopf, 2008) ; Fassin, Didier and Pandolfi, Mariella, eds., Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Intervention (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010) ; Barnett, Michael, Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011) ; Simms, Brendan and Trim, D. J. B., eds., Humanitarian Intervention: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) ; Weizman, Eyal, The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza (London: Verso, 2012) ; Klose, Fabian, ed., The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016) .

5 Stokes, Gale, John Lampe and Dennison Rusinow with Julie Mostov, ‘Instant History: Understanding the Wars of Yugoslav Secession’, Slavic Review 55, 1 (1996), 136160 .

6 See, for example, Pickering, Paula M., Peacebuilding in the Balkans: The View from the Ground Floor (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007) .

7 See, for example, Simms, Brendan, Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia (London: Allen Lane, 2001) ; Coles, Kimberley, Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral Practices in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2007) .

8 Stephen Saideman, ‘Beware of Officers Carrying Reading Lists’, Saideman’s Semi-Spew, 18 Apr. 2011, https://saideman.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/beware-of-officers-carrying-reading.html?m=0 (last accessed 24 May 2017).

9 Hayden, Robert M., From Yugoslavia to the Western Balkans: Studies of a European Disunion, 1991–2011 (Leiden: Brill, 2013) ; Donia, Robert J., Radovan Karadžić: Architect of the Bosnian Genocide (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015) .

10 Donia, Karadžić, 2–6. The ICTY is hereafter ‘the Tribunal’, though specialist literature is more likely to use the acronym.

11 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, 223. Hayden’s role was to offer testimony on the question of whether the Bosnian war had been a national or international conflict.

12 Ibid., 117, 140–1.

13 Ibid., 241.

14 See Bećirević, Edina, Genocide on the Drina River (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014) .

15 Donia, Karadžić, 18.

16 Hayden writes: ‘that mass slaughter may have put, finally, some accuracy into the charges of “genocide” that had been made since the very start of the conflict, thus turning “genocide” from politically-inspired label to self-fulfilling prophecy’, in From Yugoslavia, 141.

17 Axboe Nielsen, Christian, ‘Surmounting the Myopic Focus on Genocide: The Case of the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Journal of Genocide Research 15, 1 (2013), 2139 , 21.

18 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, 387.

19 See Koenker, Diane P., ed., ‘Discussion: “Schindler’s Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers”’, Slavic Review 55, 4 (1996), 727778 , especially Hayden’s original article and the most critical response by Carol Lilly.

20 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, xii.

21 See, for example, Lilly, Carol S., ‘Amoral Realism or Immoral Obfuscation?’, Slavic Review 55, 4 (1996), 749754 ; Cushman, Thomas, ‘Anthropology and Genocide in the Balkans: An Analysis of Conceptual Practices of Power’, Anthropological Theory 4, 1 (2004), 528 ; Ramet, Sabrina P., Thinking About Yugoslavia: Scholarly Debates about the Yugoslav Breakup and the Wars in Bosnia and Kosovo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) .

22 See, for example, Andjelić, Neven, Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy (London: Frank Cass, 2003) ; Mišina, Dalibor, Shake, Rattle and Roll: Yugoslav Rock Music and the Poetics of Social Critique (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013) ; Spaskovska, Ljubica, The Last Yugoslav Generation: The Rethinking of Youth Politics and Cultures in Late Socialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017) .

23 Kurspahić, Kemal, Prime Time Crime: Balkan Media in War and Peace (Washington DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 2003), 99 ; Hayden, From Yugoslavia, xvii.

24 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, 77–8.

25 Donia, Karadžić, 250.

26 Ibid., 17.

27 Andjelić, Bosnia-Herzegovina; Marko Attila Hoare, How Bosnia Armed (London: Saqi, 2004).

28 Gow, James, The Serbian Project and its Adversaries: A Strategy of War Crimes (London: Hurst, 2003) ; Ashby Wilson, Richard, Writing History in International Criminal Trials (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) .

29 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, 215.

30 On Bosnia in this vein, see David Chandler, Bosnia: Faking Democracy after Dayton, 2nd ed. (London: Pluto, 1999).

31 See Mac Ginty, Roger and Richmond, Oliver, ‘The Local Turn in Peace Building: A Critical Agenda for Peace’, Third World Quarterly 34, 5 (2013), 763783 ; Hughes, Caroline, Öjendal, Joakim and Schierenbeck, Isabell, eds., ‘The “Local Turn” in Peacebuilding: The Liberal Peace Challenged’, special issue of Third World Quarterly, 36, 5 (2015) .

32 See Mac Ginty, Roger, International Peacebuilding and Local Resistance: Hybrid Forms of Peace (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) ; Mac Ginty, Roger, ‘Everyday Peace: Bottom-Up and Local Agency in Conflict-Affected Societies’, Security Dialogue 45, 6 (2014), 548564 ; McLeod, Laura, ‘A Feminist Approach to Hybridity: Understanding Local and International Interactions in Producing Post-Conflict Gender Security’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9, 1 (2015), 4869 ; Mac Ginty, Roger and Richmond, Oliver, ‘The Fallacy of Constructing Hybrid Political Orders: A Reappraisal of the Hybrid Turn in Peacebuilding’, International Peacekeeping 23, 2 (2016), 219239 .

33 Mac Ginty, International Peacebuilding, contains chapters on Afghanistan, Iraq, Bosnia, Lebanon and Northern Ireland. Bosnia represents a case of ‘hybrid statebuilding’ (134), where the legacies of wartime and pre-war (socialist Yugoslav) state building projects can be said to have hybridised with peacebuilders’ intentions for Bosnia at Dayton.

34 Autesserre, Séverine, Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) .

35 Skendaj, Elton, Creating Kosovo: International Oversight and the Making of Ethical Institutions (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014) ; Visoka, Gëzim, Peace Figuration after International Intervention: Intentions, Events and Consequences of Liberal Peacebuilding (London and New York: Routledge, 2016) .

36 See Donais, Timothy, Peacebuilding and Local Ownership: Post-Conflict Consensus-Building (London and New York: Routledge, 2012) , which contains case studies of Bosnia (as ‘ownership by imposition?’), Afghanistan and Haiti; Paris, Roland, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) , which used the September 1996 national elections in Bosnia (less than a year after Dayton) as one of its main case studies to argue that early ‘local’ control of state institutions weakened rather than strengthened peacebuilding.

37 Skendaj, Creating Kosovo, 41.

38 Ibid., 49.

39 Moore, Adam, Peacebuilding in Practice: Local Experience in Two Bosnian Towns (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013) .

40 Hromadžić, Azra, Citizens of an Empty Nation: Youth and State-Making in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015) .

41 See also, e.g., Grodach, Carl, ‘Reconstituting Identity and History in Post-War Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina’, City 6, 1 (2002), 6182 ; Vetters, Larissa, ‘The Power of Administrative Categories: Emerging Notions of Citizenship in the Divided City of Mostar’, Ethnopolitics 6, 2 (2007), 187209 ; Mills, Richard, ‘Velež Mostar Football Club and the Demise of “Brotherhood and Unity” in Yugoslavia, 1922–2009’, Europe–Asia Studies 62, 7 (2010), 11071133 ; Björkdahl, Annika and Gusić, Ivan, ‘Sites of Friction: Governance, Identity and Space in Mostar’, in Annika Björkdahl, Kristine Höglund, Gearoid Millar, Jaïr van der Lijn and Willemijn Verkoren, eds., Peacebuilding and Friction: Global and Local Encounters in Post-Conflict Societies (London and New York: Routledge, 2016), 84102 ; Djurasović, Aleksandra, Ideology, Political Transitions and the City: The Case of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (London and New York: Routledge, 2016) ; Palmberger, Monika, How Generations Remember: Conflicting Histories and Shared Memories in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) ; Connor, Andrea, The Political Afterlife of Sites of Monumental Destruction: Reconstructing Affect in Mostar and New York (London and New York: Routledge, 2017) . Bieber, Florian, ‘Local Institutional Engineering: A Tale of Two Cities, Mostar and Brčko’, International Peacekeeping 12, 3 (2005), 420433 , had previously recognised the comparative potential of Brčko and Mostar and reached conclusions that would be borne out, after eight more years of contentious politics, by Moore’s research.

42 See, for example, Jeffrey, Alex, ‘Building State Capacity in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina: The case of Brčko District’, Political Geography 25, 2 (2006), 203227 ; Dahlman, Carl and Tuathail, Gearóid Ó, ‘Bosnia’s Third Space?: Nationalist Separatism and International Supervision in Bosnia’s Brčko District’, Geopolitics 11, 4 (2006), 651675 ; Natalya Clark, Janine, ‘Bosnia’s Success Story?: Brčko District and the “View from Below”’, International Peacekeeping 17, 1 (2010), 6779 , argues based on interviews with ten residents of Brčko in 2009 that the institutional ‘success’ of peacebuilding had not in itself produced the bonds of everyday inter-ethnic trust that one might have expected to find in a less ‘thin’, socially meaningful reconciliation (73).

43 See, e.g., Armakolas, Ioannis, ‘The “Paradox” of Tuzla City: Explaining Non-Nationalist Local Politics During the Bosnian War’, Europe–Asia Studies 63, 2 (2011), 229261 .

44 Moore, Peacebuilding in Practice, 6.

45 Ibid., 144–5.

46 Ibid., 156–7.

47 Ibid., 83.

48 Autesserre, Peaceland, 118.

49 Andrew Gilbert, ‘Foreign Authority and the Politics of Impartiality in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina’, PhD thesis, University of Chicago, 2008; Autesserre, Peaceland, 118.

50 Footitt, Hilary and Kelly, Michael, eds., Languages at War: Policies and Practices of Language Contacts in Conflict (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012) .

51 Jones, Ian P. and Askew, Louise, Meeting the Language Challenges of NATO Operations: Policy, Practice and Professionalisation (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 2 .

52 Jones and Askew, Meeting the Language Challenges, 23.

53 Ibid., 45.

54 Ibid., 57, 75.

55 Ibid., 80.

56 Jansen, Stef, Brković, Čarna and Čelebičić, Vanja, eds., Negotiating Social Relations in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Semiperipheral Entanglements (London and New York: Routledge, 2017) .

57 Cécile Jouhanneau, ‘The Discretion of Witnesses: War Camp Memories Between Politicisation and Civility’, in Jansen, Brković and Čelebičić, eds., Negotiating Social Relations, 31–45; Karla Koutková, ‘“The King is Naked”: Internationality, Informality and ko fol State-Building’, in Jansen, Brković and Čelebičić, eds., Negotiating Social Relations, 109–21.

58 Bougarel, Xavier, Duijzings, Ger and Helms, Elissa, eds., The New Bosnian Mosaic: Identities, Memories, and Moral Claims in a Post-War Society (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007) ; Jansen, Brković and Čelebičić, ‘Introduction’, 10.

59 Jansen, Brković and Čelebičić, ‘Introduction’, 10.

60 Ibid., 11–15.

61 Ibid., 16.

62 Ibid., 17.

63 Hayden, From Yugoslavia, 343–4.

64 See Jansen, Stef, Yearnings in the Meantime: ‘Normal Lives’ and the State in a Sarajevo Apartment Complex (New York: Berghahn, 2015) .

65 Jansen, Stef, ‘The Privatisation of Home and Hope: Return, Reforms and the Foreign Intervention in Bosnia-Herzegovina’, Dialectical Anthropology 30, 3–4 (2006), 177199 ; Jansen, Stef, Yearnings in the Meantime: ‘Normal Lives’ and the State in a Sarajevo Apartment Complex (New York: Berghahn, 2015) .

66 See Majstorović, Danijela, Vučkovac, Zoran and Pepić, Anđela, ‘From Dayton to Brussels via Tuzla: post-2014 Economic Restructuring as Europeanization Discourse/Practice in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 15, 4 (2015), 661682 .

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Contemporary European History
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