The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia continues to rise. However, a significant number of patients are undiagnosed or untreated. Given the complexities of detecting cognitive impairment and the early signs of AD, this review discusses how advances in brain imaging can help assist in improving overall management. Imaging techniques and surrogate markers may provide unique opportunities to diagnose accurately AD in presymptomatic stages with practical consequences for patients, caregivers, and physicians. The possible outcomes for using imaging and surrogate markers as adjuncts to clinical examination and as screening tools for AD, as well as tangible and intangible advantages to early diagnosis and treatment, will be discussed. The specific value of using advanced serial imaging in patients with a genetic disposition to AD will be evaluated. If neurons can be protected from neurodegenerative damage in early stages, this may preserve patient cognition, function, and quality of life, and may confer considerable societal healthcare benefits.