Skip to main content Accessibility help

Measuring Marriage by Estate and Class: A Debate

  • Patricia Seed (a1), Philip F. Rust (a1), Robert Mccaa (a2) and Stuart B. Schwartz (a2)


The debate over estate and class continues to be one of the more enduring in colonial Latin American history. At its core lies an argument, much older than the terms estate and class, about the degree of rigidity of the colonial social structure. Evidence of this older concern can be found in the writings of Sergio Bagú (1952) and Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán (1946) among others. The formulation of the debate into more precise sociological terms originated with the publication of an article in 1963 by Lyle McAlister in the Hispanic American Historical Review entitled “Social Structure and Social Change in Colonial New Spain.” In that article McAlister characterized the social structure of Latin America on the eve of independence as shifting from inequality based on estates to a new system founded upon economic class. What McAlister sought to underline was the transition from a social structure with static, defined statuses to a more open system based upon property and wealth. Since then the terms class and estate have been utilized to signify relatively open or closed social structures. Magnus Mörner (1967), for example, argued that the emerging system of economic classes could be found in the rural areas, whereas the urban areas retained more of a static, closed quality. The dichotomy of estate and class has since been widely utilized to characterize Latin American social structure.



Hide All
Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo. 1946. La población negra de México: estudio etnohistórico. Mexico City.
Bagú, Sergio. 1952. Estructura social de la colonia. Buenos Aires.
Bishop, Yvonne; Feinberg, Stephen E.; and Holland, Paul W. 1975. Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Chance, John. 1981. “The Ecology of Race and Class in Late Colonial Oaxaca,” in Studies of Spanish American Population History, Robinson, David J., ed. Boulder, Colorado.
Chance, John K., AND Taylor, William B. 1977. “Estate and Class in a Colonial City: Oaxaca in 1792.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 19:4 (10), 454–87.
Chance, John K., AND Taylor, William B. 1979. “Estate and Class: A Reply.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 21:3 (07), 434–42.
Grizzle, James E.; Starmer, C. Frank; and Koch, Gary G. 1969. “Analysis of Categorical Data by Linear Models.” Biometrics, 25:2, 489504.
Koch, Gary; Landis, J. Richard; Freeman, Jean L.; Freeman, Daniel H. Jr,; and Lehnen, Robert. 1977. “A General Method for the Analysis of Experiments with Repeated Measurement of Categorical Data.” Biometrics, 33:1, 133–58.
Landis, J. Richard, AND Koch, Gary G. 1977. “The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data.” Biometrics, 33:1, 159–74.
McCaa, Robert; Schwartz, Stuart B.; and Grubessich, Arturo. 1979. “Race and Class in Colonial Latin America: A Critique.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 21:3 (07), 421–33.
Mörner, Magnus. 1967. Race Mixture in the History of Latin America. Boston.
Rust, Philip, AND Seed, Patricia. 1983. “Equality of Endogamy: Statistical Approaches.” Social Science Research, preprint.
Seed, Patricia. 1982. “Social Dimensions of Race: Mexico City, 1753.” Hispanic American Historical Review, 62:4, 569606.
Strauss, David J. 1977. “Measuring Endogamy.” Social Science Research, 6, 225–45.

Measuring Marriage by Estate and Class: A Debate

  • Patricia Seed (a1), Philip F. Rust (a1), Robert Mccaa (a2) and Stuart B. Schwartz (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.