Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An Inheritance that Cannot Be Stolen: Schooling, Kinship, and Personhood in Post-1945 Central Philippines

  • Resto Cruz (a1)

Abstract

This article seeks a deeper understanding of inheritance by examining how kinship and personhood propel, and are altered by, schooling. It foregrounds kinship's and personhood's transformative and historical dimensions with an eye to their complexity and unevenness. The post-1945 generation in the central Philippines considers schooling (edukasyon) as their inheritance from their parents, who had few or no educational credentials themselves. This view reflects edukasyon’s increased value after the war, how people both judge and emulate the old landed elite, and the ongoing salience and elaboration of hierarchical parent-child ties. Alongside this view, children are recognized as completing, redeeming, and compensating for their parents. Attainment of edukasyon is seen to require not only personal striving but also solidarity and sacrifices among siblings. Yet, edukasyon also fosters autonomy and at times severs kinship ties. Finally, as an inheritance, edukasyon both depends upon and generates inequality, with long-term intergenerational implications.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An Inheritance that Cannot Be Stolen: Schooling, Kinship, and Personhood in Post-1945 Central Philippines
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An Inheritance that Cannot Be Stolen: Schooling, Kinship, and Personhood in Post-1945 Central Philippines
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An Inheritance that Cannot Be Stolen: Schooling, Kinship, and Personhood in Post-1945 Central Philippines
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Aguilar, Filomeno V. 1998. Clash of Spirits: The History of Power and Sugar Planter Hegemony on a Visayan Island. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Aguilar, Filomeno V. with Peñalosa, John Estanley Z., Liwanag, Tania Belen T., Cruz I, Resto S., and Melendrez., Jimmy M. 2009. Maalwang Buhay: Family, Overseas Work, and Cultures of Relatedness in Barangay Paraiso. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Allerton, Catherine. 2013. Potent Landscapes: Place and Mobility in Eastern Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Alzona, Encarnacion. 1932. A History of Education in the Philippines 1565–1930. Manila: University of the Philippines Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1988. Cacique Democracy in the Philippines: Origins and Dreams. New Left Review 169: 331.
Anderson, Benedict. 1990. The Idea of Power in Javanese Culture. In Language and Power: Exploring Political Cultures in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1777.
Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M. 2005. The Schoolyard Gate: Schooling and Childhood in Global Perspective. Journal of Social History 38, 4: 9871006.
Astuti, Rita. 2000. Kindreds and Descent Groups: New Perspectives from Madagascar. In Carsten, Janet, ed., Cultures of Relatedness: New Approaches to the Study of Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 90103.
Atkinson, Will. 2013. A Sketch of ‘Family’ as a Field: From Realized Category to Space of Struggle. Acta Sociologica 57, 3: 223–35.
Barrows, David P. 1907. Education and Social Progress in the Philippines. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 30: 6982.
Bautista, Cynthia. 2001. Composition and Origins of the Philippine Middle Classes. In Hsin-Huang, Michael Hsiao, ed., Exploration of the Middle Classes in Southeast Asia. Taipei: Program for Southeast Asian Area Studies, Academia Sinica, 91149.
Bear, Laura. 2014. Capital and Time: Uncertainty and Qualitative Measures of Inequality. British Journal of Sociology 65, 4: 639–49.
Blanc-Szanton, Cristina. 1990. Collision of Cultures: Historical Reformulations of Gender in the Lowland Visayas, Philippines. In Atkinson, Jane Monnig and Errington, Shelly, eds., Power and Difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 345–83.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Richard Nice, trans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. The Forms of Capital. In Richardson, John G., ed., Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press, 241–58.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1999. The Contradictions of Inheritance. In The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 507–13.
Bourdieu, Pierre and Passeron, Jean-Claude. 1977. Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Nice, Richard, trans. London: Sage Publications.
Bryant, Rebecca. 2001. An Aesthetics of Self: Moral Remaking and Cypriot Education. Comparative Studies in Society and History 43, 3: 583614.
Cannell, Fenella. 1999. Power and Intimacy in the Christian Philippines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cannell, Fenella. 2005. Immaterial Culture: “Idolatry” in the Lowland Philippines. In Willford, Andrew C. and George, Kenneth M., eds., Spirited Politics: Religion and Public Life in Contemporary Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Cornell University, 159–84.
Capuno, Joseph J. and Javier, Xylee. 2015. Does Poverty Alone Keep Children out of School? The Case of Children under Kinship Care in the Philippines. In Heshmati, Almas, Maasoumi, Esfandiar, and Wan, Guanghua, eds., Poverty Reduction Policies and Practices in Developing Asia. Mandaluyong: Asian Development Bank, 235–53.
Carsten, Janet. 1991. Children in Between: Fostering and the Process of Kinship on Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. Man (N.S.) 26, 3: 425–43.
Carsten, Janet. 1995. The Substance of Kinship and the Heat of the Hearth: Feeding, Personhood, and Relatedness among Malays in Pulau Langkawi. American Ethnologist 22, 2: 223–41.
Carsten, Janet. 1997. The Heat of the Hearth: The Process of Kinship in a Malay Fishing Village. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Carsten, Janet. 2004. After Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carsten, Janet. 2013. What Kinship Does—and How. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 3, 2: 245–51.
Claudio, Lisandro E. 2015. Beyond Colonial Miseducation: Internationalism and Deweyan Pedagogy in the American-Era Philippines. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 63, 2: 193220.
Cortes, Josefina R. 1980. The Philippines. In Postlethwaite, T. Neville and Thomas, R. Murray, eds., Schooling in the ASEAN Region: Primary and Secondary Education in Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 145–79.
Cruz, Resto. 2017. Becoming Middle Class: Kinship, Personhood, and Social Mobility in the Central Philippines. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Cruz, Resto. n.d. Siblingship Beyond Siblings? Cousins and the Shadows of Social Mobility in the Central Philippines (forthcoming).
Das, Veena. 1998. Wittgenstein and Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 171–95.
Das, Veena. 2007. Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Das, Veena. 2015. Affliction: Health, Disease, Poverty. New York: Fordham University Press.
Day, Sophie. 2012. Demographies in Flux. In Fardon, Richard et al. , eds., The SAGE Handbook of Social Anthropology. Vol. 2. London: SAGE Publications with the Association of Social Anthropologists of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, 341–53.
Dumont, Jean-Paul. 1993. The Visayan Male “Barkada”: Manly Behavior and Male Identity on a Philippine Island. Philippine Studies 41, 4: 401–36.
Edwards, Jeanette and Strathern, Marilyn. 2000. Including Our Own. In Carsten, Janet, ed., Cultures of Relatedness: New Approaches to the Study of Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 149–66.
Errington, Shelly. 1989. Meaning and Power in a Southeast Asian Realm. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Errington, Shelly. 1990. Recasting Sex, Gender, and Power: A Theoretical and Regional Overview. In Atkinson, Jane M. and Errington, Shelly, eds., Power and Difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 158.
Fegan, Brian. 1978. Establishment Fund, Population Increase and Changing Class Structures in Central Luzon. Canberra Anthropology 1, 3: 2443.
Fox, Frederick W. 1954. Some Notes on Public Elementary Education in Iloilo Province 1885–1899. Philippine Studies 2, 1: 519.
Friedman, Sam. 2016. Habitus Clivé and the Emotional Imprint of Social Mobility. Sociological Review 64, 1: 129–47.
Froerer, Peggy and Portisch, Anna. 2012. Introduction to the Special Issue: Learning, Livelihoods, and Social Mobility. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 43, 4: 332–43.
Garcia, Angela. 2014. Regeneration: Love, Drugs and the Remaking of Hispano Inheritance. Social Anthropology 22, 2: 200–12.
Gibson, Thomas. 1994. Childhood, Colonialism and Fieldwork among the Buid of the Philippines and the Konjo of Indonesia. In Koubi, Jeannine and Massard-Vincent, Josiane, eds., Enfants et Sociétés d'Asie du Sud-Est. Paris: L'Harmattan, 141.
Hage, Ghassan. 2014. Eavesdropping on Bourdieu's Philosophers. In Das, Veena, Jackson, Michael, Kleinman, Arthur, and Singh, Bhrigupati, eds., The Ground Between: Anthropologists Engage Philosophy. Durham: Duke University Press, 138–58.
Hall, Peter Dobkin and Marcus, George E.. 1998. Why Should Men Leave Great Fortunes to Their Children? Dynasty and Inheritance in America. In Miller, Robert K. Jr. and McNamee, Stephen J., eds., Inheritance and Wealth in America. New York: Plenum Press, 139–71.
Heiman, Rachel, Liechty, Mark, and Freeman, Carla. 2012. Introduction: Charting an Anthropology of the Middle Classes. In Heiman, Rachel, Freeman, Carla, and Liechty, Mark, eds., The Global Middle Classes: Theorizing through Ethnography. Santa Fe: SAR Press, 329.
Hollnsteiner, Mary R. 1973. Reciprocity in the Lowland Philippines. In Lynch, Francis and de Guzman, Alfonso II, eds., Four Readings on Philippine Values. 4th ed. Quezon City: Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University, 6991.
Ingold, Tim. 2005. Time, Memory and Property. In Widlok, Thomas and Tadesse, Wolde Gossa, eds., Property and Equality: Ritualisation, Sharing, Egalitarianism. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 165–74.
Ingold, Tim. 2018. Anthropology and/as Education. Abingdon: Routledge.
Jeffrey, Craig. 2010. Timepass: Youth, Class and the Politics of Waiting in India. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Jocano, F. Landa. 1969. Growing Up in a Philippine Barrio: Case Studies in Education and Culture. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Johnson, Mark. 1998. At Home and Abroad: Inalienable Wealth, Personal Consumption and Formulations of Femininity in the Southern Philippines. In Miller, Daniel, ed., Material Cultures: Why Some Things Matter. London: UCL Press, 215–38.
Junker, Laura L. 1999. Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Kajanus, Anni. 2015. Chinese Student Migration, Gender and Family. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kaufmann, John. 1900. Visayan-English Dictionary (Kapulúñgan Binisayá-Ininglís). Iloilo: La Editorial.
Kaut, Charles. 1961. Utang na Loob: A System of Contractual Obligation among Tagalogs. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17, 3: 256–72.
Kipnis, Andrew. 2009. Education and the Governing of Child-Centred Relatedness. In Brandstädter, Susanne and Santos, Gonçalo D., eds., Chinese Kinship: Contemporary Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge, 204–22.
Knight, Daniel M. 2018. The Desire for Disinheritance in Austerity Greece. Focaal 80: 3042.
Kunreuther, Laura. 2009. Between Love and Property: Voice, Sentiment, and Subjectivity in the Reform of Daughter's Inheritance in Nepal. American Ethnologist 36, 3: 545–62.
Lambek, Michael. 2011. Kinship as Gift and Theft: Acts of Succession in Mayotte and Ancient Israel. American Ethnologist 38, 1: 216.
Lambek, Michael. 2013. Kinship, Modernity, and the Immodern. In McKinnon, Susan and Cannell, Fenella, eds., Vital Relations: Modernity and the Persistent Life of Kinship. Santa Fe: SAR Press, 241–60.
Leichter, Howard M. 1975. Political Regime and Public Policy in the Philippines: A Comparison of Bacolod and Iloilo Cities. DeKalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2013. Toward an Anthropology of Ingratitude: Notes from Andean Kinship. Comparative Studies in Society and History 55, 3: 554–78.
Levinson, Bradley A. and Holland, Dorothy C.. 1996. The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: An Introduction. In Levinson, Bradley A., Foley, Douglas E., and Holland, Dorothy C., eds., The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press, 154.
Locsin-Nava, Ma. Cecilia. 2001. History and Society in the Novels of Ramon Muzones. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Magee, Siobhan. 2018. Inheritance. In Callan, Hilary, ed., The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Vol. 6. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 3260–76.
Magos, Alicia. 1992. The Enduring Ma-Aram Tradition: An Ethnography of a Kinaray-a Village in Antique. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.
Manuel, E. Arsenio. 1995. Dictionary of Philippine Biography. Vol. 4. Quezon City: Filipiniana Publications.
Margold, Jane A. 1995. Egalitarian Ideals and Exclusionary Practices: U.S. Pedagogy in the Colonial Philippines. Journal of Historical Sociology 8, 4: 375–94.
Martin, Christopher A. 2015. Generations of Migration: Schooling, Youth and Transnationalism in the Philippines. PhD thesis, London School of Economics.
May, Glenn A. 1976. Social Engineering in the Philippines: The Aims and Execution of American Educational Policy, 1900–1913. Philippine Studies 24, 2: 135–83.
Mayblin, Maya and Course, Magnus. 2013. The Other Side of Sacrifice: Introduction. Ethnos 79, 3: 307–19.
McCoy, Alfred W. 1982a. A Queen Dies Slowly: The Rise and Decline of Iloilo City. In McCoy, Alfred W. and de Jesus, Ed. C., eds., Philippine Social History: Global Trade and Social Transformations. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 297360.
McCoy, Alfred W. 1982b. Culture and Consciousness in a Philippine City. Philippine Studies 30, 2: 157203.
McCoy, Alfred W. 2009. Rent-Seeking Families and the Philippine State: A History of the Lopez Family. In McCoy, Alfred W., ed., An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. Repr. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 429536.
McKinley, Robert. 1981. Cain and Abel on the Malay Peninsula. In Marshall, Mac, ed., Siblingship in Oceania: Studies in the Meaning of Kin Relations. Lanham: University Press of America, 335–87.
McKinnon, Susan. 2017. Doing and Being: Process, Essence, and Hierarchy in Making Kin. In Coleman, Simon H., Hyatt, Susan B., and Kingsolver, Ann, eds., The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Anthropology. London: Routledge, 161–82.
McKinnon, Susan and Cannell, Fenella. 2013. The Difference Kinship Makes. In McKinnon, Susan and Cannell, Fenella, eds., Vital Relations: Modernity and the Persistent Life of Kinship. Santa Fe: SAR Press, 338.
Méntrida, Alonso de, comp. 1841. Diccionario de la Lengua Bisaya, Hiligueina y Haraya de la Isla de Panay. Manila: D. Manuel y D. Felis Dayot.
Mrázek, Rudolf. 2010. A Certain Age: Colonial Jakarta through the Memories of Its Intellectuals. Durham: Duke University Press.
Nydegger, William F. and Nydegger, Corrine. 1966. Tarong: An Ilocos Barrio in the Philippines. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Obendiek, Helena. 2013. When Siblings Determine Your “Fate”: Sibling Support and Educational Mobility in Rural Northwest China. In Alber, Erdmute, Coe, Cati, and Thelen, Tatjana, eds., The Anthropology of Sibling Relations: Shared Parentage, Experience, and Exchange. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 97121.
Olwig, Karen Fog and Valentin, Karen. 2014. Mobility, Education and Life Trajectories: New and Old Migratory Pathways. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 22, 3: 247–57.
Omohundro, John T. 1981. Chinese Merchant Families in Iloilo: Commerce and Kin in a Central Philippine City. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Peebles, Gustav. 2010. The Anthropology of Credit and Debt. Annual Review of Anthropology 39: 225–40.
Peletz, Michael G. 2001. Ambivalence in Kinship since the 1940s. In Franklin, Sarah and McKinnon, Susan, eds., Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies. Durham: Duke University Press, 413–44.
Pinches, Michael. 1988. The Working Class Experience of Shame, Inequality, and People Power in Tatalon, Manila. In Kerkvliet, Benedict J. and Mojares, Resil B., eds., From Marcos to Aquino: Local Perspectives on Political Transition in the Philippines. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 166–86.
Pinches, Michael. 1992. The Philippines: The Regional Exception. Pacific Review 5, 4: 390401.
Ponteras, Moises S. 1980. Folk Healing in Iloilo. PhD thesis, University of the Philippines, Diliman.
Rafael, Vicente L. 1993. Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Early Spanish Rule. Durham: Duke University Press.
Reay, Diane. 2015. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings. Cambridge Journal of Education 45, 1: 923.
Rosaldo, Michelle Z. 1980. Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sayer, Andrew. 2005. The Moral Significance of Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schrauwers, Albert. 1999. Negotiating Parentage: The Political Economy of ‘Kinship’ in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Ethnologist 26, 2: 310–23.
Scott, William H. 1994. Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Skeggs, Beverley. 2004. Exchange, Value and Affect: Bourdieu and the ‘Self.’ In Adkins, Lisa, ed., Feminism after Bourdieu. Oxford: Blackwell, 7595.
Smith, Robert C. 2006. Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sonza, Demy P. 1992. Illustrious Ilonggos. Vol. 1. Iloilo City: Iloilo Provincial Historical Committee.
Stafford, Charles. 2000. Chinese Patriliny and Cycles of Yang and Laiwang. In Carsten, Janet, ed., Cultures of Relatedness: New Approaches to the Study of Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3754.
Stambach, Amy. 2000. Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa. London: Routledge.
Stambach, Amy. 2006. Revising a Four-Square Model of a Complicated Whole: On the Cultural Politics of Religion and Education. Social Analysis 50, 3: 118.
Tiryakian, Edward A. 1958. The Prestige Evaluation of Occupations in an Under Developed Country: The Philippines. American Journal of Sociology 63, 4: 390–99.
Wickberg, Edgar. 1964. The Chinese Mestizo in Philippine History. Journal of Southeast Asian History 5, 1: 62100.
Wolters, Oliver W. 1999. History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. Rev. ed. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, in cooperation with the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.
Wolters, Willem G. 2010. The Development of Property Rights to Land in the Philippines, 1850–1930. In van Meijl, Toon and von Benda-Beckmann, Franz, eds., Property Rights and Economic Development: Land and Natural Resources in Southeast Asia and Oceania. London: Routledge, 110–38.

Keywords

An Inheritance that Cannot Be Stolen: Schooling, Kinship, and Personhood in Post-1945 Central Philippines

  • Resto Cruz (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed