Skip to main content Accessibility help

Suffer the Children: The Psychobiology of Early Adversity

  • Dan J. Stein, Brian H. Harvey, Joachim Uys and Willie Daniels


  • An abstract is not available for this content so a preview has been provided below. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content.



Hide All
1.Sanchez, MM, Ladd, CO, Plotsky, PM. Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13;419449.
2.Coplan, JD, Rosenblum, LA, Gorman, JM. Primate models of anxiety. Longitudinal perspectives. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1995;18:727743.
3.Matthews, K, Robbins, TW. Early experience as a determinant of adult behavioural responses to reward: the effects of repeated maternal separation in the rat. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003;27:4555.
4.Heim, C, Nemeroff, CB. The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;49:10231039.
5.Teicher, MH, Andersen, SL, Polcari, A, Anderson, CM, Navalta, CP. Developmental neurobiology of childhood stress and trauma. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002;25:397426.
6.De Bellis, M D. Developmental traumatology: the psychobiological development of maltreated children and its implications for research, treatment, and policy. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13:539564.
7.Paolucci, EO, Genuis, ML, Violato, C, et al.A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse. J Psychol. 2001;135:1736.
8.Felitti, VJ, Anda, RF, Nordernberg, D, et al.Relationship of child abuse to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. Am J Prevent Med. 1998;14:245248.
9.Rinne, T, de Kloet, ER, Wouters, L, et al.Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:11021112.
10.Bremner, JD, Vythilingam, M, Anderson, G, et al.Assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a 24-hour diurnal period and in reponse to neuroendocrine challenges in women with and without sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:710718.
11.Rinne, T, Westenberg, HG, den Boer, JA, van den Brink, W. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:548556.
12.Stein, MB, Koverola, C, Hanna, C, Torchia, MG, McClarty, B. Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychol Med. 19997;27:951959.
13.Vythilingam, M, Heim, C, Newport, J, et al.Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:20722080.
14.Charney, DS. Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:195216.
15.Gilbertson, MW, Shenton, ME, Ciszweski, A, et al.Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathological vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:12421247.
16.Lyons, DM, Yang, C, Sawyer-Glover, AM, et al.Early life stress and inherited variation in monkey hippocampal volumes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58;11451151.
17.Bremner, JD, Vythilingam, M, Vermetten, E, et al.MRI and PET study of deficits in hippocampal structure and function in women with childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:924932.
18.De Bellis, MD, Keshavan, MS, Clark, DB, et al.A.E. Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology. Part II: Brain development. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:12711284.
19.Driessen, M, Herrmann, J, Stah, K, et al.Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:11151122.
20.Pine, DS, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, et al.Attention bias to threat in maltreated children: implications for vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:291296.
21.Sapolsky, RM. Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:925935.
22.Rinne, T, de Kloet, ER, Wouters, L, et al.Fluvoxamine reduces responsiveness of HPA axis in adult female BPD patients with a history of sustained childhood abuse. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:126132.
23.Vermetten, E, Vythilingam, M, Southwick, SM, Charney, DS, Bremner, JD. Longterm treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:693702.
24.Barr, CS, Newman, TK, Shannon, C, et al.Rearing condition and rh5-HTTLPR interact to influence limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress in infant macaques. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;455:733738.
25.Caspi, A, Sugden, K, Moffitt, TE, et al.Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science. 2003;301:386389.
26.Kaufman, J, Yang, BZ, Douglas-Palumberi, H, et al.Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1731617321.
27.Weaver, IC, Cervoni, N, Champagne, FA, et al.Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:847854.
28.Jans, JE, Woodside, BC. Nest temperature: effects on maternal behavior, pup development, and interactions with handling. Dev Psychobiol. 1990;23:519534.
29.Rilling, JK, Winslow, JT, O'Brien, D, Gutman, DA, Hoffman, JM, Cilts, CD. Neural correlates of maternal separation in rhesus monkeys. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:146157.
30.Mathew, SJ, Shungu, DC, Mao, X, et al.A magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study of adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:727735.
31.Ellison, PT. Evolutionary perspectives on the fetal origins hypothesis. Am J Hum Biol. 2005;17:113118.
32.Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA. Living with the past: evolution, development, and patterns of disease. Science. 2004;305:17331736.
33.Daly, M, Wilson, M. Evolutionary social psychology and family homicide. Science. 1988;242:519524.
34.Maestripieri, D. Fatal attraction: interest in infants and infant abuse in rhesus macaques. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999;110:1725.
35.Nelson, HD, Nygren, P, McInerney, Y, Klein, J; U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening women and elderly adults for family and intimate partner violence: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:387396.
36.Bernstein, DP, Fink, L, Handelsman, L, et al.Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:11321136.
37.Taylor, TL, Chemtob, CM. Efficacy of treatment for child and adolescent traumatic stress. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:786791.
38.Putnam, FW, Hulsmann, JE. Pharmacotherapy for survivors of childhood trauma. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2002;7:129136.
39.Nemeroff, CB, Heim, CM, Thase, ME, et al.Differential response to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1429314296.
40.Stein, DJ, van der Kolk, BA, Austin, C, Fayyad, R, Clary, C. Efficacy of sertraline in posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to interpersonal trauma or childhood abuse. Abstract presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. May 17-22, 2003; San Francisco, Calif.
41.Reich, DB, Winternitz, S, Hennen, J, Watts, T, Stanculescu, C. A preliminary study of risperidone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:16011606.
42.Harlow, HF, Stollnitz, F. Behaviour of Nonhuman Primates. London, England: Academic Press; 1965.
43.Bowlby, J. The nature of the child's tie to his mother. Int J Psychoanalysis. 1958;39:350373.

Suffer the Children: The Psychobiology of Early Adversity

  • Dan J. Stein, Brian H. Harvey, Joachim Uys and Willie Daniels


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed