1. Hare, RD. Psychopaths and their nature: implications for the mental health and criminal justice systems. In: Millon T, Simonsen E, eds. Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent Behaviour. New York: Guilford Press; 1998: 188–212.
4. Hare, RD, Black, P, Walsh, Z. The PCL–R: forensic applications and limitations. In: Archer RP, Wheeler MA, eds. Forensic Use of Clinical Assessment Instruments, 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2013: 230–265.
5. Cleckley, HM. The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality. Bristol, MA: William A. Dolan; 1941.
6. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
7. Crighton, D. Uses and abuses of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Evid Based Ment Health. 2009; 12(2): 33–36.
8. Skeem, JL, Mulvey, EP, Grisso, T. Applicability of traditional and revised models of psychopathy to the Psychopathy Checklist: screening version. Psychol Assess. 2003; 15(1): 41–55.
9. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Antisocial Behaviour and Conduct Disorders in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 158. London: NICE. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK299074/. Accessed April 20, 2017.
10. Blonigen, DM, Hicks, BM, Kreuger, RF, Patrick, CJ, Iacono, WG. Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychol Med. 2005; 35(5): 637–648. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/pdf/nihms38985.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2017.
11. Neumann, CS, Hare, RD. Psychopathic traits in a large community sample: links to violence, alcohol use, and intelligence. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008; 76(5): 893–899.
12. Vandenbroucke, JP, von Elm, E, Altman, DG, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 147(8): W163–W194.
13. Beaver, KM, Barnes, J, May, JS, Schwartz, JA. Psychopathic personality traits, genetic risk, and gene: environment correlations. Crim Justice Behav. 2011; 38(9): 896–912.
15. Hicks, BM, Carlson, MD, Blonigen, DM, Patrick, CJ, Iacono, WG, Mgue, M. Psychopathic personality traits and environmental contexts: differential correlates, gender differences, and genetic mediation. Personal Disord. 2012; 3(3): 209–227.
16. Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Ystrom, E, Neale, MC, et al. Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of DSM–IV borderline personality disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70(11): 1206–1214. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927987/. Accessed April 20, 2017.
17. Spatola, CA, Fagnani, C, Pesenti-Gritti, P, Ogliari, A, Stazi, MA, Battaglia, M. A general population twin study of the CBCL/6–18 DSM–oriented scales. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007; 46(5): 619–627.
18. Taylor, J, Loney, BR, Bobadilla, L, Iacono, WG, McGue, M. Genetic and environmental influences on psychopathy trait dimensions in a community sample of male twins. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2003; 31(6): 633–645.
19. Humayun, S, Kahn, RE, Frick, PJ, Viding, E. Callous-unemotional traits and anxiety in a community sample of 7-year-olds. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014; 43(1): 36–42.
20. Lamb, DJ, Middeldorp, CM, van Beijsterveldt, CE, et al. Heritability of anxious-depressive and withdrawn behavior: age-related changes during adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010; 49(3): 248–255.
21. Viding, E, Blair, RJ, Moffitt, TE, Plomin, R. Evidence for substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005; 46(6): 592–597.
22. Viding, E, Jones, AP, Frick, PJ, Moffitt, TE, Plomin, R. Heritability of antisocial behaviour at 9: do callous-unemotional traits matter? Dev Sci. 2008; 11(1): 17–22.
23. Anokhin, AP, Golosheykin, S, Grant, J, Heath, AC. Heritability of risk-taking in adolescence: a longitudinal twin study. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2009; 12(4): 366–371.
24. Anokhin, AP, Grant, JD, Mulligan, RC, Heath, AC. The genetics of impulsivity: evidence for the heritability of delay discounting.
. 2015; 77(10): 887–894. Epub ahead of print Nov 7, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4416979/. Accessed April 20, 2017.
25. Burt, SA, Klump, KL. Etiological distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior: results from a nuclear twin family model. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2012; 40(7): 1059–1071. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406250/. Accessed April 20, 2017.
26. Derks, EM, Hudziak, JJ, van Beijsterveldt, CE, Dolan, CV, Boomsma, DI. A study of genetic and environmental influences on maternal and paternal CBCL syndrome scores in a large sample of 3-year-old Dutch twins. Behav Genet. 2004; 34(6): 571–583.
27. Eley, TC, Lichtenstein, P, Moffitt, TE. A longitudinal behavioral genetic analysis of the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior. Dev Psychopathol. 2003; 15(02): 383–402.
28. Malone, SM, Vaidyanathan, U, Basu, S, Miller, MB, McGue, M, Iacono, WG. Heritability and molecular-genetic basis of the P3 event-related brain potential: a genome-wide association study.
. 2014; 51(12): 1246–1258. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4234198/. Accessed April 20, 2017.
30. Young, SE, Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, et al. Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009; 118(1): 117–130. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775710/. Accessed April 20, 2017.