Skip to main content Accessibility help

Sex, Death, and Aristocratic Empire: Iranian Jurisprudence in Late Antiquity

  • Richard E. Payne (a1)


In the Iranian Empire (226–636 CE), jurists drawn from the ranks of the Zoroastrian priestly elite developed a complex of institutions designed to guarantee the reproduction of aristocratic males as long as the empire endured. To overcome the high rate of mortality characteristic of preindustrial demographic regimes, they aimed to maximize the fertility rate without compromising their endogamous ideals through the institutions of reproductive coercion, temporary marriage, and “substitute-successorship.” Occupying a position between the varieties of monogamy and polygyny hitherto practiced in the Ancient Near East, the Iranian organization of sex enabled elites not only to reproduce their patrilineages reliably across multiple generations, but also to achieve an appropriate ratio of resources to number of offspring. As the backbone of this juridical architecture, the imperial court became the anchor of aristocratic power, and ruling and aristocratic dynasties became increasingly intertwined and interdependent, forming the patrilineal networks of the “Iranians”—the agents and beneficiaries of Iranian imperialism. The empire's aristocratic structure took shape through a sexual economy: the court created and circulated sexual and reproductive incentives that incorporated elite males into its network that was, thanks to its politically enhanced inclusive fitness, reliable and reproducible. In demonstrating the centrality of Zoroastrian cosmology to the construction and operation of the relevant juridical institutions, I seek to join the approaches of evolutionary biology and cultural anthropology to reproduction that have been pursued in opposition, to account for the historical role of sex in the consolidation of the Iranian Empire.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Ayādgār ī Zarēr. 1981. In Monchi-Zadeh, Davoud, ed. and trans., Die Geschichte Zarēr's. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
The Book of a Thousand Judgments (A Sasanian Law-Book). 1997. Perikhanian, Anahit, trans. Mesa: Mazda Publishers.
Bundahišn. 1956. In Anklesaria, Behramgore Tehmuras, ed. and trans., Zand-Ākāsīh: Iranian or Greater Bundahišn. Bombay: Rahnumae Mazdayasnan Sabah.
Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite. 1882. In Wright, W., ed., The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite. Cambridge: Cameron University Press.
Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite. 2000. Trombley, Frank R. and Watt, John W., trans. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Chronicle of Seert. 1911. In Scher, Addaï, ed. and trans., Histoire nestorienne (Chronique de Séert), v. 1: 1. Paris: Firmin-Didot.
Dēnkard III. 1911. In Madan, Dhanjishnah Meherjibhai, ed., The Complete Text of the Pahlavi Dinkard. Bombay: Ganpatrao Ramajirao Sindhe, 1407.
Dēnkard III. 1973. In de Menasce, Jean, trans., Le troisiéme livre du Dēnkart. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.
Dēnkard V. 2000. In Amouzgar, Jaleh and Tafazzoli, Ahmad, eds. and trans., Le cinquième livre du Dēnkard: Transciption, traduction et commentaire. Paris: Association pour l'Advancement des Études Iraniennes.
Firdawsī, Šāhnāme. 1987–2008. Volumes 1–8. Khaleghi-Motlagh, Jalal, ed. New York: Bibliotheca Persica.
Hazār Dādestān (MHDA). 1981. In Macuch, Maria, ed. and trans., Das Sasanidische Rechtsbuch “Mātakdān I Hazār Dātistān” (Teil II). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Hazār Dādestān (MHD). 1993. In Macuch, Maria, ed. and trans., Rechtskasuistik und Gerichtspraxis zu Beginn des siebenten Jahrhunderts in Iran: Die Rechtsammlung des Farroḫmard I Wahrāmān. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Hērbedestān. 1992. In Kotwal, Firoze M. and Kreyenbroek, Philip G., eds. and trans., The Hērbedestān and the Nērangestān, Volume I: Hērbedestān. Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniens.
Husraw ī Kawādān ud Rēdag-ē. 2013. In Azarnouche, Samra, ed. and trans., Husraw ī Kawādān ud Rēdag-ē: Khosrow fils de Kawād et un page. Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniens.
Kirdir, . 1991. Inscription at Ka‘aba-ye Zardosht. In Gignoux, Philippe, ed. and trans., Les quatre inscriptions du mage Kirdir: Textes et concordances. Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniennes.
Łazar P‘arpec‘i, Patmut‘iwn Hayoc.’ 1904. In Ter-Mkrtchean, G., ed., Patmut‘iwn Hayoc‘. Tbilisi: Tparan Ōr.N. Aghaneani.
Letter of Tansar. 1932. In Minovi, Mojtaba, ed., Nāmah-e Tansar bih Jushnasf. Tehran: Matbaʿah-I Majlis.
Letter of Tansar. 1968. Boyce, Mary, trans. Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Media ed Estremo Oriente.
Daskhurants‘i, Movses. 1961. Patmut‘iwn Ałuanits‘. In Dowsett, C.J.F., trans., The History of the Caucasian Albanians. London: Oxford University Press.
Daskhurants‘i, Movses. 1983. Patmut‘iwn Ałuanits‘. In Arakelyan, V., ed., Patmut‘iwn Ałuanits’ Ashkharhi. Yerevan: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk Armyanskoi SSR.
Pahlavi Rivāyat. 1990. In Williams, A. V., ed. and trans., Pahlavi Rivāyat Accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Patmut‘iwn Sebeosi. 1979. Abgaryan, G. A., ed. Yerevan: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk Armyanskoi SSR.
Patmut‘iwn Sebeosi. 1999. In Thomson, Robert W., trans., The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Patmut‘iwn srboyn Nersisi. 1853. In anon., ed., Sop‘erk’ Haykakank‘, vol. VI. Venice: I Tparani Mkhitareanc‘, 9–147.
Patmut‘iwn srboyn Nersisi. 1869. Jean-Raphael Emine translation in “Généalogie de la famille de saint Grégoire,” in Langlois, Victor, ed., Collection des historiens anciens et modernes de l'Arménie, vol. II. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 21–41.
Procopius, Wars, Volume I. 1914. Dewing, H. B., ed. and trans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Šāyest-nē-šāyest. 1990. In Mazdapur, Katiyun, ed. and trans., Šāyast na-šāyast: Matnī be zabān-e Pārsi-ye miyāne. Tehran: Mu'assasah-ye Muṭāla‘āt ve Taḥqīqāt-e Farhangī.
Al-Ṭabarī, . 1964–1965. Ta'rikh al-rusul wa al-mulūk. In Goeje, M. De, ed., Annales, quos scripsit Abu Djafar Mohammed ibn Djarir at-Tabari. Leiden: Brill.
Al-Ṭabarī, . 1999. Ta'rikh al-rusul wa al-mulūk. In Bosworth, C. E., trans., The History of al- Ṭabarī, Volume V: The Sāsānids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Widēwdād. 2014. In Moazami, Mahnaz, ed. and trans., Wrestling with the Demons of the Pahlavi Widēwdād: Transcription, Translation, and Commentary. Leiden: Brill.
Wizīdagīhā ī Zādspram. 1993. In Gignoux, Philippe and Tafazzoli, Ahmad, eds., Anthologie de Zādspram: Édition critique du texte pehlevi traduit et commenté. Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Études Iraniennes.
Arriaza, Bernardo, Allison, Marvin, and Gerszten, Enrique. 1988. Maternal Mortality in Pre-Columbian Indians of Arica, Chile. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77: 3541.
Bagnall, Roger S. and Frier, Bruce W.. 1994. The Demography of Roman Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Betzig, Laura L. 1986. Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History. New York: Aldine.
Betzig, Laura L. 1993. Sex, Succession, and Stratification in the First Six Civilizations: How Powerful Men Reproduced, Passed Power on to Their Sons, and Used Power to Defend Their Wealth, Women, and Children. In Ellis, Lee, ed., Social Stratification and Socioeconomic Inequality, Volume 1: A Comparative Biosocial Analysis. Westport: Praeger, 3774.
Biggs, Robert D. 2000. Conception, Contraception, and Abortion in Ancient Mesopotamia. In George, A. R. and Finkel, I. L., eds., Wisdom, Gods and Literature: Studies in Assyriology in Honor of W. G. Lambert. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 113.
Bigwood, Joan M. 2004. Queen Mousa, Mother and Wife (?) of King Phraatakes of Parthia: A Reevaluation of the Evidence. Mouseion 4: 3570.
Bigwood, Joan M. 2009. ‘Incestuous’ Marriage in Achaemenid Iran: Myths and Realities. Klio 91: 311–41.
Bogin, Barry. 2001. The Growth of Humanity. New York: Wiley-Liss.
Boix, Carles and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2014. Bones of Contention: The Political Economy of Height Inequality. American Political Science Review 108: 122.
Briant, Pierre. 1987. Pouvoir central et polycentrisme culturel dans l'empire achemenide: Quelques réflexions et suggestions. Achaemenid History 1: 131.
Canepa, Matthew P. 2013. Building a New Vision of the Past in the Sasanian Empire: The Sanctuaries of Kayānsīh and Great Fires of Iran. Journal of Persianate Studies 6: 6490.
Casella, Eleanor Conlin and Voss, Barbara L.. 2012. Intimate Encounters: An Archaeology of Sexualities within Colonial Worlds. In Voss, Barbara L. and Casella, Eleanor Conlin, eds., The Archaeology of Colonialism: Intimate Encounters and Sexual Effects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 110.
Crone, Patricia. 1991. Kavad's Heresy and Mazdak's Revolt. Iran 29: 2142.
Crone, Patricia. 1994. Zoroastrian Communism. Comparative Studies in Society and History 36: 447–62.
Crone, Patricia. 2012. The Nativist Prophets of Early Islamic Iran: Rural Revolt and Local Zoroastrianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Daryaee, Touraj. 2010. The Idea of Ērānšahr: Jewish, Christian, and Manichaean Views in Late Antiquity. In Cereti, Carlo G., ed., Iranian Identity in the Course of History: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Rome, 21–24 September 2005. Rome: Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 91108.
Diamond, Lisa. 2009. Sexual Fluidity: Understanding Women's Love and Desire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Elman, Yaakov. 2003. Marriage and Marital Property in Rabbinic and Sasanian Law. In Heszer, Catherine, ed., Rabbinic Law in Its Roman and Near Eastern Context. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck: 227–76.
Elman, Yaakov. 2013. Law in the Crisis of Empire: A Sasanian Example. Journal of Persianate Studies 6: 101–14.
Fortunato, Laura. 2011. Reconstructing the History of Marriage Strategies and Indo-European Speaking Societies: Monogamy and Polygyny. Human Biology 83: 87105.
Fortunato, Laura and Archetti, Marco. 2010. Evolution of Monogamous Marriage by Maximization of Inclusive Fitness. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 149–56.
Galinsky, Karl. 1981. Augustus’ Legislation on Morals and Marriage. Philologus 125: 126–44.
von Gall, Hubertus. 1990. Das Reiterkampfbild in der iranischen und iranisch beeinflussten Kunst deer parthischer und sasanidischer Zeit. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag.
Gibson, Kathleen R. 2005. Epigenesis, Brain Plasticity, and Behavioral Versatility: Alternatives to Standard Evolutionary Psychology Models. In McKinnon, Susan and Silverman, Sydel, eds., Complexities: Beyond Nature and Nurture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2342.
Gignoux, Philip. 2012. Une archive post-sassanide du Tabaristān (I). In Gyselen, Rika, ed., Objets et documents inscrits en pārsīg. Bures-sur-Yvette: Groupe pour l'Etude de la Civilisation du Moyen-Orient, 2996.
Gilchrist, Roberta. 2009. Sex and Gender. In Gosden, Chris, Cunliffe, Barry, and Joyce, Rosemary A., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1029–47.
Gnoli, Gheradro. 1989. The Idea of Iran: An Essay on Its Origin. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.
Godelier, Maurice. 2011. The Metamorphoses of Kinship. London: Verso.
Graham, Wendy, et al. 2010. The Geography of Maternal Death. In Kehoe, Sean, Neilsen, James, and Norman, Jane, eds., Maternal and Infant Deaths: Chasing Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 328.
Gyselen, Rika. 2007. Sasanian Seals and Sealings in the A. Saeedi Collection. Louvain: Peeters.
Gyselen, Rika. 2009. Primary Sources and Historiography of the Sasanian Empire. Studia Iranica 38: 163–90.
Haldon, John. 1993. The State and the Tributary Mode of Production. London: Verso.
Harper, Kyle. 2013. Culture, Nature, and History: The Case of Ancient Sexuality. Comparative Studies in Society and History 55: 9861016.
Harper, Kyle. 2014. The Sentimental Family: A Biohistorical Perspective. American Historical Review 119: 1547–62.
Heinrich, Joseph, Boyd, Robert, and Richerson, Peter J.. 2012. The Puzzle of Monogamous Marriage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 367: 657–69.
Herlihy, David. 1995. Biology and History: The Triumph of Monogamy. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 25: 571–83.
Hjerrild, Bodil. 2003. Studies in Zoroastrian Family Law: A Comparative Analysis. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Hjerrild, Bodil. 2006. Succession and Kinship in the Late Sasanian Era. In Panaino, Antonio and Piras, Andrea, eds., Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the Societas Iranologica Europaea, Volume I: Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies. Milan: Mimesis: 479–84.
Hjerrild, Bodil. 2007. Some Aspects of the Institution of Stūrīh. In Vahman, Fereydun and Pedersen, Claus V., eds., Religious Texts in Iranian Languages: Symposium Held in Copenhagen May 2002. Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 165–74.
Hopkins, Keith. 1983. Death and Renewal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Howard-Johnston, James. 2012. The Late Sasanian Army. In Bernheimer, Teresa and Silverstein, Adam, eds., Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives. Oxford: Gibb Memorial Trust, 87127.
Hübner, Sabine. 2007. ‘Brother-Sister Marriage’ in Roman Egypt: A Curiosity of Humankind or a Widespread Family Strategy? Journal of Roman Studies 97: 2148.
Hübner, Sabine. 2011. Household Composition in the Ancient Mediterranean—What Do We Really Know? In Rawson, Beryl, ed., A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 108–15.
Huijs, Joost. 2014. Images of Parthian Queens. In Marti, Lionel, ed., La famille dans le Proche-Orient ancien: réalités, symbolismes, et images. Wynona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 605–42.
Jany, János. 2006. The Jurisprudence of the Sasanian Sages. Journal Asiatique 294: 291323.
de Jong, Albert. 1997. Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature. Leiden: Brill.
Komlos, John. 2009. Anthropometric History: An Overview of a Quarter Century of Research. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 67: 341–56.
König, Götz. 2010. Geschlechtsmoral und Gleichgeschlechtlichkeit im Zoroastrismus. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010.
Lee, A. D. 1988. Close-Kin Marriage in the Late Antique Mesopotamia. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 29: 403–13.
Lee, A. D. 2013. Roman Warfare with Sasanian Persia. In Campbell, Brian and Tritle, Lawrence A., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 708–25.
Lincoln, Bruce. 2010. Human Unity and Diversity in Zoroastrian Mythology. History of Religions 50: 720.
Littleton, Judith. 1998. Skeletons and Social Composition: Bahrain 300 BC–AD 250. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Littleton, Judith. 2011. Moving from the Canary in the Coalmine: Modeling Childhood in Bahrain. In Agarwal, Sabrina C. and Glencross, Bonnie A., eds., Social Bioarchaeology. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 361–89.
Lukonin, Vladimir. 1969. Kultura Sasanidskovo Iran, Volumes III–V vv.: Ocherki po Istorii Kulturi. Moscow: Nauka.
Maat, G.J.R. 2005. Two Millennia of Male Statue Development and Population Health and Wealth in the Low Countries. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 15: 276–90.
Mace, Ruth. 2007. The Evolutionary Ecology of Human Family Size. In Dunbar, R.I.M. and Barrett, Louise, eds., Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 383–96.
Macuch, Maria. 1981. Das Sasanidische Rechtsbuch, Mātakdān i Hazār Dātistān (Teil II). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Macuch, Maria. 1985. Die Zeitehe im sasanidischen Recht—ein Vorläufer der šī‘itischen mut‘a-Ehe in Iran? Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 18: 187203.
Macuch, Maria. 1991. Inzest im vorislamischen Iran. Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 24: 141–54.
Macuch, Maria. 1993. Rechtskasuistik und Gerichtspraxis zu Beginn des siebenten Jahrhunderts in Iran: Die Rechtsammlung des Farroḫmard i Wahrāmān. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Macuch, Maria. 1995. Herrschaftskonsolidierung und sasanidische Familienrecht: zum Verhältnis von Kirche und Staat unter den Sasaniden. In Reck, Christiane and Zieme, Peter, eds., Iran und Turfan: Beiträge Berliner Wissenschaftler, Werner Sundermann zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 149–67.
Macuch, Maria. 2005. Language and Law: Linguistic Peculiarities in Sasanian Jurisprudence. In Weber, Dieter, ed., Languages of Iran: Past and Present—Iranian Studies in Memoriam David Neil Mackenzie. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 95108.
Macuch, Maria. 2006. The Function of Temporary Marriage in the Context of Sasanian Family Law. In Panaino, Antonion and Piras, Andrea, eds., Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the Societas Iranologica Europaea, Volume I: Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies. Milan: Mimesis, 585–97.
Macuch, Maria. 2008. Zur juristischen Terminologie der Berliner Pahlavi-Dokumente. In Weber, Dieter, ed., Berliner Pahlavi-Dokumente: Zeugnisse spätsassanidischer Brief-und Rechtskultur aus frühislamischer Zeit. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 249–66.
Macuch, Maria. 2009. Pahlavi Literature. In Emmerick, Ronald E. and Macuch, Maria, eds., The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran: Companion Volume I to A History of Persian Literature. London: I. B. Tauris, 116–96.
Macuch, Maria. 2010. Incestuous Marriage in the Context of Sasanian Family Law. In Macuch, Maria, Weber, Dieter, and Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond, eds., Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies: Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference of Iranian Studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 133–48.
Mardirossian, Aram. 2004. Le livre des canons arméniens (Kanonagirkc Hayocc) de Yovhannēs Awjnecʿi: Église, droit, et société en Arménie du IVe au VIIIe siècle. Louvain: Peeters.
McDonough, Scott. 2011. The Legs of the Throne: Kings, Elites, and Subjects in Sassanian Iran. In Arnason, Johann P. and Raaflaub, Kurt A., eds., The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 290321.
Melville, Sarah C. 2004. Neo-Assyrian Royal Women and Male Identity: Status as a Social Tool. Journal of the American Oriental Society 124: 3757.
Nikonorov, Valery P. K. 2005. Voprosu o Parfyanskom Nasledii v Sasanidskom Irane: Voennoe Delo. In Nikonorov, Valery P. K., ed., Tsentralnaya Aziya ot Akhemenidov do Timuridov: Arkheologiya, Istoriya, Etnologiya, Kultura. St. Petersburg: Institut Istorii Materialnoi Kulturi, 141–79.
Ogden, Daniel. 1999. Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death: The Hellenistic Dynasties. London: Duckworth.
Parpola, Simo. 2012. The Neo-Assyrian Royal Harem. In Lanfranchi, Giovanni B., et al. , eds., Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 613–26.
Payne, Richard. 2013. Cosmology and the Expansion of the Iranian Empire, 502–628 CE. Past and Present 220: 333.
Payne, Richard. 2015a. A State of Mixture: Christians, Zoroastrians, and Iranian Political Culture in Late Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Payne, Richard. 2015b. East Syrian Bishops, Elite Households, and Iranian Law after the Muslim Conquest. Iranian Studies 48: 532.
Payne, Richard. 2015c. The Reinvention of Iran: The Sasanian Empire and the Huns. In Maas, Michael, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 282–99.
Payne, Richard. n.d. (forthcoming 2016). Territorializing Iran: Autocracy, Aristocracy, and the Geographical Infrastructure of Empire in Late Antiquity. In Ando, Clifford and Richardson, Seth, eds., Infrastructural and Despotic Power in Ancient States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Perikhanian, Anahit. 1983. Obshchestvo i Pravo Irana v Parfyanskii i Sasanidskii Periodi. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Nauka.
Pomeroy, Emma, et al. 2015. Relationships of Maternal and Paternal Anthropometry with Neonatal Body Size, Proportions and Adiposity in an Australian Cohort. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156: 625–36.
Pourshariati, Parvaneh. 2008. Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London: I. B. Tauris.
Rogers, Lesley. 2001. Sexing the Brain. New York: Columbia University Press.
Roth, Martha. 1987. Age at Marriage and the Household: A Study of Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Forms. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29: 715–47.
Rowlandson, Jane and Takahashi, Ryosuke. 2009. Brother Sister Marriage and Inheritance Strategies in Greco-Roman Egypt. Journal of Roman Studies 99: 104–39.
Rubin, Zeev. 2000. The Sassanid Monarchy. In Cameron, Averil, et al. , eds., Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 14, Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 638–61.
Rubin, Zeev. 2004. Nobility, Monarchy and Legitimation under the Later Sasanians. In Haldon, John and Conrad, Lawrence I., eds., The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, Volume VI, Elites Old and New in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East. Princeton: Darwin Press, 235–73.
Saller, Richard. 1994. Patriarchy, Property, and Death in the Roman Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scheidel, Walter. 1999. Emperors, Aristocrats, and the Grim Reaper: Toward a Demographic Profile of the Roman Élite. Classical Quarterly 49: 254–81.
Scheidel, Walter. 2001. Progress and Problems in Roman Demography. In Scheidel, Walter, ed., Debating Roman Demography. Leiden: Brill, 181.
Scheidel, Walter. 2004. Demographic and Economic Development in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 160: 743–57.
Scheidel, Walter. 2007. Roman Funerary Commemoration and the Age at First Marriage. Classical Philology 102: 389402.
Scheidel, Walter. 2009a. Sex and Empire: A Darwinian Perspective. In Morris, Ian and Scheidel, Walter, eds., The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 255324.
Scheidel, Walter. 2009b. A Peculiar Institution? Greco-Roman Monogamy in Global Context. History of the Family 14: 280–91.
Scheidel, Walter. 2011. Monogamy and Polygyny. In Rawson, Beryl, ed., A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 108–15.
Shaked, Shaul. 1990. Administrative Functions of Priests in the Sasanian Period. In Gnoli, Gherardo and Panaino, Antonio, eds., Proceedings of the First European Conference of Iranian Studies, Part I, Old and Middle Iranian Studies. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 261–73.
Shaked, Shaul. 2008. Religion in the Late Sasanian Period: Eran, Aneran, and other Religious Designations. In Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh and Stewart, Sarah, eds., The Sasanian Era: The Idea of Iran Volume III. London: I. B. Tauris, 103–17.
Shaked, Shaul. 2010. Human Identity and Classes of People in the Pahlavi Books. In Cereti, Carlo G., ed., Iranian Identity in the Course of History: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Rome, 21–24 September 2005. Rome: Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 331–45.
Shaw, Brent D. 1987. The Age of Roman Girls and Marriage: Some Reconsiderations. Journal of Roman Studies 77: 3046.
Silk, Jonathan. 2008. Putative Persian Perversities: Buddhist Condemnations of Zoroastrian Close-Kin Marriage in Context. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 71: 433–64.
Simpson, St. John and Molleson, Theya. 2014. Old Bones Overturned: New Evidence for Funerary Practices from the Sasanian Empire. In Fletcher, A., Antoine, D., and Hill, J. D., eds., Regarding the Dead: Human Remains in the British Museum. London: British Museum Press, 7790.
Sohn, Peter. 1996. Die Medizin des Zādsparam: Anatomie, Physiologie und Psychologie in den Wizīdagīhā ī Zādsparam, einer zoroastrisch-mittelpersischen Anthologie aus dem frühislamischen Iran des neunten Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Steckel, Richard H. 1995. Stature and the Standard of Living. Journal of Economic Literature 33: 1903–40.
Steckel, Richard H. 2004. New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: The Remarkably Tall Stature of Northern European Men during the Medieval Era. Social Science History 28: 211–28.
Steckel, Richard H. and Prince, Joseph M.. 2001. Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century. American Economic Review 91: 287–94.
Traina, Giusto. 2012. L'empire chrétien et l'inceste oriental. In Badel, Christophe and Settipani, Christian, eds., Les stratégies familiales dans l'antiquité tardive. Paris: De Boccard, 167–79.
Voss, Barbara L. 2008a. Domesticating Imperialism: Sexual Politics and the Archaeology of Empire. American Anthropologist 110: 191203.
Voss, Barbara L. 2008b. Sexuality Studies in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 37, 317–36.
Walker, Joel. 2006. The Legend of Mar Qardagh: Narrative and Christian Heroism in Late Antique Iraq. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 1981. Family and Inheritance in the Augustan Marriage Laws. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 27: 5880.
Widengren, Geo. 1967. Der Feudalismus im alten Iran: Männerbund, Gefolgswesen, Feudalismus in der iranischen Gesellschaft im Hinblick auf die indogermanischen Verhältnisse. Cologne and Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Wiesehöfer, Josef. 2010. The Late Sasanian Near East. In Robinson, Chase, ed., The New Cambridge History of Islam, Volume I: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 98152.
Wittke, Anne-Maria. 2010. Exogamie, Hypergamie, Polygamie: Heiraten in Zeugnissen des frühen 1. Jahrtausends v. Chr. zu Kleinasien. In Rollinger, Robert, et al. , eds., Interkulturalität in der alten Welt: Vorderasien, Hellas, Ägypten und die vielfältigen Ebenen des Kontakts. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 451–69.
Xue, Yali et al. 2003. The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols. American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 717–21.

Sex, Death, and Aristocratic Empire: Iranian Jurisprudence in Late Antiquity

  • Richard E. Payne (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed