1.Judd, LL, Akiskal, HS, Schettler, PJ, etal. Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: a prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(12): 1322–1330.
2.Bauer, M, Ritter, P, Grunze, H, Pfenning, A. Treatment options for acute depression in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012; 14(suppl 2): 37–50.
3.Amit, BH, Weizman, A. Antidepressant treatment for acute bipolar depression: an update. Depress Res Treat. 2012; 2012: 684725.
4.Post, RM, Denicoff, KD, Leverich, GS, etal. Morbidity in 258 bipolar outpatients followed for 1 year with daily prospective ratings on the NIMH life chart method. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 64(6): 680–690.
5.Judd, LL, Schettler, PJ, Akiskal, HS, etal. Residual symptom recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorders and rapid episode relapse/recurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008; 65(4): 386–394.
6.Angst, J, Angst, F, Gerber-Werder, R, Gamma, A. Suicide in 406 mod-disorder patients with and without long-term medication: a 40 to 44 years’ follow-up. Arch Suicide Res. 2005; 9(3): 279–300.
7.Young, AH, Nemeroff, CB. Pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression. In: Yatham LN, Maj M, eds. Bipolar Disorder: Clinical and Neurobiological Foundations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010: 294–303.
8.Vieta, E, Colom, F, Corbella, B, etal. Clinical correlates of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar I patients. Bipolar Disord. 2001; 3(5): 253–258.
9.Hirschfeld, RMA, Lewis, L, Vornik, LA. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come? Results of the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association 2000 survey of individuals with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 64(2): 161–174.
10.Goodwin, FK, Jamison, KR. Manic-Depressive Illness, 2nd ed.New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
11.Baldessarini, RJ, Vieta, E, Calabrese, JR, etal. Bipolar depression: overview and commentary. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010; 18(3): 143–157.
12.Cassano, GB, Akiskal, HS, Savino, M, etal. Proposed subtypes of bipolar II disorder: with hypomanic episodes and/or with hyperthymic temperament. J Affect Disord. 1992; 26(2): 127–140.
13.Akiskal, HS, Maser, JD, Zeller, PJ, etal. Switching from “unipolar” to bipolar II: an 11-year prospective study of clinical and temperamental predictors in 559 patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995; 52(2): 114–123.
14.Perlis, RH, Brown, E, Baker, RW, Nirenberg, AA. Clinical features of bipolar depression vs. major depressive disorder in large multicenter trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(2): 225–231.
15.Thase, ME. Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007; 68(suppl 8): 11–16.
16.Merikangas, KR, Herrell, R, Swendsen, J, etal. Specificity of bipolar spectrum conditions in the comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders: results from the Zurich cohort study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008; 65(1): 47–52.
17.El-Mallakh, RS, Ghaemi, SN, Sagduyu, K, etal. STEP-BD Investigators. Antidepressant-associated chronic irritable dysphoria (ACID) in STEP-BD patients. J Affect Disord. 2008; 111(2–3): 372–377.
18.Frye, MA, Helleman, G, McElroy, SL, etal. Correlates of treatment-emergent mania associated with antidepressant treatment in bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166(2): 164–172.
19.Rybakowski, JK. Bipolarity and inadequate response to antidepressant drugs: clinical and psychopharmacological perspective. J Affect Disord. 2012; 136(1–2): e13–19.
20.Constant, A, Castera, L, Dantzer, R, etal. Mood alterations during interferon-alfa therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C: evidence for an overlap between manic/hypomanic and depressive symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005; 66(8): 1050–1057.
21.Hardoy, MC, Cadeddu, M, Serra, A, etal. A pattern of cerebral perfusion anomalies between major depressive disorder and Hashimoto thyroiditis. BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 148–154.
22.Cassano, GB, Dell'Osso, L, Frank, E, etal. The bipolar spectrum: a clinical reality in search of diagnostic criteria and an assessment methodology. J Affect Disord. 1999; 54(3): 319–328.
23.Akiskal, HS, Pinto, O. The soft bipolar spectrum: footnotes to Kraepelin on the interface of hypomania, temperament and depression. In: Marneros A, Angst J, eds. Bipolar Disorders: 100 Years After Manic-Depressive Insanity. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000: 37–62.
24.Dell'Osso, L, Armani, A, Rucci, P, etal. Measuring mood spectrum: comparison of interview (SCI-MOODS) and self-report (MOODS-SR) instruments. Compr Psychiatry. 2002; 43(1): 69–73.
25.Goldberg, JF, Perlis, RH, Bowden, CL, etal. Manic symptoms during depressive episodes in 1,380 patients with bipolar disorder: findings from the STEP-BD. Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166(2): 173–181.
26.Goldberg, JF, Perlis, RH, Ghaemi, SN, etal. Adjunctive antidepressant use and symptomatic recovery among bipolar depressed patients with concomitant manic symptoms: findings from the STEP-BD. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(9): 1348–1355.
27.Kasper, S, Calabrese, JR, Johnson, G, etal. International Consensus Group on the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of bipolar I and II depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69(10): 1632–1646.
28.Goodwin, GM. Consensus Group of the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised second edition—recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology Journal of Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2009; 23(4): 346–388.
29. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder in adults, children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care. NICE Clinical Guideline 38, update 2009. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG38
30.Yatham, LN, Kennedy, SH, Schaffer, A, etal. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009. Bipolar Disord. 2009; 11(3): 225–255.
31.Grunze, H, Vieta, E, Goodwin, GM, etal. WFSBP task Force on treatment guidelines for bipolar disorders. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 11(2): 81–109.
32.Nivoli, AM, Colom, F, Murru, A, etal. New treatment guidelines for acute bipolar depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2011; 129(1–3): 14–26.
33.Geddes, JR, Burgess, S, Hawton, K, etal. Long-term lithium therapy for bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(2): 217–222.
34.Young, AH, McElroy, SL, Bauer, M, etal. EMBOLDEN I (Trial 001) Investigators. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine and lithium monotherapy in adults in the acute phase of bipolar depression (EMBOLDEN I). J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 71(2): 150–162.
35.Cipriani, A, Pretty, H, Hawton, K, Geddes, JR. Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(10): 1805–1819.
36.Baldessarini, RJ, Tondo, L, Davis, P, etal. Decreased risk of suicides and attempts during long-term lithium treatment: a meta-analytic review. Bipolar Disord. 2006; 8(5 pt 2): 625–639.
37.Swartz, HA, Thase, ME. Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute bipolar II depression: current evidence. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011; 72(3): 356–366.
38.Bowden, CL, Singh, V. Lamotrigine (Lamictal IR) for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012; 13(17): 2565–2571.
39.Calabrese, JR, Huffman, RF, White, RL, etal. Lamotrigine in the acute treatment of bipolar depression: results of five double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Bipolar Disord. 2008; 10(2): 323–333.
40.Geddes, JR, Calabrese, JR, Goodwin, GM. Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomised trials. Br J Psychiatry. 2009; 194(1): 4–9.
41.Calabrese, JR, Bowden, CL, Sachs, GS, etal. Double-blind placebo-controlled study of lamotrigine monotherapy in outpatients with bipolar I depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60(2): 79–88.
42.van der Loos, ML, Mulder, PG, Hartong, EG, etal. Efficacy and safety of lamotrigine as add-on treatment to lithium in bipolar depression: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70(2): 223–231.
43.Nierenberg, AA, Ostacher, MJ, Calabrese, JR, etal. Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(2): 210–216.
44.Calabrese, JR, Suppes, T, Bowden, CL, etal. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, prophylaxis study of lamotrigine in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: Lamictal 614 Study Group. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61(11): 841–850.
45.Goodwin, GM, Bowden, CL, Calabrese, JR, etal. A pooled analysis of 2 placebo-controlled 18-month trials of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance in bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004; 65(3): 432–441.
46.Saunders, KEA, Goodwin, GM. New approaches in the treatment of bipolar depression. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. In press. DOI: 10.1007/7854_2012_209.
47.Smith, LA, Cornelius, VR, Azorin, JM, etal. Valproate for the treatment of acute bipolar depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2010; 122(1–2): 1–9.
48.Bowden, CL, Calabrese, JR, McElroy, SL, etal. A randomized, placebo-controlled 12-month trial of divalproex and lithium in treatment of outpatients with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000; 57(5): 481–489.
49.Geddes, JR, Goodwin, GM, Rendell, J, etal. E. Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder (BALANCE): a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010; 375(9712): 385–395.
50.Greil, W, Kleindienst, N, Erazo, N, Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. Differential response to lithium and carbamazepine in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998; 18(6): 455–460.
51.Thase, ME, Macfadden, W, Weisler, RH, etal. Efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy in bipolar I and II depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the BOLDER II study). J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006; 26(6): 600–609.
52.Weisler, RH, Calabrese, JR, Thase, ME, etal. Efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy for the treatment of depressive episodes in bipolar I disorder: a post-hoc analysis of combined results from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69(5): 769–782.
53.Suppes, T, Vieta, E, Liu, S, Brecher, M, Paulsson, B. Trial 127 Investigators. Maintenance treatment for patients with bipolar I disorder: results from a North American study of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex (Trial 127). Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166(4): 476–488.
54.McElroy, SL, Weisler, RH, Chang, W, etal. EMBOLDEN II (Trial D1447C00134) Investigators. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine and paroxetine as monotherapy in adults with bipolar depression (EMBOLDEN II). J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 71(2): 163–174.
55.Vieta, E, Suppes, T, Eggens, I, etal. Efficacy and safety of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex for maintenance of patients with bipolar I disorder (international trial 126). J Affect Disord. 2008; 109(3): 251–263.
56.Hardoy, MC, Garofalo, A, Carpiniello, B, etal. Combination quetiapine therapy in the long-term treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2005; 18: 1–7.
57.Tohen, M, Vieta, E, Calabrese, J, etal. Efficacy of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(11): 1079–1088.
58.Brown, EB, Mcelroy, SL, Keck, PE Jr, etal. A 7 week, randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination versus lamotrigine in the treatment of bipolar I depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67(7): 1025–1033.
59.Tohen, M, Calabrese, JR, Sachs, GS, etal. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine as maintenance therapy in patients with bipolar I disorder responding to acute treatment with olanzapine. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(2): 247–256.
60.Tohen, M, Ketter, TA, Zarate, CA, etal. Olanzapine versus divalproex sodium for the treatment of acute mania and maintenance of remission: a 47-week study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160(7): 1263–1271.
61.Tohen, M, Greil, W, Calabrese, JR, etal. Olanzapine versus lithium in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: 12-month, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(7): 1281–1290.
62.Thase, ME, Jonas, A, Khan, A, etal. Aripiprazole monotherapy in nonpsychotic bipolar I depression: results of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled studies. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008; 28(1): 13–20.
63.Marcus, RN, McQuade, RD, Carson, WH, etal. The efficacy and safety of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorder: a second multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008; 28(2): 156–165.
64.Keck, PE Jr, Calabrese, JR, McIntyre, RS, etal. Aripiprazole monotherapy for maintenance therapy in bipolar I disorder: a 100-week, double-blind study versus placebo. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007; 68(10): 1480–1491.
65.Yerevanian, BI. The role of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. In: Akiskal HS, Tohen M, eds. Bipolar Psychopharmacotherapy: Caring for the Patient, 2nd ed.New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011: 299–316.
66.Baldessarini, RJ, Leahy, L, Arcona, S, etal. Patterns of psychotropic drug prescription for U.S. patients with diagnoses of bipolar disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2007; 58(1): 85–91.
67.Carta, MG, Aguglia, E, Balestrieri, M, etal. The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorders and the use of antidepressant drugs in bipolar depression in Italy. J Affect Disord. 2012; 136(3): 775–780.
68.Sachs, GS, Nierenberg, AA, Calabrese, JR, etal. Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356(17): 1711–1722.
69.Ghaemi, SN, Wingo, AP, Filkowski, MA, etal. Effectiveness of long-term antidepressant treatment in bipolar disorder: meta-analysis of benefits and risks. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 118(5): 347–356.
70.Grunze, HC. Switching, induction of rapid cycling, and increased suicidality with antidepressants in bipolar patients: fact or overinterpretation? CNS Spectr. 2008; 13(9): 790–795.
71.Licht, RW, Gijsman, H, Nolen, WA, Angst, J. Are antidepressants safe in the treatment of bipolar depression? A critical evaluation of their potential risk to induce switch into mania or cycle acceleration. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 118(5): 337–346.
72.Amsterdam, JD, Shults, J. Comparison of fluoxetine, olanzapine, and combined fluoxetine plus olanzapine initial therapy of bipolar type I and type II major depression—lack of manic induction. J Affect Disord. 2005; 87(1): 121–130.
73.Altshuler, LL, Suppes, T, Black, DO, etal. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(2): 313–315.
74.Amsterdam, JD, Shults, J. Efficacy and mood conversion rate of short-term fluoxetine monotherapy of bipolar II major depressive episode. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010; 30(3): 306–311.
75.Parker, G, Tully, L, Olley, A, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D. SSRIs as mood stabilizers for bipolar II disorder? a proof of concept study. J Affect Disord. 2006; 92(2–3): 205–214.
76.Amsterdam, JD, Shults, J. Comparison of short-term venlafaxine versus lithium monotherapy for bipolar II major depressive episode: a randomized open-label study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008; 28(2): 171–181.
77.Gijsman, HJ, Geddes, JR, Rendell, JM, etal. Antidepressants for bipolar depression: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(9): 1537–1547.
78.Sidor, MM, MacQueen, GM. Antidepressants for the acute treatment of bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011; 72(2): 156–167.
79.Tondo, L, Baldessarini, RJ, Vázquez, G, etal. Clinical responses to antidepressants among 1036 acutely depressed patients with bipolar or unipolar major affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand In press. DOI: 10.1111/acps.12023.
80.Post, RM, Altshuler, LL, Leverich, GS, etal. Mood switch in bipolar depression: comparison of adjunctive venlafaxine, bupropion and sertraline. Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 189: 124–131.
81.Vieta, E, Martinez-Arán, A, Goikolea, JM, etal. A randomized trial comparing paroxetine and venlafaxine in the treatment of bipolar depressed patients taking mood stabilizers. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63(6): 508–512.
82.Tondo, L, Vázquez, G, Baldessarini, RJ. Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010; 121(6): 404–414.
83.Undurraga, J, Baldessarini, RJ, Valenti, M, etal. Bipolar depression: clinical correlates of receiving antidepressants. J Affect Disord. 2012; 139(1): 89–93.
84.Joffe, RT, MacQueen, GM, Marriott, M, Young, LT. One-year outcome with antidepressants-treatment of bipolar depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005; 112(2): 105–109.
85.Altshuler, LL, Post, RM, Helleman, G, etal. Impact of antidepressants continuation after acute positive or partial treatment response for bipolar depression: a blinded, randomized study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70(4): 450–457.
86.Ghaemi, SN, Ostacher, MM, El-Mallakh, RS, etal. Antidepressant discontinuation in bipolar depression: a Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) randomized clinical trial of long-term effectiveness and safety. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010; 71(4): 372–380.
87.Frye, MA, Grunze, H, Suppes, T, etal. A placebo-controlled evaluation of adjunctive modafinil in the treatment of bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(8): 1242–1249.
88.Goldberg, JF, Burdick, KE, Endick, CJ. Preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole added to mood stabilizers for treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(3): 564–566.
89.Zarate, CA Jr, Payne, JL, Singh, J, etal. Pramipexole for bipolar II depression: a placebo-controlled proof of concept study. Biol Psychiatry. 2004; 56(1): 54–60.
90.Diazgranados, N, Ibrahim, L, Brutsche, NE, etal. A randomized add-on trial of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010; 67(8): 793–802.
91.Rybakowski, JK, Permoda-Osip, A, Skibinska, M, etal. Single ketamine infusion in bipolar depression resistant to antidepressants: are neurotrophins involved? Hum Psychopharmacol. In press. DOI: 10.1002/hup.2271.
92.Zarate, CA, Brutsche, NE, Ibrahim, L, etal. Replication of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled add-on trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 71(11): 939–946.
93.Lu, RB, Chen, SL, Lee, SY, etal. Neuroprotective and neurogenesis agent for treating bipolar II disorder: add-on memantine to mood stabilizer works. Med Hypotheses. 2012; 79(2): 280–283.
94.Frangou, S, Lewis, M, McCrone, P. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 188: 46–50.
95.Keck, PE Jr, Mintz, J, McElroy, SL, etal. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60(9): 1020–1022.
96.Miklowitz, DJ, Otto, MW, Frank, E, etal. Psychosocial treatments for bipolar depression: a 1-year randomized trial from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64(4): 419–426.
97.Colom, F, Vieta, E, Martinez-Aran, A, etal. A randomized trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in the prophylaxis of recurrences in bipolar patients whose disease is in remission. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(4): 402–407.
98.Lam, DH, Watkins, ER, Hayward, P, etal. A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder: outcome of the first year. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(2): 145–152.
99.Scott, J, Paykel, E, Morriss, R, etal. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders: randomized controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 188: 313–320.
100.Miklowitz, DJ, George, EL, Richards, JA, etal. A randomized study of family-focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(9): 904–912.
101.Frank, E, Kupfer, DJ, Thase, ME, etal. Two-year outcomes for interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in individuals with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(9): 996–1004.
102.Frank, E, Soreca, I, Swartz, HA, etal. The role of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in improving occupational functioning in patients with bipolar I disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008; 165(12): 1559–1565.
103.Dierckx, B, Heijnen, WT, van den Broek, WW, Birkenhäger, TK. Efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar versus unipolar major depression: a meta-analysis. Bipolar Disord. 2012; 14(2): 146–150.
104.Grunhaus, L, Schreiber, S, Dolberg, OT, etal. Response to ECT in major depression: are there differences between unipolar and bipolar depression? Bipolar Disord. 2002; 4(suppl 1): 91–93.
105.Medda, P, Perugi, G, Zanello, S, etal. Response to ECT in bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression. J Affect Disord. 2009; 118(1–3): 55–59.
106.Blanco, C, Laje, G, Olfson, M, etal. Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159(6): 1005–1010.
107.Koukopoulos, A, Albert, MJ, Sani, G, Koukopoulos, AE. Mixed depressive states: nosologic and therapeutic issues. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2005; 17(1): 21–37.
108.Krüger, S, Young, LT, Bräunig, P. Pharmacotherapy of bipolar mixed states. Bipolar Disord. 2005; 7(3): 205–215.
109.Swartz, HA, Frank, E, Cheng, Y. A randomized pilot study of psychotherapy and quetiapine for the acute treatment of bipolar II depression. Bipolar Disord. 2012; 14(2): 211–216.
110.Pacchiarotti, I, Valentí, M, Bonnin, CM, etal. Factors associated with initial treatment response with antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011; 21(5): 362–369.
111.Pacchiarotti, I, Valentí, M, Colom, F, etal. Differential outcome of bipolar patients receiving antidepressant monotherapy versus combination with an antimanic drug. J Affect Disord. 2011; 129(1–3): 321–326.