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Skin picking disorder: prevalence, correlates, and associations with quality of life in a large sample

  • Myrela O. Machado (a1), Cristiano A. Köhler (a1), Brendon Stubbs (a2) (a3) (a4), Paulo R. Nunes-Neto (a1), Ai Koyanagi (a5), João Quevedo (a6) (a7) (a8) (a9), Jair C. Soares (a8), Thomas N. Hyphantis (a10), Donatella Marazziti (a11), Michael Maes (a12) (a13), Dan J. Stein (a14) and André F. Carvalho (a1) (a15) (a16)...

Abstract

Objective

Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear.

Methods

Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform. Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Skin Picking–Stanford questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised inventory (SCL-90R), early trauma inventory self report–short form, and the World Health Organization quality of life abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Associations were adjusted to potential confounders through multivariable models.

Results

For our survey, 7639 participants took part (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The prevalence of SPD was 3.4% (95% CI: 3.0–3.8%), with a female preponderance (P<0.001). In addition, SPD was associated with a positive screen for a major depressive episode, nicotine dependence, and alcohol dependence, as well as suicidal ideation. Physical and psychological QoL was significantly more impaired in participants with SPD compared to those without SPD, even after adjustment for comorbidity.

Conclusions

In this large sample, SPD was a prevalent condition associated with co-occurring depression, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. In addition, SPD was independently associated with impaired physical and psychological QoL. Public health efforts toward the early recognition and treatment of SPD are warranted.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: André F. Carvalho, MD, PhD, Centre for Addiction & Mental Health, 33 Russel Street, Room RS 1050, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 2 S1. (Email: andre.carvalho@camh.ca)

Footnotes

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The Translational Psychiatry Program (USA) is funded by the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Laboratory of Neurosciences (Brazil) is one of the centers of the National Institute for Molecular Medicine (INCT-MM) and one of the members of the Center of Excellence in Applied Neurosciences of Santa Catarina (NENASC). Its research is supported by grants from CNPq, FAPESC; Instituto Cérebro e Mente and UNESC. JQ is a 1A CNPq Research Fellow.

AFC is supported by a research fellowship award from CNPq. CAK is the recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship award from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil). The authors thank Drs. Ives C. Passos, Aristides V. Cordioli, Albina R. Torres, Joel P. Pinto, Ygor A. Ferrão, and Izio Klein for providing expert assessment of the modified Brazilian Portuguese version of the Skin Picking–Stanford Questionnaire.

Footnotes

References

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Skin picking disorder: prevalence, correlates, and associations with quality of life in a large sample

  • Myrela O. Machado (a1), Cristiano A. Köhler (a1), Brendon Stubbs (a2) (a3) (a4), Paulo R. Nunes-Neto (a1), Ai Koyanagi (a5), João Quevedo (a6) (a7) (a8) (a9), Jair C. Soares (a8), Thomas N. Hyphantis (a10), Donatella Marazziti (a11), Michael Maes (a12) (a13), Dan J. Stein (a14) and André F. Carvalho (a1) (a15) (a16)...

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